Agroekosistem



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Some advocates favour sustainable agriculture as the only system which can be sustained over the long-term. However, organic production methods, especially in transition, yield less than their conventional counterparts and raise the same problems of sustaining populations globally.


Organic farming is the form of agriculture that relies on techniques such as crop rotation, green manure, compost and biological pest control to maintain soil productivity and control pests on a farm. Organic farming excludes or strictly limits the use of manufactured fertilizers, pesticides (which include herbicides, insecticides and fungicides), plant growth regulators such as hormones, livestock antibiotics, food additives, and genetically modified organisms.

“Organic agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people. It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects. Organic agriculture combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved..”

International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements

Productivitas dan Profitabilitas Pertanian Organik


Various studies find that versus conventional agriculture, organic crops yielded 91%, or 95-100%, along with 50% lower expenditure on fertilizer and energy, and 97% less pesticides, or 100% for corn and soybean, consuming less energy and zero pesticides. (Stanhill, G. 1990). The comparative productivity of organic agriculture. Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment. 30(1-2):1-26).
The results were attributed to lower yields in average and good years but higher yields during drought years. A 2007 study compiling research from 293 different comparisons into a single study to assess the overall efficiency of the two agricultural systems has concluded that

…organic methods could produce enough food on a global per capita basis to sustain the current human population, and potentially an even larger population, without increasing the agricultural land base.


(Perfecto et al.., in Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems (2007), 22: 86–108 Cambridge University Press: cited in New Scientist 13:46 12 July 2007)
Converted organic farms have lower pre-harvest yields than their conventional counterparts in developed countries (92%) but higher than their low-intensity counterparts in developing countries (132%). This is due to relatively lower adoption of fertilizers and pesticides in the developing world compared to the intensive farming of the developed world. (Badgley, C. et al. .Organic agriculture and the global food supply. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems (2007), 22: 86-108.

Organic farms withstand severe weather conditions better than conventional farms, sometimes yielding 70-90% more than conventional farms during droughts.[42] Organic farms are more profitable in the drier states of the United States, likely due to their superior drought performance. Organic farms survive hurricane damage much better, retaining 20 to 40% more topsoil and smaller economic losses at highly significant levels than their neighbors.

Contrary to widespread belief, organic farming can build up soil organic matter better than conventional no-till farming, which suggests long-term yield benefits from organic farming. An 18-year study of organic methods on nutrient-depleted soil, concluded that conventional methods were superior for soil fertility and yield in a cold-temperate climate, arguing that much of the benefits from organic farming are derived from imported materials which could not be regarded as “self-sustaining”.[46]

Profitabilitas Pertanian Organik

(Lotter, D. (2003). “Organic Agriculture” (PDF). Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 21 (4). http://donlotter.net/lotter_organicag.pdf.)


The decreased cost of synthetic fertilizer and pesticide inputs, along with the higher prices that consumers pay for organic produce, contribute to increased profits. Organic farms have been consistently found to be as or more profitable than conventional farms. Without the price premium, profitability is mixed. Organic production was more profitable in Wisconsin, given price premiums.

Agroekosistem

(sumber: http://www.answers.com/topic/agroecosystem#ixzz1f2iWFTtJ)

