A. Mediterranean Trade and European Expansion

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A. Mediterranean Trade and European Expansion

  • A. Mediterranean Trade and European Expansion

  • 1. Discovery of new trade routes and new lands

  • From the twelfth through the fifteenth centuries, goods traveled overland from Asia and Africa and then funneled into Europe through Mediterranean trade routes dominated by Italian cities; the vitality of these routes offered few incentives to look for alternatives.

  • 2. Bubonic plague (Black Death)

  • 3. European Exploration

  • Black Death caused some people to take greater risks; exploration promised fame and fortune; monarchs sponsored journeys in hopes of gaining territory and subjects; innovations like movable type and navigational instruments like compasses, hourglasses, the astrolabe, and the quadrant were known by many people but first used by Portuguese.

  • B. A Century of Portuguese Exploration

  • 1. Reconquest

  • cooperated with Spain to expel Muslims from Iberian Peninsula; religious zeal justified expansion into what the Portuguese viewed as heathen lands.

  • 2. Prince Henry the Navigator

  • most influential advocate of expansion; collected information on sailing techniques and geography and pushed explorers to find new trade routes to find gold and items for trade.

  • 3. Caravel

  • 4. Discovery of new sea route to Asia

  • Bartolomeu Dias sailed around the Cape of Good Hope in 1488; ten years later, Vasco da Gama sailed all the way to India; this allowed the Portuguese to obtain goods from the East Indies and sell them at lower prices since they did not have to pay Mediterranean merchants; broke the old monopoly.

A. The Explorations of Columbus

  • A. The Explorations of Columbus

  • 1. Christopher Columbus and Felipa Moniz

  • married Moniz; her father had been raised in the household of Prince Henry the Navigator

  • Columbus gained access to maps and information about sailing the Atlantic; believed Earth was round, but he dramatically underestimated the distance west to Asia (2,500 miles vs. 11,000 miles).

  • 2. Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand

  • Spanish monarchs financed Columbus’s voyage west after Portugal, Spain, England, and France turned him down

  • they saw small potential loss, but big potential gain in financing the trip.

  • 3. San Salvador and the Tainos

  • ships the Niña, Pinta, and Santa Maria landed on a Caribbean island about 300 miles north of Cuba in 1492

  • Columbus claimed it for Isabella and Ferdinand; named it San Salvador in honor of Jesus Christ

  • called people “Indians,” believing he was in the East Indies

  • the people called themselves Tainos; Columbus knew he made a monumental discovery but was disappointed by the Tainos’ lack of riches; Ferdinand and Isabella, however, were overjoyed with the news of Columbus’s discovery, and he joined the ranks of the nobility.

  • 4. Treaty of Tordesillas

  • Portuguese and Spanish monarchs negotiated the treaty in 1494

  • drew an imaginary line 1,100 miles west of the Canary Islands

  • land discovered west of the line belonged to Spain, land to the east belonged to Portugal; Spain sent Columbus back, and he found his sailors had terrorized the Tainos and sexually abused their women; the Tainos killed the sailors in response; foreshadowed what would happen between Native Americans and Europeans in the future.

B. The Geographic Revolution and the Columbian Exchange

  • B. The Geographic Revolution and the Columbian Exchange

  • 1. Further exploration after Columbus

  • monarchs hurried to claim new land;

  • John Cabot sailed to find a Northwest Passage to the Indies in 1497

  • landed at Newfoundland, went back to England, but was never heard from again after he returned to the New World

  • Spanish expedition accompanied by Italian businessman Amerigo Vespucci landed on the northern coast of South America in 1499

  • Portuguese Pedro Álvars Cabral accidentally made landfall in Brazil while en route to the Indian Ocean.

  • 2. Ferdinand Magellan

  • Sponsored by King Charles I of Spain, Magellan led an expedition to circumnavigate the globe in 1519; crossing the Pacific took four months

  • Magellan was killed by Philippine tribesmen, but a remnant of his expedition made it back to Spain

  • left no doubt that America was separated from Asia by the Pacific Ocean and that sailing west to India was inefficient.

