Vol. 1, No. 4, 2015, pp. 137-141
* Corresponding author
Ecological Estimation of the Soil Useful for
Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry of ANAS, Baku, Azerbaijan
Ecological estimation from soil condition is one of the most important question of modern soil science. In the present article
we are studying characteristics of soil ecological conditions and some types of soil in Kuba-Khachmaz zone. The ecological
estimation of the soil under vegetables of studied territory was conducted on the base of own researches and data of literary
sources. Assessment of the soils - their fertility, which can be expressed equitable and sustainable features characterizing the
soil's ability to meet the needs of plants in mineral nutrition and water. Soil fertility is determined by their water and heat, gas
and nutrient regime, and the composition and reaction of the soil solution, i.e, dynamic factors, depending on the climate and
many other conditions . In connection with unequal requirements of different crops to environmental conditions, primarily
to soil, the task is to identify the qualitative assessment to quantify the differences between the soils in fertility in the natural,
agricultural zone, with comparable levels of farming . For the vegeculture powerful development in Azerbaijan there are
exceptionally favourable soil-climatic conditions. We have been given the characteristics of individual soil types and subtypes
are suitable for growing vegetables. Ecological assessment was carried out using private rating scales for individual soil
characteristics. According to our researches, it was found that the meadow-brown soils are best for growing vegetables
(85s.).While grey-brown soils are estimated 73 scores.
Soil Fertility, Soil Valuation, Ecological Estimation, Vegetables
Received: April 9, 2015 / Accepted: April 30, 2015 / Published online: May 27, 2015
@ 2015 The Authors. Published by American Institute of Science. This Open Access article is under the CC BY-NC license.
A problem of the ecological appraisal from soils condition
and monitoring is one of the most important problems of the
present practical soil science. It includes in a large spectrum
of problems among which in the potential and actual fertility
appraisal, usefulness of the soils for the agricultural plants
growing, definition of the levels in their pollution by
chemical combinations, analyses of the technological
At present, being a component of the natural – anthropogenic
complex, the soil tests not only an anthropogenic loafing but
also an influence of the ecological factors, essentially
effecting on soil-forming process proceeding, soil organisms
vitality, the agricultural plants growth and development i.e.
an ecological assessment of soils condition resulting in a
complex appraisal of the biological-soil, geomorphological,
geochemical, geophysical and other factors and parameters in
its situation, and also their changes under an influence of the
anthropogenic loading, is at a present period of the actual
The vegeculture is one of the most difficult branches in
agriculture. Besides many different cultures are used in
vegeculture with the sharply different requirements for
agrotechnics conditions, vegetable cultures are grown in open
Agricultural and Biological Sciences Journal
Vol. 1, No. 4, 2015, pp. 137-141
ground and greenhouses, for the local needs and
transportation on a long-distance.
So for ex. the vegetable production in the Guba-Khachmaz
zone is directed to the provision with the raw-material of the
tinned industry, but a geographical proximity in this zone to
the industrial centre – Baku and Sumgait – stimulates the
vegeculture development with the purpose of the population
supply in these cities with the fresh vegetables.
In this connection an ecological appraisal of the soils good
for vegetable in the Guba-Khachmaz zone was performed
with the calculation of this region soil-climatic parameters.
Our researches were carried out in the soils good for
vegetable in Guba-Khachmaz. Conducting the ecological
appraisal of the different types in the soils good for vegetable
from the Guba-Khachmaz zone is based on methodical
recommendations by D.I.Bulgakov , G.Sh.Mammadov
[8,10], S.Z.Mammadova  and other methods .
3. Analysis and Discussion
Geographical situation, peculiarities of the relief and
The Guba-Khachmaz natural zone is situated at the end of
north-eastern Azerbaijan. In north-west it bordes on Dagistan
from south and south-west joins Absheron and Shamakhy-
Ismailly climatic-economic region. The zone total area is
804.7000. 374,5 000 hectares are used in agriculture. The
territories where the agriculture develops, mainly, occupy the
low mountains foothill and eastern accumulative plain .
The Guba-Khachmaz lowland is conceived to be a large plain
placing from the side range slopes to north-east, with two
stages: Guba-Gusar inclined plain, directly adjoining the side
ranges slope foot and the Caspian shore lowland from
Sumgait river mouth to the Samur river mouth. Guba-Gusar
inclined plain begins with the narrow region and extends in
the direction from alluvial lowland plain. The plain width to
Samur reaches – 30-35 km. A relief of the foothill band-
sweep in the inclined plain is wavy, here and there is hilly.
Here gardening (horticulture), vegeculture develop. A system
of the Great Caucasus in limits of Azerbaijan consists of the
period precipitation rock deposits, at Yura, chalk and fourth
period. An age and type of soil cover is connected with the
geological structure age and character and period .