An agroecosystem is the basic unit of study for an agroecologist, and is somewhat arbitrarily defined as a spatially and functionally coherent unit of agricultural activity, and includes the living and nonliving components involved in that unit as well as their interactions.
"Suatu agroekosistem dapat dilihat sebagai bagian dari ekosistem konvensional. Bagian inti dari suatu agroekosistem adalah manusia dengan aktivitas pertaniannya. Namun demikian, agroekosistem tidak terbatas pada kegiatan pertanian (misalnya usahatani), melainkan juga termasuk kawasan yang dipengaruhi oleh kegiatan pertanian ini, biasanya dengan perubahan kompleksitas spesies dan aliran energi, serta untuk keseimbangan hara. Secara tradisional suatu agroekosistem, terutama yang dikelola secara intensif, ditandai oleh adanya komposisi spesies yang lebih sederhana dan aliran energi dan hara yang lebih sederhana daripada ekosistem alamiah. Demikian juga, agroekosistem sering dikaitkan dengan masukan hara yang tinggi, banyak yang ke luar dari system pertanian mengakibatkan munculnya eutrofikasi pada ekosistem yang tidak secara langsung behubungan dengan pertanian ".
One of the major efforts of disciplines such as agroecology is to promote management styles that blur the distinction between agroecosystems and "natural" ecosystems, both by decreasing the impact of agriculture (increasing the biological and trophic complexity of the agricultural system as well as decreasing the nutrient inputs/outflow) and by increasing awareness that "downstream" effects extend agroecosystems beyond the boundaries of the farm. In the first case, polyculture or buffer strips for wildlife habitat can restore some complexity to a cropping system, while organic farming can reduce nutrient inputs. Efforts of the second type are most common at the watershed scale. An example is the National Association of Conservation Districts' Lake Mendota Watershed Project, which seeks to reduce runoff from the agricultural lands feeding into the lake with the aim of reducing algal blooms. A model for the functionings of an agricultural system, with all inputs and outputs. An ecosystem may be as small as a set of microbial interactions that take place on the surface of roots, or as large as the globe. An agroecosystem may be at the level of the individual plant-soil-microorganism system, at the level of crops or herds of domesticated animals, at the level of farms or agricultural landscapes, or at the level of entire agricultural economies.
Ciri-ciri Agroekosistem

Agroekosistem berbeda dengan ekosistem alami dalam beberapa hal:

1. Energi yang mendorong semua ekosistem autotrophic, termasuk agroekosistem, baik secara langsung maupun tidak langsung, berasal dari energi surya. Namun demikian, input energi untuk agroekosistem tidak hanya mencakup energi alami (sinar matahari), tetapi juga energi olahan (bahan bakar fosil) serta tenaga kerja manusia dan hewan.

2. Biodiversitas dalam agroekosistem umumnya dikurangi oleh adanya manajemen manusia untuk menyalurkan sebanyak mungkin energi dan hara ke dalam system spesies budidaya.

3. Evolusi adalah sebagian besar, melalui seleksi buatan, dimana sifat fenotipik yang diinginkan secara komersial ditingkatkan melalui program pemuliaan dan rekayasa genetika.

4. Agroekosistems biasanya dikaji dari berbagai Perspektif, termasuk Neraca dan Aliran energi, pertukartan materi, Neraca hara, dan Dinamika populasi serta Komunitas.


Solar energy influences agroecosystem productivity directly by providing the energy for photosynthesis and indirectly through heat energy that influences respiration, rates of water loss, and the heat balance of plants and animals. Nutrient uptake from soil by crop plants or weeds is primarily mediated by microbial processes. Some soil bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen into forms that plants can assimilate. Other organisms influence soil structure and the exchange of nutrients, and still other microorganisms may excrete ammonia and other metabolic by-products that are useful plant nutrients. There are many complex ways that microorganisms influence nutrient cycling and uptake by plants. Some microorganisms are plant pathogens that reduce nutrient uptake in diseased plants. Larger organisms may influence nutrient uptake indirectly by modifying soil structure or directly by damaging plants.

Although agroecosystems may be greatly simplified compared to natural ecosystems, they can still foster a rich array of population and community processes such as herbivory, predation, parasitization, competition, and mutualism. Crop plants may compete among themselves or with weeds for sunlight, soil nutrients, or water. Cattle overstocked in a pasture may compete for forage and thereby change competitive interactions among pasture plants, resulting in selection for unpalatable or even toxic plants. Indeed, one important goal of farming is to find the optimal densities for crops and livestock.

Widespread use of synthetic chemical pesticides has bolstered farm production worldwide, primarily by reducing or eliminating herbivorous insect pests. Traditional broad-spectrum pesticides such as DDT, however, can have far-ranging impacts on agroecosystems. For instance, secondary pest outbreaks associated with the use of many traditional pesticides are not uncommon due to the elimination of natural enemies or resistance of pests to chemical control. Growers and pesticide developers in temperate regions have begun to focus on alternative means of control. Pesticide developers have begun producing selective pesticides, which are designed to target only pest species and to spare natural enemies, leaving the rest of the agroecosystem community intact. Many growers are now implementing integrated pest management programs that incorporate the new breed of biorational chemicals with cultural and other types of controls.

