Agroekosistem



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: files -> 2013
2013 -> Psikiyatrik Anamnez ve Muayene Klinik Beceresi Öğrenim Rehberi
2013 -> Hastaya yaklaşim sistem sorgulamasi prof. Dr. Bülent Erbay
2013 -> Tema 4 : L’atmosfera I el clima
2013 -> Çankiri karatekiN ÜNİversitesi
2013 -> ÖLÜm belgesi
2013 -> DiSLİPİdemi ve kbh
2013 -> KliNİk araştirmalar etik kurulu
2013 -> KliNİk araştirmalar etik kurulu toplanti gündemi
2013 -> Dikkat etmek gerekir


Pertanian-Ekologis = Ecoagriculture

Ecoagriculture menggambarkan lanskap yang mendukung produksi pertanian dan konservasi keanekaragaman hayati, bekerja secara harmonis untuk meningkatkan kesejahteraan masyarakat pedesaan. Sementara itu, banyak masyarakat pedesaan yang secara mandiri telah menerapkan system Ecoagriculture selama ribuan tahun, selama abad terakhir ini banyak lanskap ini telah dikonversi menjadi beragam penggunaan lahan; beberapa daerah menerapkan praktek-praktek pertanian intensif tanpa memperhatikan dampaknya terhadap keanekaragaman hayati, dan daerah lainnya dilindungi sepenuhnya menjadi kawasan lindung atau daerah perlindungan DAS. Suatu gerakan Ecoagriculture baru sekarang mendapatkan momentum untuk menyatukan pengelola lahan dan pemangku kepentingan lainnya untuk menemukan cara yang kompatibel untuk melestarikan keanekaragaman hayati sambil juga meningkatkan produksi pertanian.


"Ecoagriculture" is a term coined in 2000 (by Sara Scherr and Jeffrey McNeely) to convey a vision of rural communities managing their resources to jointly achieve three broad goals at a landscape scale — what we refer to as the “three pillars” of ecoagriculture:

  • Enhance rural livelihoods;

  • Conserve or enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services; and

  • Develop more sustainable and productive agricultural systems.

Ecoagriculture is both a conservation strategy and a rural development strategy. Ecoagriculture recognizes agricultural producers and communities as key stewards of ecosystems and biodiversity and enables them to play those roles effectively. Ecoagriculture applies an integrated ecosystem approach to agricultural landscapes to address all three pillars, drawing on diverse elements of production and conservation management systems. Meeting the goals of ecoagriculture usually requires collaboration or coordination between diverse stakeholders who are collectively responsible for managing key components of a landscape.

As an alternative strategy to industrial agriculture, an ecoagriculture approach works by mimicking natural systems to create a new ecosystem, one consisting mainly of perennials and indigenous species. There are many names for ecoagricultural systems; permaculture, natural systems agriculture, agroecology, and while doctrinaires will expound the differences between these labels, all work on the same principals and emulate basic analogous concepts. By mimicking and re-creating an eco-system, biodiversity, stability, fertility, resilience and resistance are increased, there-by strengthening the overall agricultural system. Chemical additions are not required as the system is closed and entirely self-supportive, additionally needed amendments will be provided from organic by-products of the system. Ecoagriculture systems have been shown to be effective in both climate change mitigation and adaptation, while being extremely productive as a food source.

Ecoagriculture systems “have been described as domesticated ecosystems” . The premise works similarly to a forest, or a prairie, or any other ecosystem. A forest is an entirely contained system, each individual part making the whole stronger. A forest does not require outside fertilizers or pesticides or irrigation, yet nutrients in the soil, insect ratios, water are typically keep in proper balance. “This system, thus, maintains its own health, runs on the sun's energy, recycles nutrients, and at no expense to the planet or people.” Using these concepts, ecoagriculture designs a system allowing these processes to work with the land, to achieve the desired outcome of an increased, diverse food supply.



http://climatelab.org/@api/deki/files/531/=tree_swale.jpg

Pohon ditanam pada guludan untuk memanfaatkan air hujan yang tertampung pada parit (swale)

Sumber: http://climatelab.org/Ecoagriculture ..... diunduh 30/6/2011

Ecoagriculture is both a conservation strategy and a rural development strategy. Ecoagriculture recognizes agricultural producers and communities as key stewards of ecosystems and biodiversity and enables them to play those roles effectively. Ecoagriculture applies an integrated ecosystem approach to agricultural landscapes to address all three pillars -- conserving biodiversity, enhacing agricultural production, and improving livelihoods -- drawing on diverse elements of production and conservation management systems. Meeting the goals of ecoagriculture usually requires collaboration or coordination between diverse stakeholders who are collectively responsible for managing key components of a landscape.