The dominating rocks in the west part of the eastern slope
from the Guba-Khachmaz territory are: low chalk lime and
blocky conglomerate at upper Yura, the side range main
rocks, dark-coloured gleyey shale of Low Yura. The soil-
forming rocks in the low part of the territory (low-land) are
the third and ancient Caspian deposit. The soil-forming rocks
in the low part of the territory (low-land) are the third and
ancient Caspian deposit. The capacious pebble thickness is
soil-forming rock in the Gusar inclined plain. A power of the
plain gravel layers reaches 8-10 m and more, decreases till 3-
4 m in the accumulative plain. Besides gravel as soil-forming
rocks of the inclined plain the loessial-gley and loams, pale-
yellow and yellowish – pale yellow colors are widely
represented. A power of loessial rocks vibrate from 8-10 to
20 metre. The eastern end of the lowland is conceived of the
ancient Caspian deposits with the solonetzic-gleyey
4. Climatic Conditions
On climate, a foothill zone of the north-eastern part in the
Great Caucasus is belonged to moderate – warm arid steppe.
Here the winter is warm and mild with the unstable or little-
stable snowy cover, the summer is warm and dry where
middle monthly temperature of the summer months on
stations is 20,6-24,5
9,4 to 12,5
C. A positive temperature is higher than 10
C. For growing of the
sums are wholly enough.
The middle yearly quantity of the rainfalls in limits of the
given territory vibrates from 342 mm (Khachmaz) to 549 mm
(Gusar). The least quantity of the precipitations is observed
in Gilgilchay (308mm) . A significant number of the
rainfalls falls at the spring-summer period, an enough
quantity of the moisture is provided for agricultural plants.
However in the Lowland regions of the semi-desert zone the
precipitations don’t generally provide getting of the increased
crops. Hence, here the moisture deficit should be
compensated by an artificial irrigation.
A main factor promoting over the plant cover formation is a
place a relative humidity. A middle yearly relative moisture
vibrates in limits of 39-88%. Difference of the relative
moisture distribution can be explained by geographical
location, large area of the evaporating locality.
I.e. all the indicating elements of the climate, changes which
are conditioned by relief form, degree and exposition, their
differences under soil-forming conditions influence on soil
cover forming character.
Plant cover in the Great Caucasus region is extremely rich
and various. A.A.Grossgeim  distinguishes seven large
Nigar A. Sultanova and Yusif X. Mustafayev: Ecological Value of the Soil Useful for Vegetables in
the Guba-Khachmaz Region of Azerbaijan
plant regions: forests, deserts and semi-deserts, saline
vegetation, mountainous forestless formation, subalpine-
alpine vegetation, sandy vegetation, water and riverside
vegetation. The forestry vegetation occupies a significant
area from the Caspian sea-shore (lower forest of the Guba-
Khachmaz zone), on the river valley, covers the side range
northern slopes. The Tugay forests extend in the lowland
regions on the Caspian seaside from Khachmaz till
Samurchay. The bushy vegetation on the north-eastern slope
in comparison with the forest occupies a less area and
spreads unequally. Some bushes (juniper, rhododendron)
have a zonal character, create special vegetative community
and influence on lithosphere. The grassy vegetation plays an
essential role in the soil-forming process. The steppe
community in an region of the Great Caucasus occupy a zone
between semi-desert and forestry zones and are relatively
expressed in the Guba-Gusar inclined plain.
agricultural regions in the republic. The soils from this zone
are mainly used in the gardening, vegecultural, grain
economy, viticulture and stock-breeding. The arable soils
occupy 12,2% of the total area or 26,8% from the agricultural
lands area. These soils are mainly used under vegetable and
grain cultures. They form a little area in Khachmaz (40,0% of
the total area) and Gusar (28,3%) regions. The arable soils
accordingly form 11,7% and 20,0% in Guba and Khachmaz.
The territory soil spreading is in a strict connection with a
law of the vertical zonality. The following soils are
distinguished in the investigative territory: mountain-meadow,
mountain-meadow chernozem-like, mountain-forestry brown,
mountain-brown after forestry, grey-brown, meadow-
serozem and alluvial meadow. In agriculture mountain-brown,
grey-brown, meadow-brown, meadow serozem and alluvial –
meadow soils are mainly used.
Mountain –brown soils extend in the different parts of the
territory, at a height of 500-700 m above sea. These soils are
mainly powerful and middle powerful and eroded to a
different degree. They are characterized by an increase of the
humus horizon power, well expressed grainy-nut-like
structure. The soils are rich in and their distribution on a
profile is enough gradual, but the content vibrates in limits of
0,80-5,5%. The nitrogen content forms 0,08-0,30%,
phosphorus – 0,20-0,35%. A sum of the exchangeable bases
is sufficiently high – 25-40 mg.ekv. per 100g of soil. In a
composition of the absorbing complex there is much
exchangeable calcium and magnesium. The soils are poor in
absorbing Na. The pH quantity of water suspension indicates
a reaction alkaline character. The mechanical composition of
the mountain-brown soils is gleyey, heavy and middle loamy.
Grey-brown soils occupy an insignificant area and extend in
the territory different parts. On the relief conditions the grey -
brown soils occupy a part of the plain, foothill and low
mountains. The soil-forming rocks are served by delluvial
carbonate and alluvial-lime gleys and loams. The humus
content, total nitrogen and phosphorus in these soils are
lower in comparison with the brown soils on profile. A little
powerful differences of these soils are poor in nutrient. In a
profile of grey-brown soils a clear differentiation of
carbonates content between the separate stratum with their
regular increase is observed from depth.