ANALISIS AGROEKOSISTEM
Agroecosystem analysis is a thorough analysis of an agricultural environment which considers aspects from ecology, sociology, economics, and politics with equal weight. There are many aspects to consider; however, it is literally impossible to account for all of them. This is one of the issues when trying to conduct an analysis of an agricultural environment. In the past, an agroecosystem analysis approach might be used to determine the sustainability of an agricultural system. It has become apparent, however, that the "sustainability" of the system depends heavily on the definition of sustainability chosen by the observer. Therefore, agroecosystem analysis is used to bring the richness of the true complexity of agricultural systems to an analysis to identify reconfigurations of the system (or holon) that will best suit individual situations.
Agroecosystem analysis is a tool of the multidisciplinary subject known as Agroecology. Agroecology and agroecosystem analysis are not the same as sustainable agriculture, though the use of agroecosystem analysis may help a farming system ensure its viability. Agroecosystem analysis is not a new practice, agriculturalists and farmers have been doing it since societies switched from hunting and gathering (hunter-gatherer) for food to settling in one area. Every time a person involved in agriculture evaluates their situation to identify methods to make the system function in a way that better suits their interests, they are performing an agroecosystem analysis.

Analisis Agroecosystem dan Pertanian berkelanjutan

It is difficult to discuss these differences without the aid of an example. Consider the case of a conventional apple farmer. This farmer may choose to change his farm to conform to the standards of USDA approved organic agriculture because he felt motivated by social or moral norms or the potential of increased profits or a host of other reasons. This farmer evaluated his situation and reconfigured it to try to improve it. Some might look at this situation and conclude that the apple farmer chose organic apple production because it is more sustainable for the environment. But, what if a few years later the farmer finds that he is struggling to make a profit and decides to go back to conventional agriculture? The farmer performed another agroecosystem analysis and arrived at a reconfiguration that some might see as unsustainable. This example illustrates how agroecosystem analysis is not required to lead a more environmentally sustainable form of agriculture. Agroecosystem analysis might produce a reconfiguration that is more economically sustainable or socially sustainable or politically sustainable for a farmer (or other actor). By definition, however, agroecosystem analysis is not required to produce an environmentally sustainable configuration for an agricultural system.


Pendekatan untuk Analisis
William L. Bland, from the University of Wisconsin–Madison, developed the idea of a farm as a Holon (philosophy). This term, holon, was originally introduced by Arthur Koestler in 1966, in which he referred to a holon as an entity in which it is a part by itself, a holon, while contributing to a larger entity, which is also a holon. Bland develops this for an agricultural environment or farm as, "The farm holon is both the whole in which smaller holons exists, and a part of larger entities, themselves holons." This idea was expanded upon by Bland and Michael M. Bell University of Wisconsin–Madison in their 2007 article "A holon approach to agroecology," because it is difficult to account for boundary and change when using a systems thinking approach. One major difference between Koestler's holon and the holon idea developed for agroecosystem analysis is that the latter can only be defined as a holon if it has intentionality.
The farm itself is a holon and within the farm holon, other holons exist. For example, a farm animal, the farm family, and a farmworker can all be considered holons within the farm. Additionally, the farm is considered a holon which is inpart connected to other holons such as the county in which the farm resides, the bank from which the farmer borrowed money, or the grain elevator where the farmer can sell goods. Things like the tractor or the barn are not holons because they lack intentionality. When conducting an agroecosystem analysis, the analyst should approach the farm as the farm itself and the "ecology of contexts" in which the farm and the farmer function. A "context" is anything that might influence functioning of the farm and cause it to change. According to Bland and Bell, examples of contexts include, "family, farm business, genetic heart disease, and spiritual beliefs." These examples illustrate the breadth of contexts that could influence why farmers do what they do. Bland concluded his model of a farm as a holon by stating, "A farm is not sustainable (disintegrates) when it cannot find an overall configuration that is simultaneously viable in all contexts."

Pertanyaan yang harus diperhatikan
There is no right or wrong way to evaluate an agroecosystem. It is important to identify all actors in a holon before beginning the analysis. When an analyst accepts the task of analyzing the agroecosystem, first and foremost, it must be approached as to incorporate all elements involved and should derive questions that should be answered.

