Art, as probably the finest thing that was ever created, has many forms. Sometimes it appears as literature works, and sometimes it is named as music pieces. Understanding one form of art is quite helpful for one to appreciate the others. Dante Alighieri’s The Divine Comedy is a piece of art that is both literary and musical. Literarily, Dante wrote this monumental work in 1307 to 1321; Musically, Franz Liszt composed the music piece Dante Symphony in 1855 to 1856, basing on The Divine Comedy. The two are generally similar in structure, level and feeling, and both particularly are describing the spiritual sublimation during Dante’s journey from Inferno to Paradiso. The thesis is going to compare and combine these two, finding the relationship between Dante’s journey in The Divine Comedy and the corresponding music sentences and atmosphere in Dante Symphony. It will generally be divided into five parts. The first part is introduction to the background information of The Divine Comedy and Dante Symphony; the following part will focus on the endless and hopeless punishment and agony in Inferno, as well as the techniques Liszt used to describe it; In the third part, Purgatorio will be depicted as a mountain that holds purgative fire to cleanse the sinful souls—it’s more hopeful and calm than the previous one, which is also reflected in the application of andante con moto in the music piece; the fourth part is traveling into the peaceful and bright Paradiso, and hearing the beautiful female chorus singing in Dante Symphony, which is surely a sound of heaven; the last part is the conclusion. By analyzing those, people will find the different spiritual levels—from degeneration to purity, and can appreciate more towards both the literary works and the music piece.
3、“Abstract”用Times New Roman加粗小2号，段前段后1.5，1.5倍行间距，对齐方式：居中。
4、Abstract内容用Times New Roman小4号，多倍行距1.25。
5、“Key Words”用Times New Roman加粗4号，段前段后0.5，多倍行距1.25。
6、Key Words内容用Times New Roman小4号，段前段后0.5，多倍行距1.25。（见上例）
1 Introduction 6
2 The Vast and Boundless Deep: Inferno 8
2.1 The Hopeless and Everlasting 8
2.2 Thundering Bolt 10
3 The Better Wave: Purgatorio 12
3.1 The Hopeful and Purifying 12
3.2 Rain 13
4 Beholding the Stars: Paradiso 15
4.1 The Bright and Peaceful 15
4.2 Clear Sky 16
5 Conclusion 17
目录标题（times new roman 小二号加粗）
目录内容（times new roman 小四，1.5倍行间距）
Symphonic Dimension of
The Divine Comedy
As commented by Engels as the last poet of the Middle Ages and the first poet of modern times, Dante Alighieri was an important icon in literary history. He was born in Florence, Italy. His exact birth date cannot be traced yet he might start writing The Divine Comedy around the age of 35—“In the midway of our mortal life, I found myself in a gloomy wood, astray gone from the path direct”—in his exile after Charles of Valoits and Black Guelphs destroyed the city and killed many of the White Guelphs (但丁，1984，p.245). Through the war, the coup and the exile, Dante might struggle through chaos and agony, and ultimately find peace, which is exactly like the journey in The Divine Comedy—through Inferno, Purgatorio to Paradiso.
It was said that after the release of the work the studies on it have lasted 600 years, dating back to the 14th century. In the first 400 years, the studies mainly contributed to the general introduction and spread of The Divine Comedy; in the 19th century, many editions of translations and confirmatory studies of it emerged, like Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s version in 1867 and Charles Eliot Norton’s version in 1891. When in 20th century, there were more studies on the interpretation of different aspects of The Divine Comedy itself (Mazzotta, 1979). The studies were on different aspects, such as political, literary, religious, and psychological aspects (Barolini, 1984).
There are two significant figures in The Divine Comedy: Virgil and Beatrice. The first one was the poet that interested Dante especially during his youth; the second one was the semi-divine girl that inspired Dante through his life. In the book, Virgil plays the role of a leader and Beatrice is the symbol of beauty, divinity and peace. The two roles are like a teacher and a desireless lover in Dante’s life, leading him to the ultimate glorious God. From the sinful, the hopeful to the peaceful, Dante experienced the pit as Inferno, the mountain as Purgatorio and beheld the bright stars as Paradiso. In the ultimate, Dante saw God as “Had not a flash darted athwart my mind, and in the spleen unfolded what it sought”, which ends the fantastic and unbelievable journey (但丁, 1984, p.246). It is quite like a mortal being’s half life: through experiencing puzzles, chaos and agony in midlife, going back to innocence and peace again.