The grey-brown soils are distinguished by an exchange high
capacity, vibrating approximately 25-55 mg.ekv. per 100 g of
soils. The environment reaction in these soils possesses an
Meadow-brown soils are formed on the areas of the increased
subsoil and surface moisture in the zone of brown soils. They
are characterized by an available of well expressed humus
horizon, profile merging and also carbonates availability on
the low stratum. The humus content on the upper horizon,
profile merging, and also carbonates availability on the low
stratum. The humus content on the upper stratum vibrates in
limits of 2,0-4,5%, phosphorus – 0,100-0,250%. The
meadow-brown soils are saturated with the bases. A sum of
the exchangeable bases is 20-35 mg.ekv. per 100 g of soils.
The carbonate soils, their content hesitates in limits of 8,0-
18,2%. The mechanical content is mainly gleyey and heavy-
loamy. Among these soils there are weak solonetz-like types
the increase of the revers and their flows are conceived
younger soils with the meadow soil-forming signs. They are
formed on the alluvial deposits of the light mechanical
A humus quantity on upper stratum of the alluvial-meadow
soils hesitate in limits of 1,4-3,7%. A content of total nitrogen
and phosphorus on the upper parts of the humus horizon is
significant. Their content accordingly vibrates in limits of
0,09-0,18% and 0,16-0,23%. The mechanical content in these
soils is loamy and sandy loam. Carbonates quantity is high
and 1,2-14,5% here. The exchangeable bases sum vibrates in
the large limits from 2,5 to 20,6 mg.ekv. per 100 g of soils.
Natrium, that creates solonetz-like in these soils, is found in a
composition of the exchangeable bases.
I.e. taking into account of the relief peculiarity, the
favourable climatical conditions, we should comment that the
soils in the plain territory of Guba-Khachmaz zone allow to
grow fruit, vegetable and other agricultural plans on a scale
of the commodity output.
On the basis of the soil cover investigations in the studied
territory, we distinguish – four types of soils good for
vegetable cultures growing: mountain-brown, grey-brown,
meadow-brown and alluvial-meadow soils.
For it the soils evaluation in the investigating territory was
performed. As is known the main criteria are humus supply,
elements of mineral nutrition and sums of the absorbed bases
under soil evaluation.
Soil bonitet – is a good integral quantitative indication
defining real quality of some or other soils for effective plant
Then taking the particular scales of the soils appraisal on
separate signs, taking into account the main climatical
indications, the ecological scores were calculated for
mountain-brown, grey-brown, meadow-brown and alluvial-
meadow soils. The obtained results are reflected on the table.
For the main ecological factors which essential influence on
agricultural production are a relief and climate. We used such
indices as locality height, a quantity of the falling
precipitations and a sum of the temperature above 10
indications of pH, calcareous, physical gley, a quantity of the
water-resistant aggregates were applied by us.
As is obvious from the table, the mountain-brown soils on
locality height above sea (500-700m) obtained 70 scores.
However, here 100 scores were got on precipitations (549
mm), the vegetable cultures need for moisture obtaining. On
diagnostical signs the mountain-brown soils got 80 scores.
On other physic-chemical indices, such as water-resistant
aggregates quantity, physical gley content of these soils
obtained 79 scores, their calcareous is valued by 63 scores,
while getting 97 scores over pH, so the vegetable cultures
grow well in the neutral soils. An ecological score for these
soils froms 81 scores (Table).
0 – 200100
It is seen from the table that the grey-brown soils on bonitet
increased and formed 73 scores. It is explained by that on
height of the locality 90 scores were obtained, on a quantity
of the precipitations 90 scores were also obtained and 97
scores on calcareous.
The meadow –brown soils got the most ecological score 85
scores. Though the bonitet scores for these soils formed 94
scores. Calcareous influences on ecological score decrease -
64 scores physical clay content 71-scores, a quantity of
water-resistant aggregates-74 scores, while getting 100 scores
The alluvial –meadow soils on locality height above sea level
was obtained. Such heat providing in here is high enough,
that makes a condition for the vegetable cultures
development. On a quantity of the falling precipitations 62
scores were got here. It is connected with that the vegetable
cultures are in need for moisture. Consequently, the frequent
irrigations are required.
1. The present soil-ecological conditions in the Guba-
Khachmaz zone in connection with the vegetable cultures
growing are investigated. A feature of the separate soil
types and subtypes and their fitness for the vegetable
cultures was given.
2. A qualitative assessment of soil of the Guba-Khachmaz
area was performed. The diagnostic indicators for
evaluation conducting were selected reserves of humus,
nitrogen, phosphorus and sum of the absorbing bases. The
meadow-brown dark soil (94 scores) was selected as a
3. On the basis of the particular investigations, data of the
fund materials and literature sources, an ecological
appraisal of the soils good for vegetable in the investigated
territory was created with the utilization of the particular
scales of the soils value on the separate signs. It is
established that for vegetable growing, the meadow-brown
soils are the best (85 scores). But the grey-brown soils got
the least scores (73 scores).
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