Introductions. Andy Dzialowski briefed the workgroup on study progress to date.
Reservoir sampling efforts went well and planned sampling is complete.
The five study reservoirs differ in their water chemistry and physical characteristics. Total nutrient concentrations and temperature stratification are examples of such differences. Therefore, different predictive models may be necessary based on reservoir type.
Our analytical detection limit for geosmin is 5 ng per liter; therefore, values that were below this were set to 2.5 ng per liter (+2.5 ng per liter) for graphical purposes.
High geosmin concentrations, but low chlorophyll concentrations were found in Big Hill. However, cyanobacteria appeared to be dominant when geosmin concentrations were high. Sam Atherton noted that it has been very dry, so the reservoir water level is down. How will this affect taste and odor events?
Jerry deNoyelles responded that the clearer the water, the deeper the light penetration. Gardner had very high algal densities (100 µg per liter) in late September, but geosmin was not produced. High chlorophyll concentrations were attributed to the green flagellate Carteria.
Val handed out data from Saginaw Bay Lake from 1974 to 1980 that showed that there was a strong positive relationship between geosmin and blue-green algae biomass.
Val Smith's published relationships between chlorophyll and geosmin in Cheney reservoir were based on average site data over the entire season. In the data presented today, each point represented a distinct sampling event.
Suggestions: look at spatial variation within the reservoirs (e.g. main basin, transitional zone, and riverine zone). Aggregate points for each reservoir. Again, it was stressed that different methods can potentially lead to different conclusions.
Jerry deNoyelles briefed the workgroup on the importance of fluorometry data.
A light beam is passed through water and altered to a different wavelength as it passes through algae. Only chlorophyll is registered by the fluorometer. Contrast this with grab samples. Jerry highlighted the importance of considering the entire water column and not just near surface samples.
How much does water column mix? Clinton Lake has higher algae concentrations than Gardner Lake. Clinton Lake is mixed, so the entire water column is available for algae. The algae in Gardner are only above the metalimnion.
Marion Lake has high algae farther down into the water column. Bluegreen algae are buoyant, so they rise to the surface were light kills them and then you get release of geosmin. Conclusion, you need to look at the entire water column to get a better idea of the biomass. Nutrients build up at the metalimnion.
Initial analysis of algal communities suggests that cyanobacteria were present in all of the reservoirs except Gardner.
What is the cost of a fluorometer? About $1000 for benchtop or about $5,000 for the in-situ kind. Be careful what you get because some might detect bacteria that fluoresce.
Mark J. and remote sensing.
Use satellite imagery to look at watershed factors that might drive reservoirs and cyanobacterial production. Greenness is measured and from that is calculated the NDVI. It is a correlative, not causative, relationship. We haven't started on the advanced warning model. We need to finish field sampling, and also need to assemble the data.
What is the temporal resolution? It is one week, because we need cloud free images. So we take seven days of images than use the cloud free pixels.
Jerry - greenness is useful in that the earlier the plants grow the more ground surface coverage there is, so the less nutrient runoff there will be.
Break. Discussed whom to invite to the next meeting. No new members were suggested.
Stakeholder involvement and data
Disappointing response to request of water systems for episode information and data. This information is generally not recorded. Cost/time concerns may be limiting water system response.
We also contacted limnologists in the region for possible data. Anticipate better response from regional researchers. For example, data from Tulsa, Springfield and Waco may be useful.
Can carbon usage be used as a possible surrogate for taste and odor episode information? Presented carbon usage data from Melvern and Osage City Lakes, the only ones who responded to the questionnaire on this topic.
Tracking future taste and odor episodes vital to monitoring sediment problems
Consider using high school science classes or stream teams to gather water quality samples
Discussed how to utilize Kansas Rural Water Association
Suggested that KBS send out kits that can be used by operators to begin collecting data. Kits could be sent overnight to KBS for processing. There would be no costs for the operators.
Val – non-quantitative data such as human odor values can be analyzed using metadata analyses.
What sample parameters are the operators required to analyze for?
Dave Brewer - based on regulations. Taste and odor is evaluated twice a day by smelling both raw and treated water, but not recorded and compiled.
Can we create a standard form for operators to document T & O events? KDHE’s Capacity Development program may be able to help with this?
Deb Baker suggested that we talk to city managers since the staff can't do anything without manager support.
How should we approach them?
What is too much to ask for?
Would volunteers work?
Questions and comments.
Deb Baker asked do we need to take whole water column samples?
Jerry - just need to find the missing component of the geosmin and chlorophyll relationship. It ties in with sedimentation (shallow or lakes).
Sam asked if we would sample this winter, and he said to play safe? it if there is a taste and odor event. January/February was the worst a couple years ago. In October, we didn't see much happening so sampling slowed down. But in 1995 in Lawrence in December and January and there was a large taste and odor event that closed the Clinton plant for six weeks.
Sam wants to monitor throughout the winter. Maybe he could work something out with Andy to collect samples and ship to KBS.
Don Huggins said that we need to empower people to sample on their own.
We need to be more specific in what we want when we ask for it.