A brief Introduction to sculpture presentation by Natalie Spangenberg



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A Brief Introduction to SCULPTURE Presentation by Natalie Spangenberg








What is Sculpture?

  • A sculpture is a 3-Dimensional piece of art. Three-Dimensional means that the artwork has Height, Depth, and Width.

  • A 3-Dimensional form could be composed of a variety of elements including Shape, Line, Color, Value, Texture, and Space.

  • The sculpture can be displayed in a variety of ways. Some sculptures are mobile, stationary, permanent, temporary, interactable, or ever changing.



What are Sculptures made of ?

  • STONE WOOD GLASS

  • BRONZE STEEL FABRIC

  • PLASTIC WAX CLAY

  • PAPER WIRE

  • PLASTER

  • AND MUCH MORE!



Are there any safety issues I should be concerned about?

  • Clean up scrap wood, sawdust, plaster, clay or other scrap materials when finished with a project.

  • Many skin conditions and allergies can be caused by wood glues and adhesives. Water-based contact adhesives, casein glues, hide glues, white glue (polyvinyl acetate), and other water-based adhesives are slightly toxic through skin contact.

  • You should be sure your classroom is properly ventilated when mixing plaster and clay or other silica based materials. Silica must be ventilated. Inhaling foreign substances is one of the biggest health hazards in the sculpture studios.

  • All accidents, large or small, must be reported immediately to the teacher or another adult.



Which materials are recommended for grade school ?

  • Obviously you will never, ever use materials like Bronze, Glass, Steel, or Stone when working with Elementary students. They are too dangerous for this age group. In fact, most of these materials are too hazardous for high school students as well.

  • Appropriate materials for grades K-5 could include, but are not limited to:

    • Clay, Fabric, Paper, Wood, Pipe Cleaners, Paper Mache’, Cork, Paper clips, Foam, Recycled items, Felt, and even food.


Sculpture dates back centuries. In fact, it is so vast that I have decided to show you the history, along with some visual examples, of the

  • Sculpture dates back centuries. In fact, it is so vast that I have decided to show you the history, along with some visual examples, of the

  • 4 basic techniques of Sculpture.

  • Instead of focusing on only one or two techniques, I have linked either an original or published lesson plan to each of these techniques so you will have a variety of lessons involving Sculpture.



The 4 basic techniques used in Sculpture:

  • The 4 basic techniques used in Sculpture:

    • Subtraction
    • Substitution
    • Manipulation
    • Addition


SUBTRACTION



Subtraction = the carving or cutting away of material

  • Subtraction = the carving or cutting away of material

  • The art of carving is older than recorded history.

  • Archaeologists have found examples of carved bone and horn from people living during the Stone Age.

  • The ancient Egyptians cut beautiful objects from wood, ivory, alabaster, stone, turquoise, and other materials.

  • Native Americans of Alaska and Canada carved wood. Indians from the Northwest Coast were famous totem-pole makers.

  • Michelangelo and Donatello carved masterpieces in marble.

  • People in Africa carved beautiful masks.







SUBSTITUTION



Substitution=replacing one material or medium with another; also known as Casting

  • Substitution=replacing one material or medium with another; also known as Casting

  • Casting is a method of shaping an object by pouring a liquid into a mold and letting it harden. The shaped object is called either a cast or a casting.

  • Casting has been around for thousands of years. In about 1,700 B.C., the Chinese were using Bronze to cast vessels used for ancestor worship.

  • You may have made your own “Substitution” Sculpture and not realized it. When you make a sand castle by using buckets and cups as molds you are creating one.

  • Today, plastics, iron, steel, aluminum, ceramics, paper, and numerous other materials are used in casting.



Beverly Cleary Sculpture Garden



Sugar Skulls (published lesson)

  • In Mexico, the festival known as the Day of the Dead, is celebrated on November 1st and 2nd.

  • This is a great way to bring another culture into your classroom.



MANIPULATION



Manipulation=shaping or modeling pliable materials by hands or tools

  • Manipulation=shaping or modeling pliable materials by hands or tools

  • As early as 24,000 BC, animal and human figurines were made from clay and other materials.

  • The first use of functional pottery vessels for storing water and food is thought to be around 9,000 or 10,000 BC.

  • Artists also tend to use this technique alongside the Substitution technique. The artist would mold their sculpture design out of clay or wax and then use it in their casting process.

  • There are many different modeling materials from clay and wax to paper and plaster.



Jen Stark



Totem Poles Teamwork by Natalie Spangenberg



Overview

  • Students will learn about the history and purpose of Totem Poles. Students will learn about where totem poles are and how they relate to today’s world.

  • They will construct a 3-D version of a totem pole using air-drying clay. They will work in teams of 4-5 students and create a totem pole together. Students will draw three animal spirits of their choice, transform one of those drawings into a clay sculpture, paint their dried clay piece, and assemble their animal with the rest of their group.

  • After the groups have assembled their Totem Poles, each group member will discuss with the rest of their peers why they chose the animal they did, what that animal represents, and whose animal spirit from the class they liked and why.