After the release of The Divine Comedy, thousands of advocates of it emerged, including the great pianist and composer—Franz Liszt. Some scholars have noticed the “divine” side of Franz Liszt. Marion Bauer wrote The Literary Liszt in 1936, talking about how Liszt applied literary works to music pieces. Liszt’sDante Symphony and Tone-Poems by M.D. Calvocoressi and A Critical Inferno? Hoplit, Hanslick and Liszt’s Dante Symphony by Nicole Grimes was more specific in analyzing Dante Symphony and its relationship with The Divine Comedy.
Liszt was born in the Kingdom of Hungary, October 22, 1811. He had several members in his family playing the piano, forming a good musical phenomenon for him when he was young. Liszt had a fever for Dante’s The Divine Comedy since a very young age and he planned to compose a symphony to it since the early 1840s. During the next 10 years his symphony got nowhere yet he completed Dante Sonata in 1849. He didn’t resume the work until it was 1855 and he finished it at the end of 1856, and he dedicated it to his future son-in-law Richard Wagner. At first, Liszt decided to divide the symphony into three parts strictly according the pattern of The Divine Comedy, yet Wagner noticed him that no earthly composer could faithfully express the joys of Paradiso, even Dante concluded his work after a “flash”. So Liszt ultimately divided the symphony into two parts: Inferno and Purgatorio, and added a choral Magnificat to the original Purgatorio part to present Paradiso. That formed a sense of unbalance, leaving the listener to imagine the fabulosity and perfection by himself, just like what Dante did in his The Divine Comedy.
This thesis aims to analyze The Divine Comedy in the literary and musical way, comparing the literary work and music piece to reveal its significance. Some said that Dante Symphony was more like a symphonic poem rather than a symphony for it being so descriptive and vivid. So please follow the rhythmical words and the descriptive music into the bizarre and untouchable world.
2 The Vast and Boundless Deep: Inferno
2.1 The Hopeless and Everlasting
People all come to a point in life, feeling totally lost, like Dante being lost in the wood. Guided by Virgil, Dante saw the unforgivable sins of human caused mostly by loss of faith. The whole journey was about seeking for faith. It is said that you will not realize the importance of something until you lose it. Dante’s seeking for faith indicated that he had already lost it. He was not only lost in the wood, but also lost in his life path. An immediate and close introspection was needed. Better he could examine himself by watching the sinful souls in Inferno. Inferno was the path of devils. “Through me you pass into the city of woe/ through me you pass into eternal pain…All hope abandon ye who enter here.” (但丁, 1984, p.248) These characters on the portal unveil the terrible scenes in Inferno.
Behind the portal were the wretched souls, suffering from their miserable fate and being despised. They did not belong to any circle of Inferno since even devils would not welcome souls without courage. Being untrue to God or to others, they were only pursuing for their own good without direction and meaning, like flies buzzing furiously here and there. Dante did not waste much time on them. He and Virgil proceeded to the first circle of Inferno—the place for the unbaptized souls (李雪梅, 2009).
The unbaptized souls included the rulers and philosophers of the golden age: Hector, Electra, Caesar, Plato, Socrates, Aristotle and Virgil as well. They were blameless, even some had merits. However, as explained in Paradiso, God is the inventor of merits and the only standard for all sorts of deeds. With that only defect, they stayed in the first circle, being “neither sorrowful nor glad” (但丁, 1984, p.249), neither cursed nor praised. They had been great in human intelligence yet short in theological intelligence. The greatest suffering for them was that they were “desiring without hope”; that made Dante extremely sad (但丁, 1984, p.249).
Then they walked on into a narrower circle filled with greater pain: the second circle, for the lustful and immoral souls—carnal sinners. There Dante saw the souls restlessly driven by warring wind without peace. When they committed adultery, their peace had already gone from them. To be specific, Dante talked to Francesca and Paolo and heard their story. When the story was told, the comedy seemed to be softer and lighter, bringing them back to the crimson adulterous loving afternoon. Love should have its rules and limits. Immoral and improper love only leads to tragedy.
After the warring wind, it was the cold and heavy rain, pouring on the gluttons in the third circle. Cerberus, the guard, represented perfectly the features of the gluttons: barking discontentedly only for food. The everlasting rain was like the sinners’ appetite that cannot be fulfilled.