Pertanyaan-pertanyaan seperti:



  • Apakah faktor-faktor pembatas (holons and contexts) menentukan konfigurasi agroecosystem yang ada sekarang?

  • Bagaimana mengkuantifikasikan keberl;anjutan suatu usahat pertanian (economi, social, politis, ekologi dan/atau lainnya)?

  • Bagaimana petani atau keluarga usahatani mempersepsikan suatu agroecosystem?

  • Apa saja yang dilakukan petani saat ini, dan bagaimana praktek-praktek tersebut mempengaruhi viabilitas agroecosystem?

  • Dapatkan petani melestarikan kesejahteraannya dengan praktek-praktek yang ada sekarang?

  • Apakah nilai-nilai yang dianut oleh petani dari darimana asalnya nilai-nilai tersebut?

  • Apakah petani akan mempertimbangkan alternatif konfigurasi usahataninya?


Manajemen Agroekosistem
Organic Agro-Ecosystem Management from Prototyped Organic Farmer Learning Processes. Yuppayao Tokeeree, Sunantha Laowansiri and Sopit Vetayasuporn. 2010. The Social Sciences, 2010 , Volume: 5 ,  Issue: 6, Page 532-537.
Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mempelajari manajemen agroekosistem organic dan mensintesis proses pembelajaran yang dilakukan oleh petani organic Mr. Kampan Laowongsri. Mr. Kampan adalah prototype petani organic yang menerapkan system pertanian terpadu di propinsi Mahasarakarm. Sistem pertanian terpadu ini sesuai dengan kaidah-kaidah mutual-manajemen antara sumberdaya fisik dan sumberdaya buiologis serta system pemanfataan limbahnya. Limbah pertanian dirombak dan diolah menjadi material yang bermanfaat dan digunakan dalam proses pertanian.

Hasil-hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa keberhasilan system pertanian organic terpadu ini berpangkal dari proses pembelajaran sendiri petani, prinsip kearifan local, dan pengalaman yang telah dilalui dari generasi ke generasi, percobaan-percobaan, saran pemerintah dan suasta, diskusi komunitas dan informasi-informasi lainnya. Sistem pertanian organic terpadu dari Mr. Kampan ini bukan hanya bertumpu pada keragaan usahatani, tetapi juga mewujudkan kelestarian, kelayakan ekonomi, kesejahteraan petani, keramahan lingkungan dan hasil-hasil opertanian yang aman dikonsumsi. Kecuali itu, kelebihan hasil-hasil pertanian dari konsumsi keluarga dapat dijual dan menghasilkan income bagi keluarganya.



PROTOTIPE SISTEM PENGELOLAAN AGROEKOSISTEM ORGANIK
Pertanian organik adalah sistem produksi pertanian bahan pangan dan serat yang berkelanjutan secara sosial, ekonomi dan lingkungan. Hal ini berkonsentrasi pada pemupukan tanah dan memperhatikan kemampuan alami tanaman, hewan dan agro - ekosistem. Pertanian organik mengurangi faktor produksi eksternal dan meninggalkan penggunaan bahan kimia sintetik. Sistem ii menekankan pada penggunaan limbah tanaman, rabuk, tanaman legume, pupuk hijau dan bahan organik lainnya, untuk mendaur-ulangkan hara dan energi dalam system pertanian. Pertanian ini mencakup upaya kelestarian lingkungan dengan menjaga keseimbangan alam dan keanekaragaman hayati, sehingga manajemen agroekosistem organik mirip dengan alam dan sesuai dengan kearifan lokal. Oleh karena itu, pertanian organik merupakan proses pertanian yang mengandalkan jasa-jasa alam, dengan jalan menggunakan proses biologis untuk meningkatkan produksi dan mencegah gangguan hama, dan mengikuti sirkulasi sumberdaya yang digunakan dalam pertanian untuk manfaat maksimal . Oleh karena itu , prinsip pertanian organik akan sesuai dengan kondisi lokal dalam hal ekonomi, social-masyarakat, cuaca dan budaya . Manajemen agroekosistem organik merupakan faktor penting yang mengarah kepada pengembangan pertanian berkelanjutan.