ADDITION



Addition= building up, assembling, or putting on material

  • Addition= building up, assembling, or putting on material

  • These sculptures are made by combining or building up material from a core or an armature.

  • Common materials used in Addition Sculpture include: steel, clay, wood, and much more.

  • Two of my favorite addition or assemblage artists are Alexander Calder and Louise Nevelson.



Alexander Calder (Published lesson)



Born in 1898, Alexander grew up with two artists for parents; his mother was a painter and his father a sculptor. Although he received an early start in art, Calder studied mechanical engineering in college and earned a degree in it.

  • Born in 1898, Alexander grew up with two artists for parents; his mother was a painter and his father a sculptor. Although he received an early start in art, Calder studied mechanical engineering in college and earned a degree in it.

  • In 1930 he went to Paris and was influenced by the art of Mondrian and Miró.

  • In 1932 he exhibited his first mobiles, consisting of painted cut-out shapes connected by wires and set in motion by wind currents. The Museum of Modern Art, New York City, has several examples. His immobile sculptures are known as stabiles.

  • Many of his later works are huge, heavy, and delicately balanced mobiles produced for public buildings throughout the world.



Louise Nevelson

  • Sky Cathedral, painted wood, 1982, Smithsonian American Art Museum



Resources Used in Presentation & Lessons:

  • Resources Used in Presentation & Lessons:

  • Art Fundamentals: Theory and Practice by Otto G. Ocvirk, Stinson, Wigg, Bone, and Clayton

  • Alexander Calder http://www.calder.org

  • Alexander Calder lesson plans http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/content/2255/

  • Andy Goldsworthy http://www.sculpture.org.uk/image/504816331403/

  • Ceramics History http://www.ceramics.org

  • Cheetos Art Sculpture http://www.instatravel.org/entry/cheetos-art-sculpture-can-eatables-be-used-for-artwork/

  • Dick Blick Lesson Plans: Van Gogh Clay Plaque http://www.dickblick.com/lessonplans/2006vgclayplaque/

  • Guggenheim Collection-Louise Nevelson Biography

  • http://www.guggenheimcollection.org/site/artist_bio_117A.html

  • Jen Stark http://jenstark.com

  • The Jewish Museum http://www.jewishmuseum.org/site/pages/onlinex.php?id=150

  • Kansas State Standards for the Visual Arts http://www.ksde.org

  • Louise Nevelson http://the-artists.org/artist/Louise_Nevelson.html

  • Louise Nevelson http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/oralhistories/transcripts/nevels72.htm

  • Portland, Oregon Parks http://portlandonline.com

  • Smithsonian Archives of American Art http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/oralhistories/transcripts/nevels72.htm

  • Spoonbridge and Cherry http://garden.walkerart.org/artwork.wac

  • Sugar Skull Lesson #1 http://pbskids.org/mayaandmiguel/english/parentsteachers/lessonplans/celeb.html

  • Sugar Skull Materials, Pictures, and alternative lesson http://www.mexicansugarskull.com/mexicansugarskull/recipe.htm



END OF PRESENTATION

  • BE PREPARED TO HAVE FUN



Louise Nevelson



Louise Nevelson was born on September 23, 1899, in Kiev, Russia.

  • Louise Nevelson was born on September 23, 1899, in Kiev, Russia.

  • By 1905, her family had emigrated to the United States and settled in Rockland, Maine.

  • In 1920, she married Charles Nevelson and moved to New York.

  • At this time, she studied visual and performing arts, including dramatics, with Frederick Kiesler and was introduced to the work of Marcel Duchamp and Pablo Picasso.



Nevelson (1899-1988) was recognized during her lifetime as one of America’s most important and original sculptors.

  • Nevelson (1899-1988) was recognized during her lifetime as one of America’s most important and original sculptors.

  • She became active in the modern art movements of the time such as Cubism, Surrealism, Abstract Expressionism, Minimalism, feminism, and installation.

  • The sculpture for which she is best known was made of cast-off wood parts – actual street throwaways – transformed with monochromatic spray paint.

    • Monochromatic = only one color or hue


At the time that Louise started working on her sculptures other artists were using materials other than wood.

  • At the time that Louise started working on her sculptures other artists were using materials other than wood.

  • She used wood, not because there was a shortage of metal during that time because of World War 2, but because wood was in her family.

  • Her father and grandfather were both in the lumber or wood business.

  • Now let’s look at some of Louise’s artwork.











Let’s get started!

  • First- Safety first. Remember that we do not eat anything that goes into our art, including glue.

  • Second- Pick up one board, one bottle of glue, and one tin container full of wood pieces.

  • Third- Create a Nevelson inspired wood sculpture by gluing wood pieces onto the board.

  • Fourth- Since the glue takes time to dry, work on another area of the board in the meantime.

  • Fifth- Make sure that you layer pieces of wood on top of other pieces to create depth. Try to layer at least 7 times in your piece.

  • Sixth- Be creative and have fun. Try to layer a circle on a square to add variety.

  • Seventh- Look around the room for ideas from your classmates and comment if you like what they are doing.





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