After confronting Plutus, Dante and Virgil came to the fourth circle in which raced those who were greedy and those who wasted. They “rolled on weights by main forge of their breasts” back and forth for they did not understand the correct attitude they should have towards wealth: neither being over nor under (但丁，1984，p.247). That is more like Chinese values: always playing properly, and never going to extremes. Wasting treasure is showing disrespect towards it and its inventor, while holding too fast on it is disgracing other treasurable things in life. Hopefully they could figure out the true weight of treasure when rolling on weights.
In the Stygian, Dante found naked souls with rage. That was the fifth circle, punishing the souls who were overcome by anger. If I were to go to Inferno, this circle would be the place where I belong. I clearly know about this sin—its effect and cause. When anger comes to you from nowhere, you become almost insane. Cursing or even hitting, either others or yourself, is not quite like the original self of yours, and you soon will regret when sanity is brought to you again. Cursing, hitting, regretting, becoming calm again, and cursing, hitting, regretting and becoming calm again. It is like it is on an endless and hopeless loop. Others were hurt; I myself was hurt, too. Life is so beautiful and short, why throw my temper away. The sinful souls cut each other’s head, breast and feet. It was exactly the same thing as they had done when they had been alive. Why throw yourself in the swamp of rage when you could praise the sun?
Entering into the city of Dis, things were becoming more grave and mighty with countless graves in the sixth circle: punishing those who believed spirit died with the body. They were different from those who were in the first circle—their attitude was more of reluctance than innocence. They were violators with intentions. According to Dante, those who neglected death—disbelieving in the existence of souls—would be in the grave eternally with body and soul (马翰如,1990).
The following three circles were on a higher degree, being more malicious, as Virgil told Dante. The violent souls went into the seventh circle, for being violent to God, his neighbor and himself. The flow in Inferno reached another high tide.
As the warden in The Shutter Island says, “God loves violence, and we’re living in a violent world”, it is true that violence does exist throughout time though it is not approved. Violence is always imposed upon the weak by the strong (Fischer & Scorsese, 2010). And by “the weak” and “the strong”, it means the physically weak and strong, because the people who are strong in mind would never apply physical or mental violence either on others or on themselves. Being violent is more of hiding the cowardly side of oneself. Violent person has an insecure and sensitive child inside his body, and his violent deeds intend to protect that child. Besides, God truly loves not violence, instead he loves peace and passion, otherwise Dante would not see the violent souls suffering in the seventh circle.
The violent souls were divided into two groups. The ones hurt others were steeped in the river of blood. When they had taken other people’s life, they were already soaked with blood and never could be cleansed. But they were already suffering the moment they killed, since the guilt and chaos would haunt them forever. You may say that he would not have the sense of guilt under the condition that he already had had no conscience. However, is not the loss of conscience a kind of punishment? “O blind lust! O foolish wrath!” (但丁, 1984, p.247) Those who hurt themselves—suicides—were rooted here as thickets. Life was like a competition, and the quitters were going to be bounded to plants to learn to respect life and take up the courage. Life is not an easy thing to be given or taken. You come from the nature and should go back to it naturally—that’s how things roll. Suicides forgot the glamour in life and escaped from the responsibilities they ought to take, so their souls were bounded forever; the following were souls who being violent to God or nature—breaking the rules of nature. “On the earth some lay supine, some crouching close were seated, others paced incessantly around.”(但丁, 1984, p.248) The earth was hot caused by the “dilated flakes of fire” (但丁, 1984, p.248). The three kinds of violence all talked about the same thing—acting strong to hide the defects. People with real strong faith and mind walk a different path, a more peaceful path.
It is said that money cannot buy everything, and it’s also believed that not everything can be sold. Intricate things like souls, faith, future, freedom, blood and even human cannot be priced to the common value. In Malebolge, souls dealing with sales of women, pimps, were lashed forever, flatterers sank in the draff of the human body, and, the most heinously, those who were in the guilt of simony were burnt at feet from heel to point. And do not forget the souls who had their countenance averted, because of they had wished to see too far and abandoned the vision right in front of them. So they were left walking backwards, and seeing backwards. What’s the fun of living if you can foresee every joy and tear? And it is a violation of God’s will by the way.