Regarding to this management, farmers must be diligent and patient in cultivation that there are methods as the followings: soil fertile management by main using of organic matters, circulating plants cultivation emphasizing on local plants, no usage of agricultural machines to maintain and curing soil structural properties, no usage of pesticides, herbicides and other chemicals and soil-covering plants cultivation instead of chemicals usage. Besides, the land management is another factor that is very simportant to be the base of agro-ecosystem built. It regards with various plants cultivation, internal and inter-relative areas organism management and farm areas allocation that are necessary to have a good plan for creating a new agro-ecosystem of organic farms. These managements actually are the ancient agriculture in local communities of Asian countries. The mutual conditions in food chain and food web interaction including energy exchange have created the ecological sustainability for instances, resource units in farm production, rice cultivation, fish farming and horticultural cultivation can be used to circulate and mutual support in the dimension of resource and energy transferring. Mahasarakarm, a province in Thailand, supports activities of organic farming to farmers.



Farmers have started to cultivate plants and domesticate animals with creating the agro-ecosystem balance in farms. Many of them have succeeded in the organic farming management that helps to generate organic or green products creating health benefits to farmers and consumers as well as income to farmers in long term operation. The organic farmer has worked on the basis of agro-ecosystem intention by allocating relevant resources and creating the organic agro-ecosystem in his farm appropriately with local conditions as well as emphasizing on the integrated management comprising the items as follows.
PENGELOLAAN LAHAN: The farmer land has been allocated accordingly with the new agricultural theory. The theory has defined the land proportion of water source: rice field: horticultural field: accommodation as 30: 30: 30: 10, respectively. His farm land proportion was 24.8: 19.7: 45.8: 9.7 due to the performance and adjustment following the suitability of local ecological geography. When in-depth studying of land allocation, his land has been separated into 9 sub-areas i.e., rice field, mixed horticultural and vegetable field, circulating seasonal vegetable field, asparagus field, herbal field, rice filed and pool edges, water source, animal domesticating area and rice straw group. The highest amount land is the water source area for solving the lack of water in summer season. The rice field edge also consumes a large area by constructing the big size edges to protect water drainage from outside lands which contaminate chemicals and prevent flood. Besides, the edges can be used to cultivate plants especially perennial trees.
PENGELOLAAN TANAH: The prototyped farmer has fertilized to improve the soil quality by using manures, green manures from vetch plants, fermented manure, biological fermented water, plowing without rice cob burning and reducing soil nutrients by low waste harvesting of products. Furthermore, there are the cultivation of circulating plants for maintaining nutrients balance, the conservation of soil benthos and the protection of soil erosion by cultivating plants on rice filed and pool edges and soil covered plants.
PENGELOLAAN AIR: In northeast Thailand, most farmers have faced the drought problem and there is no sufficient water for cultivating plants, especially in summer season. Therefore, the prototyped farmer constructed the pools for water using sufficiently in throughout year. He has allocated the land for water resource about 24.8% that there are 3 pools total containing 10,453 m3. In addition, he has managed water resource with water supply system by installing small water pumps, PVC pipe lining to cover farm area and installing water sprinkles having specific valve breaker. The breaker will be opened when watering plants at desired time and watering will be controlled suitably to disperse water and protect evaporation. Most sprinkles can easily move for comfortably water supply management and after harvesting they can move out for soil plowing.
PENGELOLAAN TANAMAN DAN TERNAK: The prototyped farmer emphasize on biodiversity and mutualism condition among organisms in his farm. There were 139 species and 56 families of plants i.e., 15 species of shrub, 45 species of perennial plant and 79 species of biennial plant. Each species taken to cultivate in the farm had been selected by mixing local wisdom principles with regards to benefits and science bases.

The plants were tested in the experimental land until receiving the appropriate species that are mutual basis in the organic agro-ecosystem. Besides, there is the cultivation of circulating seasonal plants accompany with vetch plants in the same field creating good products due to nutrients balance as well as nitrogen cycle.

The main characteristic of this farm is the neatly rice cultivation. He has cultivated by using a rice sprout in one hole that one rai (1,600 m3) uses only 1 kg of seeds. The selected seeds have been cultured for 7 days that a rice sprout has the length about 10-15 cm. Then the sprouts have been transferred to cultivate in the prepared rice filed having sludge characteristic. They have been pulled out by using a spoon to scoop for maintaining the seed left. After that they are transferred to cultivate as soft sticking their seed roots to the field because the sprouts are still young.