  • 3. Columbian Exchange

  • Transatlantic trade of goods launched by Columbus’s expedition

  • Spaniards brought to the New World Christianity, iron, horses, firearms, sailing ships; also unknowingly brought smallpox, measles, and deadly diseases; ancient American goods (corn and tobacco), people, ideas, and even diseases (syphilis) made the return trip back.

A. The Conquest of Mexico

  • A. The Conquest of Mexico

  • 1. Hernán Cortés

  • Had experience in the New World fighting in the conquest of Cuba and elsewhere in the Caribbean

  • in 1504, he led an expedition of about six hundred men to investigate rumors of a wealthy kingdom on the mainland.

  • 2. Malinali (“Marina”)

  • A gift to Cortés from a Tobasco chief; she spoke several languages and served as Cortés’s translator; Cortés would not have been able to communicate without her; Spaniards called her Marina; she knew many languages because her step-father had sold her as a slave to Mayan-speaking Indians. Malinali was also Cortés’s mistress and bore him a son.

  • 3. Emperor Montezuma and the riches of Tenochtitlán

  • emperor Montezuma feared the Spaniards were led by the god Quetzalcoatl

  • Marina told Cortés this so they dressed in regalia, played horns, and displayed swords

  • Cortés marched inland to find Montezuma, who welcomed him on November 8, 1519

  • Montezuma showed Cortés the riches of the city; Cortés took Montezuma hostage and hoped to rule through a puppet government

  • Montezuma was killed by an unknown assailant during a revolt; the Mexica mounted a ferocious assault on the Spaniards, who fled to Tlaxcala, a stronghold of enemies of the Mexica.

4. Cortes invades and conquers Mexica

  • 4. Cortes invades and conquers Mexica

  • With the help of Indian allies, Cortés returned to the Mexican capital in the spring of 1521

  • conquered Tenochtitlán by August; succeeded due to several advantages: they were using weapons of iron and steel against weapons of stone, wood, and copper

  • smallpox arrived with Cortés and decimated the Mexican population

  • Spaniards also sought total victory in war, while the Mexicans only sought surrender; key point is that Cortés could exploit the tensions between the Mexica and the people they ruled in their empire; exploited Indians fought alongside the Spanish.

B. The Search for Other Mexicos

  • B. The Search for Other Mexicos

  • 1. Tales of wealth

  • 2. Francisco Pizarro

  • Conquered the Incan empire in Peru in 1532; Pizarro and his men captured the Incan emperor Atahualpa, who gave the Spaniards a ransom of gold equal to half a century of precious metal production in Europe; the Spaniards killed Atahualpa in spite of the ransom.

  • 3. de Soto, Coronado, and Cabrillo

  • Tales of wealth attracted more conquistadors; in 1539, Hernando de Soto tried to find another Peru in the North

  • landed in Florida and searched for riches in southeastern North America; died of a fever in 1542

  • Francisco Vásquez de Coronado searched for the mythical Seven Cities of Cíbola, which turned out to be a small Zuñi pueblo of about a hundred families; Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo died in an attempt to find wealth along the coast of California in 1542.

  • C. Spanish Outposts in Florida and New Mexico

  • 1. Menéndez and the founding of St. Augustine

  • St. Augustine was founded in 1565, the first permanent European settlement in what became the United States; by 1600, it was the only remaining Spanish beachhead on the North American Atlantic shore.

  • 2. Oñate and the founding of New Mexico

  • Oñate and about 500 people settled present-day New Mexico in 1598

  • soldiers planned to mutiny, and relationships with Indians deteriorated; Indians in the Acoma pueblo revolted; Oñate suppressed the rebellion, killing 800 men, women, and children; no peace or stability in region; many of his settlers returned to Mexico after another pueblo revolt in 1599.

D. New Spain in the Sixteenth Century

  • D. New Spain in the Sixteenth Century

  • 1. New Spain and Spanish domination of the Western Hemisphere

  • New Spain was more interested in colonization than other powers that mostly wanted to trade or deal with domestic issues; allowed Spain to become the dominant European power in the Western Hemisphere during the sixteenth century.