Going Down to the last and most sinful circle: the ninth circle, which was for traitors. Love is holy, and is an essential element in betrayal. You can only be cheated by someone you love and trust. Traitors break the relationship code among people, lessening the trust between them. They barely have a heart. In the ninth circle, the sinful souls were frozen in the ice in a lake, “their mouth the cold, their eyes expressed the dolour of their heart.” (但丁, 1984, p.249)
In the path of devils, souls mourn, suffer, and constant regret. On the road of life, some take a wrong turning without knowing or regretting. They took the one that devils traveled by, and that has made all the difference.
2.2 Thundering Bolt
Inferno part of Liszt’s Dante Symphony is more or less like a painting for it being so vivid. After a thundering and violent opening by trombones, tuba and double basses thundering out, the music piece begins. The general structure of it is triptych: sound and fury at the beginning, soft reminiscing in the middle and turning back to evil.
In the beginning is the opening of the portal, starting with D minus and ending with G sharp, which is traditionally applied to describe devils. It is rather strong and powerful. With timpani and drum pounding, violas and cellos ringing, and trombones roaring, it is exactly like the gloomy sense before a terrible storm. The air is freezing and stifling, leading to a sudden and strong thunder—a devil’s laughter. Then, with burst of horns and trumpets, a thunder comes, just like the first thunder in the spring, waking up all the sleeping souls to face their sins directly, the portal is finally open and all hope is abandoned. After that, the strings descend and slow down a little, trundling chromaticism imitates the visiting pace; the changing chords reaches a sense of unbalance, perfectly showing people the filthy and evil scenes in Inferno: souls of sinners ready to be sent into different circles, sinners like gluttons, murderers, suicides and traitors. It’s all going wilder with crazy allegro, speeding up until it becomes prestissimo. There’s no control. That is the point where the first part of Inferno has its high tide—generally like the first storm.
Then the storm dies down a bit, developing to another paragraph: the immoral love story of Paolo and Francesca. Strings start to tremble and harp drips. When love is applied in music, strings and harp might be the icon of love, even if it is adulterous love in this case. Flutes and horns jams in, offering a sense of spirituality and youth. The clarinet arouses like a murmur, like Francesca telling Dante how the sentimental day began. After a while, the refrain is going wilder and louder, lovers’ passion is growing stronger, reaching to the point that Paolo and Francesca finally kissed. It almost seems like another song, being too dreamy to exist in Inferno, yet you can almost feel that there’s another storm hiding and coming on. Indeed, after the seemingly peaceful “love interlude”, strings start to tremble again, rather in a derisive way than in the frightening way. The devil’s laughing at sinful souls’ fantasy for there is only boundless agony in Inferno and “no greater grief than to remember days of joy, when misery is at hand” (但丁, 1984, p.250).
With the devil’s laughter, the music goes back to the wild and horrifying pattern again, and it seems even wilder and more horrifying after listeners have tasted the soft and sweet. It is the way things are. Dante goes on with his visit in Inferno, beholding more brutal punishments. This period is full of repetition and refrain of the first allegro tempo, growing fiercer and stronger. And it never seems to have an end. Devil’s mockery and thundering like howls give Dante a shock and great depression, “a sense almost of majestic resignation, an apotheosis of grief”, sending him to Purgatorio (但丁, 1984, p.251).
3 The Better Wave: Purgatorio
3.1 The Hopeful and Purifying
After leaving the cruel sea behind, Dante and Virgil headed to a much lighter and calmer place: Purgatorio. That place was also sinful yet souls could be purged and prepared to Paradiso.
Purgatorio is the path of human. The major difference among devil, human and God lies in love. Devils have no idea about love; God love is original and pure; and human love has many ways and many kinds, sometimes proper and sometimes not. God gives human the ability to love, but it is human’s own effort to love properly.
There are not people who were born lazy. Laziness is also about love and it is not coming from nowhere. Laziness is escapism from love. Lazy souls are too unwilling to know the world and take actions, daring not love and bearing the results and responsibilities. In Purgatorio, lazy souls could not enter into the mountain immediately. Putting off things had been their deeds when being alive, in the end they were put off. That is a proper punishment for them to reflect.