In the first stage, watering them is like vegetable watering that soil is just soaked until the sprouts were split. In addition, it is necessary to release water out until the appropriate water level because if there is more water in the filed crabs will destroy rice but less water weeds will grow which is wasting time to get rid of them. Therefore, farmers should pay attention in their cultivation and emphasize on the integrated farming system by no mono-crop cultivation and biodiversity consideration. The prototyped organic farmer gave the reasons for organic agro-ecosystem as the followings.

The organic farming emphasizes on cultivation for consumption and income circulation all year round. Due to the differences of harvesting period the cultivating plants can be circulated to give production throughout a year. Then, it can help to support farmers in terms of consumption and commerce throughout a year. It helps to protect outbreaks of diseases and pests because pests cannot destroy the area of integrated plants in a wide range. Most cultivating plants are local species that can be found easily. These species are easy in curing and appropriate with annual water amount.

Farmers will cultivate herbs for getting rid of pests throughout a year without using from other chemicals. These help to their self-assistance that farmers will use their resources in a sufficient way. Regarding to domesticating animals, there are 7 types i.e., cow, chicken, duck, cricket, frog, fish and pig. Most animals are local species that are tolerant to environmental conditions and easy in domesticating with giving high products. These create income circulation throughout a year. Additionally, these animals help to circulate nutrients and be a source of organic manure. Other natural animals such as earthworm, millipede, ground lizard, predator insect and so on are beneficial for organic decomposition and controlling pests in the fields.


PENGELOLAAN HAMA

From the investigation, there were 52 species and 43 families of pests that were 38.46% of pest insects, 42.31% of predator insects, 3.85% of parasites and 15.38% of cross-pollination insects. These proportions show that the beneficial pespts found in the organic farm were higher than the pest insects. There are 3 methods of pest control and management i.e., using wood vinegar, using biological fermented water and cultivating pest controlling plants.

Wood vinegar is produced from charcoal burning and the biological fermented water is generated from the fermentation of herbs in the field. These herbal plants are in local forest and have been using since the past such as tuba root (Derris sp.), Ebony, Nim, Sarcostemma acidum Voigt (Leafless medicinal tree), Stemona sp., Cassia fistula L., Jatropha curcas L. and so on. For using, these plants must be dissolved in water and then sprayed into the cultivating fields as suitably with each type of plants. Regarding with the cultivation for pests controlling, the prototyped organic farmer has cultivated various types of plants, integrated plants, circulating seasonal plants and insect attracting-expelling plants such as marigold, sunflower, sympodium and so on. These cultivations have created the biodiversities of species and disturbed the pests that cannot select the specific plant for living and eating as usual. Hence, they are an alternative choice to control pests naturally instead of using chemicals, including help to reduce risks of farmers.
PENGELOLAAN LIMBAH.

The organic agro-ecosystem supports the waste management. The prototype organic farmer has used the occurred wastes to recycle for using in the production processes. The study found that the production and household wastes such as animal manures, vegetable refuses, leaves and solid wastes have been totally recycled. If there are the decomposing wastes such as food refuses, vegetable refuses and leaves he uses most of them to produce the soil fertilizer and some of them to produce the biological fermented water. The fresh vegetable refuses have been used for feeding cricket, chicken and goose. For the recycled wastes such as plastics, paper, glasses and bottles, he has used them as recycling or collecting for sale. The management of organic agro-ecosystem components can introduce the linkage among the components. These management characteristics are duplicated from the nature for producing foods and agricultural products as environmentally friendly system. The organic agro-ecosystem management of Mr. Kapan Laowongsri is a very good case study because he has created the organic farming system as mutual consideration under the limitations of area, soil, water and air to be appropriate with plants and animals. His management has cooperated between physical and biological resources by emphasizing on soil fertility, water source, weather controlling with perennial plants, plant species selection for mutual conditions and so on. This relationship is from the selection and creation of the prototyped organic farmer with intention and harmonious mixing the new interdisciplinary knowledge and the local wisdom.