Pertanian Berkelanjutan = Sustainable agriculture



Sustainable agriculture is the practice of farming using principles of ecology, the study of relationships between organisms and their environment. It has been defined as "an integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a site-specific application that will last over the long term:

  • Satisfy human food and fiber needs

  • Make the most efficient use of non-renewable resources and on-farm resources and integrate, where appropriate, natural biological cycles and controls

  • Sustain the economic viability of farm operations

  • Enhance the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole.”[1]

A growing movement has emerged during the past two decades to question the role of the agricultural establishment in promoting practices that contribute to these social problems. Today this movement for sustainable agriculture is garnering increasing support and acceptance within mainstream agriculture. Not only does sustainable agriculture address many environmental and social concerns, but it offers innovative and economically viable opportunities for growers, laborers, consumers, policymakers and many others in the entire food system.

Sustainable agriculture integrates three main goals--environmental health, economic profitability, and social and economic equity. A variety of philosophies, policies and practices have contributed to these goals. People in many different capacities, from farmers to consumers, have shared this vision and contributed to it. Despite the diversity of people and perspectives, the following themes commonly weave through definitions of sustainable agriculture.
Sustainable agriculture is said to offer three main goals that industrial agriculture has not been successfully accounting for – environmental health and diversity, economic profitability, and social and economic equity.  In summary, it looks to promote harmony between agriculture and social responsibility so that the ability of future generations to meet their own needs is not obstructed.  In reality, the growth rate of the global human population is rapid, but not something the agricultural industry can’t keep up with. 

http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-upnbalp8sag/tau7nvumi6i/aaaaaaaaab0/hs6afqqqnt4/s1600/venn.gif

Sumber: http://lidomain.blogspot.com/ ….. diunduh 30/6/2011

Sustainability rests on the principle that we must meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Therefore, stewardship of both natural and human resources is of prime importance. Stewardship of human resources includes consideration of social responsibilities such as working and living conditions of laborers, the needs of rural communities, and consumer health and safety both in the present and the future. Stewardship of land and natural resources involves maintaining or enhancing this vital resource base for the long term.


Model Usahatani berkelanjutan


To be sustainable, inputs must be less than outputs.  Inputs include fuel and all forms of energy, labour and raw materials.  Even treatment of wastes must not consume excessive energy.  For a farmer to practice sustainable agriculture, he must derive a reasonable income from his efforts. The only purchased inputs are corn and other feed ingredients.  From here, all 'wastes' are recycled.  Dung, carcasses, etc are all composted and made into high quality humus.  Using humus and compost tea and proper management, an acre of land can produce 30 tonnes of high protein napia grass.  This is fed to goats and fish. Using humus and compost tea, and selecting low-nitrogen demanding heritage seeds, seperti kacang-kacangan, bayam, terung, dll. we can produce abundant market vegetables. 
http://dqfarm.blogspirit.com/media/01/02/1301537505.jpg

Model usahatani berkelanjutan sekala mikro (Sumber: http://dqfarm.blogspirit.com/web/ ….. diunduh 30/6/2011)

A systems perspective is essential to understanding sustainability. The system is envisioned in its broadest sense, from the individual farm, to the local ecosystem, and to communities affected by this farming system both locally and globally. An emphasis on the system allows a larger and more thorough view of the consequences of farming practices on both human communities and the environment. A systems approach gives us the tools to explore the interconnections between farming and other aspects of our environment.

A systems approach also implies interdisciplinary efforts in research and education. This requires not only the input of researchers from various disciplines, but also farmers, farmworkers, consumers, policymakers and others.
Making the transition to sustainable agriculture is a process. For farmers, the transition to sustainable agriculture normally requires a series of small, realistic steps. Family economics and personal goals influence how fast or how far participants can go in the transition. It is important to realize that each small decision can make a difference and contribute to advancing the entire system further on the "sustainable agriculture continuum." The key to moving forward is the will to take the next step.

Finally, it is important to point out that reaching toward the goal of sustainable agriculture is the responsibility of all participants in the system, including farmers, laborers, policymakers, researchers, retailers, and consumers. Each group has its own part to play, its own unique contribution to make to strengthen the sustainable agriculture community.


The specific strategies for realizing these broad themes or goals of systems . The strategies are grouped according to three separate though related areas of concern: Farming and Natural Resources, Plant and Animal Production Practices, and the Economic, Social and Political Context. They represent a range of potential ideas for individuals committed to interpreting the vision of sustainable agriculture within their own circumstances.


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