The first night in the mountain, Dante dreamt of being snatched by a golden-feathered eagle all the way upward to the sun. That was a scene that represented brightness and extreme power, either based on religious implication or modern psychoanalysis. Dante was closer to the extreme. When readers were about to grow tired of the orderly pattern, Dante inserted a “dream paragraph” into the book—a well bridge. After the dream, Dante and Virgil came to the portal of Purgatorio. His forehead was inscribed with seven “P”s by God’s angel. Each of the “P” stood for one of the seven sins in Latin. And in English they were translated as the proud, the envious, the wrathful, the slothful, the covetous, the gluttonous, and the lustful.
Proud souls were souls who loved themselves too much, which would lead to contempt for things around them. They deemed they were the highest and always stood up straight. In the first terrace the proud souls were bent over, bearing huge stones on their back, wailing “I can endure no more.” (但丁, 1984, p.251) When they had been alive, proud people had never gone soft, so here were their souls, learning to be modest and humble.
Envy is the violation of love, being more like a combination of hatred and love. There’s nothing holy about hatred and a mistake must be hidden under it. The mistake of envy is being uncomfortable with a man’s fortune while the fortune is truly his due and God’s will. Why focusing on others’ benefits while you can make your own. The envious souls sat against the cliff, leaning with each other, like the blind and the poor. Being envious of others could take away what you’ve already possessed, because of the loss of focus.
Again Dante came to “wrath”. It’s generally agreed that youngsters are more likely to be wrathful. That’s probably because youngsters always resort to extremes. Wrath is the extreme and malicious love—the fiercest form of love. In love, laziness is not enough while wrath is just too much. Wrathful people want too much and hold on too tight, never letting go of anything or anyone. But life is about letting go and is far from being perfect and other people have their own ideas. Nothing is perfect in the real world and the wrathful souls shouldn’t be pissed off when something is not as expected. Life is so short, why puzzling instead of enjoying. Wrathful souls were on the third terrace, praying in the deep, dark, heavy fog. Even in Inferno there weren’t such gloom. Wrath could blind people, hiding the truth. Being wrathful is throwing away your consciousness and smothering your heart in darkness.
Like lazy souls, slothful souls did not love enough. Nothing could cheer them up or interest them. It’s almost like carelessness. On the fourth terrace, slothful souls were running rapidly without rest. Being slothful on earth, they ended up drudging forever in Purgatorio. However, it’s worth doing. They would find out that mind could be purer and more focused when there was drudgery to do.
When love is guided to the wrong direction, it becomes covetousness. Ancient Chinese philosophers deemed that men should treat his wealth in a proper way, getting it justly and using it soberly. Laying hands on everything they could reach was what covetous souls had done. And here they were, in the fifth terrace, both hands and feet were chained like prisoners, lying downward on the ground and weeping sorely, because they could not resist temptations.
The mild gluttons on the sixth terrace, compared to the gluttons in Inferno, had dark and hollow eyes and their bones stood “staring through the skin” (但丁, 1984, p.248). It’s quite an ironic yet appropriate way to punish them.
Then Dante came to see another example of wrong-headed love: lust. Love is not poisonous when it is proper. People say “love is like fire” on earth, and indeed, improper love is like fire that will burn your heart on earth and your soul in Purgatorio. Love could be expressed in many different ways, why indulge yourself in the only lustful way. Oscar Wilde claimed that he felt sorry for those who never got their heart’s desire yet sorrier for those who did. That’s the art of not getting. Isn’t unexpressed love also beautiful? Having too much lust on earth ended up being burnt in Purgatorio.
After reaching the top of the ladder, Virgil had to leave Dante on his own pleasure. To a certain extent, Virgil was very much like Dante’s father or guide—sometimes the two are quite the same thing. In the path of life, on earth or under, people need a guide when lost. And he/she could open a brand new vision: the earthly paradise.
Purgatorio is the path of human, being all about refreshing and purifying souls under the sins, restarting your life in its most original and pure way. It is like a transition between Inferno and Paradiso—a bridge between the pit and the bright sky.
The Purgatorio part in Dante Symphony is almost quiet, compared with the thundering Inferno part.
In the book Purgatorio begins with a sailing over a sea. In the symphony it starts with Andante con moto in D major with harp and strings playing, forming a sense of tranquility, like waves in the sea. Surely you will feel tranquil when being relieved from Inferno. A soft song played by reed is echoing with other instruments, being repeated continually a half-tone higher. That technique is often applied to represent movement and hope, an upward power. It is just like soft and hopeful rain after the horrifying thunders.