  • 2. The “royal fifth” and the system of encomienda

  • monarchy allowed conquistadors to keep all loot, giving the crown one-fifth, the “royal fifth,” of what they confiscated; encomienda empowered conquistadors to rule Indians; Spanish encomendero owned the town and thus received the tribute the town previously paid to the Mexican empire; the encomendero was supposed to be responsible for Indians’ well-being, guarantee order and justice, and convince Indians to convert to Christianity.

3. Repartimiento replaces encomienda

  • 3. Repartimiento replaces encomienda

  • Encomenderos overworked and abused Indians

  • believed they were superior and therefore had the right to use Indians as slaves; a few Catholic missionaries, including Friar Bartolomé de Las Casas, protested the brutal treatment

  • the Spanish monarchy replaced encomienda with the repartimiento

  • limited labor an encomendero could command to forty-five days per year from each adult male

  • did not, however, challenge the principle of forced labor or prevent encomenderos from cheating, mistreating, and overworking Indians.

4. Intermarriage creates sharp social hierarchy

  • 4. Intermarriage creates sharp social hierarchy

  • Most settlers were poor young men of common lineage who came directly from Spain

  • men vastly outnumbered women, which meant that Europeans never made up more than 1 or 2 percent of the total population; also meant Spanish men often married Indian women or used them as concubines

  • hierarchy; from highest to lowest: peninsulares (natives of Spain), creoles (children born in the New World to Spanish men and women, together with peninsulares constituted 1 to 2 percent of population), mestizos (children of Spanish men and Indian women, 4 to 5 percent of population), and Indians (the overwhelming majority) of the population.

E. The Toll of Spanish Conquest and Colonization

  • E. The Toll of Spanish Conquest and Colonization

  • 1. Demoralization of Indian society

  • 1560, Indian civilizations had been conquered, their leaders overthrown, their religion held in contempt, and their people forced to work for Spaniards.

  • 2. Virulent epidemics

  • had no immunity to measles, smallpox, and respiratory illnesses; by 1570, the Indian population of New Spain had fallen about 90 percent from what it was when Columbus arrived.

  • 3. Labor shortage and the importation of African slaves

  • Indian deaths depleted the labor supply; in response, colonists began to import African slaves; only 15,000 slaves were imported from Africa before 1550; 36,000 imported from 1550 to1600.

A. The Protestant Reformation and the Spanish Response

  • A. The Protestant Reformation and the Spanish Response

  • 1. Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation

  • publicized his criticisms of the Catholic Church in 1517; he preached a doctrine known as “justification by faith”: Christians could only obtain salvation by having faith in God, not by giving money to the church, following orders of priests, or participating in church rituals

  • also argued the Bible was more important than the Church; charged that Catholic Church was fraudulent.

  • 2. Anti-Reformation monarchs

  • Charles V and his son and successor Philip II pledged to exterminate Luther’s Protestant heresies; they used wealth of Spain’s New World empire to defend orthodox Catholic faith against Protestants, Muslims, Jews, or other nations.

  • 3. New Spain’s effect on the Spanish economy

  • New Spain’s wealth made Spain rich and powerful, but the monarchs’ expenses for constant warfare outstripped their revenues

  • they raised taxes, exempting the nobility and therefore putting the burden of taxation of the poor; they also borrowed heavily from European bankers. As a result, Spain ended up far in debt by the end of the century;

B. Europe and the Spanish Example

  • B. Europe and the Spanish Example

  • 1. Expansion of European influence

  • 2. Failed expeditions

  • 1524, France sent Giovanni da Verrazano to the Atlantic Coast to search for a Northwest Passage

  • the search failed; in 1535, Jacques Cartier sailed up the St. Lawrence River; Cartier established a colony in 1541, but it came to nothing; England tried to find a Northwest Passage again in 1576

  • Martin Frobisher of the Cathay Company hoped to open trade with China

  • he believed he found gold, but it was worthless ore; Cathay Company collapsed, and the English interests turned South

  • Sir Walter Raleigh organized an expedition to settle Roanoke Island off the coast of present-day North Carolina; when he sent settlers to the area two years later, they all disappeared, leaving only the word Croatoan in a tree; by the end of the century, England had no New World beachhead.

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