Then here comes chromaticism. It is raining a little heavier while the souls are hoping to wash their sins. The curtain unveils, seven sins are introduced to Dante and the sinners are actively reflecting and correcting. Thunders scare people, but rain is always welcomed to wash out the dirt and to help grow new life. Like V in V for Vendetta says, “God’s in the rain.” (Silver & McTeigue, 2005) For the souls in Purgatorio, the new and precious hope is in the rain.
In Dante’s Purgatorio, there is a canto where sinners are called back to memorize the good deeds that they failed to achieve when alive. This part is reflected in the music by a song like a prayer. Firstly it is cello playing, deep, thick and strong, forming a firm emotional keynote for the whole process. Then it naturally goes to violins, mild and sorrowful. Strings are particularly good at expressing emotions. What’s more, that kind of combination, cello and violins, is the special icon for sentimentally mixed feelings and memory. Through the paragraph, you could feel the sinners’ heart string is vibrating with and responding to the ringing and weeping of the strings.
Then fugue begins by strings playing plaintively like woes—sinners bemoaning. At this point, horns are playing as bass while strings are as treble in the rising tone. This instrumental conversation and contrast builds a sense of grief. It is mournful yet not depressing like the phenomenon made in Inferno.
Gradually at some point, the rain slacks—the fugue transfigures a little. It’s getting powerful with horns in major, giving out a sense of upright joy and praise. Listeners can imagine that it must represent Dante’s meeting Beatrice and entering into earthly paradise. A new and higher level is achieved here. He is never so close to Paradiso and the bad weather is finally going to end. Several silver linings are showing behind the clouds. It’s going to end.
After the crescendo refrains, the silver linings are becoming golden beams. The rain stops and Dante finally goes into Paradiso. As mentioned above, there is no separate chapter for Paradiso in Dante Symphony, yet there is a part called Magnificat in Purgatorio that represents Paradiso. It will be analyzed later in the fourth part of this thesis. The first half of Purgatorio ends here. Farewell to the storm.
4 Beholding the Stars: Paradiso
4.1 The Bright and Peaceful
Dante finally had the chance going into Paradiso, where is simply bright and glorious, and mostly peaceful. Sometimes after the long pursuit, people are not in a joy as expected, but in a peaceful bliss. That is what Dante found in Paradiso. On the earth, humans are always emotional, being happy, sad, or angry, but are barely peaceful. Peace comes from inward and the only way to it is through your faithful and pure heart.
Paradiso is a series of stars surrounding the earth, like God shining upon humans. Nine stars are there; nine kinds of glory.
Moon is for the inconstant souls. The waxing and waning of the moon is like the inconstancy of the souls. They failed to keep their promises which were made under violence. Maybe they could not fight with fate during an interval of time, but in the end they stood firm in their true heart.
Then there came a more constant one: Mercury for the ambitious souls. In the concept of astrology, Mercury stands for thought and aspiration. Indeed Mercury here is for the souls who go after God’s truth, determinately. Unlike the concept of “ambition” on earth, it is not for fame or wealth—those things come and go, but for the constant truth. Mercury is a rather ordinary star with sun, but it is giving out its power silently, just like the ambitious souls giving out their values and not requiring fame and paybacks.
When Venus is spoken of, it is usually related with “love”. Naturally, Venus here is for the lovers. This love is not simply between male and female, or among humans. It is a general love towards every being created by God. Humans always give love labels and distort the nature of love. But love cannot be judged that way and in Venus love finally goes back to its initial form. Loving every being that God made is loving God himself. The action is full of passion and beauty, so are the souls in Venus.
If Venus is the representative of love, then Sun must be the place with wisdom. Being wise is the indispensable element of being peaceful. It’s the foundation of emotion. The wise souls used to help save the world from foolishness. Dietrich Bonhoeffer once said that folly was a moral rather than an intellectual defect. Intelligence and morality are highly connected (雒庆娇,2004). That’s the importance of wisdom.
Simply holding the truth is not enough. When truth’s being shaken, it’s necessary to defend it and fight for it. Mars is naturally a fighter. The souls who fight for faith lived in Mars—they were warriors for God. Being so loyal and brave, they gave their lives for defending God. Mars is red when seen from earth, and it’s truly like the burning red souls.
Jupiter is the heaviest besides Sun, making it the place for justice rulers. Justice weighs as it bears responsibilities. Human laws are not the exact standard for this justice. The standard of justice is from God. He is the only one that decides good from evil.
The seventh star is Saturn for the contemplatives. It praises the souls who had temperance. Generally they were the monks who kept a contemplative lifestyle. When standing up for one’s belief, some choose to fight like warriors, some choose to promote like preachers. The contemplatives choose the inner path. It is alright because the communication with God is not through tongue but through heart.
Those are the separate planets. In the eighth sphere are the fixed stars for those who achieved the perfect humanity. And primum mobile is the last sphere, which contains the angels, purely innocent inside out. Above them is the glory of God. When Dante sees God himself, he feels a sudden flash of understanding. It may be defined as “epiphany” or “bliss”, yet Dante concludes his work in the flash without description. Because he admits that there’s no proper expression for God. It is a power greater than anything. With that, Dante finally understands the true meaning of divinity and humanity and leaves readers with a shock to imagine and believe.
Being true to their faith, souls in Paradiso do things properly. It is a level in which souls reach true freedom. No freedom could be reached without boundaries—faith is the boundary for human souls. Confucius said similar things, too, “At seventy, I can go freely with my heart’s desire without stepping out of line.” That kind of freedom comes from years of learning and controlling.
As time goes by and with faith by your side, what can disturb your peace?
4.2 Clear Sky
Dante left readers a shock, so did Liszt. Comparing to the intricate and complicated structures and techniques he applied in Inferno and the first half part in Purgatorio, Liszt used the simplest way to imply Paradiso: hymns. No elaborate skill was involved. However, it’s quite natural doing that for the simplest is the best. Try as he might, he could not find a more appropriate way to describe Paradiso. In the general concept, females are the type of kindness and beauty. Here in Magnificat, female chorus is used as the voice of angels, singing lightly “Magnificat anima mea Dominum et exultavit spiritus meus, in Deo salutary meo” (Huneker, 2011, p.169). No impurities can be found in it. After a while, the choral paragraph leads the paragraph to “Hosanna Halleluja” (Huneker, 2011, p.169). At that point, it may refer to the primum mobile in the comedy. With the soft yet strong power of pure voices’ singing broad hymn, the feeling of purity and harmony is revealed. And it slowly comes to an end in a highlight in B major, representing the flash of God. Devilish as the symphony starts, angelic it ends. It’s quite a vivid music piece and it gives people an adrenaline rush.
The Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri is not only a piece of great literary work, but also a valuable guide for readers to find faith and peace. While appreciating it, music can help understand more—there is a good reason why God gives human both eyes and ears. Franz Liszt’s Dante Symphony is more than a faithful musical adaptation of The Divine Comedy. It opens a brand new world by different instruments and techniques. By combining the two, souls’ different levels can be seen: souls in Inferno are unforgivably sinful, left regretting and suffering; souls in Purgatorio are defective yet they have the chance to hope, to be promoted; souls in Paradiso are sublime in divinity and humanity. Generally in literature it is a stairway from devil to human, then to angel. As for music, the musical piece is from thundering Inferno, raining Purgatorio, to clear Paradiso.
To sum up, this thesis bases on the analysis on both The Divine Comedy and Dante Symphony, attempting to reveal the spiritual sublimation in them. Dante’s literary and musical journey will not be forgotten in history, and more truth will be discovered from it.
If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference. All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper. Jones's (1998) study found the following:
Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)
Your own text continues without extra spacing between paragraphs.
Acknowledgements I would like to thank the following people for their invaluable assistance in the preparation of this thesis.
Firstly, I am very grateful to my advisor, XXX, for her (his) enlightening guidance during the preparation of this thesis, for her (his) valuable suggestions on the development of the ideas in the draft, as well as for her (his) patience in helping me revise it meticulously.
Secondly, my heartfelt thanks go to lecturer XXX, who helped me to …….
I am also greatly indebted to XXX, …….
Last but not least, my thanks should be given to all XXX who ……..
In all, this paper is the result of combined efforts of all of them.
外文，Times New Roman体1号字加粗，段前段后1.5，1.5倍行距，居中放置，一般不超过10个外文字。（见范文）如果太长，可以分主、副标题写成两行，副标题用小2号字加粗，段前段后1，1.5倍行距，居中放置。
1、全文为外文，全文四级标题间保持1.25倍行距，全文上下文行距为“固定值”20磅，字符间距为“标准”；全文字体均为Times New Roman体小4号字；（见范文）