Each resource has then presented its roles and has linked with the others in the productive ways. Plants and animals in the fields have been arranged to use the physical resources as maximum beneficiaries. His management has helped to circulate nutrients and resources, allocate the selected plants as suitably, fertilize soil and maximize recycled wastes use in his organic farm. These are the interdisciplinary organization creating the knowledge of organic agro-ecosystem. His self-learning processes have crated the understandings of the organic agro-ecosystem that he began from analyzing the ecosystem components in his farm by appropriately adjusting resource proportion, worker and investment. After that he established the suitable methods accounting with worker and budget in his family and accompanied with learning the organic agro-ecosystem processes. He has been always learning from agricultural study trips, farmer talks and other agricultural academic sources. Then he has used gained knowledge to experiment, Trial and error test and adjust methods to suit with his farm conditions including resource, worker and budget until receiving the appropriate performances of his farm. These performances have generated good products sufficiently for consumption and incomes for circulating in his family and farm.
fig1-2k10-532-537

Model pengelolaan agroekosistem organic dari hasil proses pembelajaran petani organic (Sumber: http://www.medwelljournals.com/fulltext/?doi=sscience.2010.532.537….. diunduh 2/7/2011)

Perbaikan praktek budidaya dan sumberdaya yang ada sat ini dengan memasukkan beberapa tipe pupuk organic tampaknya menjadi metode yang opaling menjanjikan untuk berhasil pada saat ini. Beberapa poraktek untuk memperbaiki kesuburan tanah dijelaskan berikut ini.
KONSERVASI TANAH

Metode konservasi tanah harus dilakukan untuk dapat memperbaikii kesuburan tanah. Soils of hills are lost through detrimental agronomic practices such as slicing terrace risers every year, excessive tillage and hoeing in the rainy season, and severe grazing pressure on pasture and forest lands. In order to first check mass soil erosion, improvements to the management of grazing land and degraded forest land are essential. Use of minimum tillage methods, and preventing the practice of slicing tall bariland risers should be adopted to reduce further soil losses. This last practice should be restricted to those areas where soil loss is not a problem, for example flat khetland as discussed above.


Perbaikan Produktivitas Lahan

The major reason for declining soil fertility is the need to use the land more intensively because of increasing human population, coupled with a reduction in manure production, so that nutrients extracted by food crops are not adequately replaced. This is the result of a reduction in animal populations in some areas, but is mostly the result of depletion of the animal feed resources from the forest and grass lands, which means that livestock are not realising their full potential the year round.

Productivity of open grassland and forest in the mid-hills is estimated to be able to support only 0.54 and 0.31 livestock units/ha respectively, whereas the present stocking rate is about nine to thirteen times greater than the carrying capacity (Wyatt-Smith, 1982). Therefore, urgent attention must be given to resolving this situation by managing the forest resources properly. Productivity from the forest could be increased by giving priority to fodder tree planting, along with the introduction of improved varieties of grasses and legumes between the trees under silvipastoral management systems.
Perbaikan Sistem Manajemen Ternak

Large herds or flocks of animals of sub-optimal productivity are not worth much in terms of overall agricultural production, and poor management systems do not help to increase the quantity of animal products. Since 46% of manure is lost in grazing away from the farm, it has been estimated that even if the animal numbers in the hills of Nepal were halved, manure production would remain almost what it is at present, provided that it was collected and utilized properly. Stall-feeding could result in a doubling of the amount of dung collected per animal at present.

Animal populations already overburden the hill farmer, and it is essential to consider complete stall-feeding in order to use the available feed effectively and maximise manure production. The wastage of valuable urine can be prevented and utilized by improving drainage and constructing a store pit at the animal shed. Losses of manure due to rain and sun could be minimised by providing some kind of simple shelter over the compost heap/pit.

Similarly, animal production could be improved by the timely supply of feed and water, without wastage. Straw as a livestock feed can be improved in quality by treatment with urea, and by the practice of ensiling or otherwise preserving the summer surplus of grass and agricultural crop by-products. These could then be consumed during the food scarcity period of winter. Trials to this effect are being carried out under the Fodder Thrust programme previously described.


Perbaikan Budidaya Tanaman

In order to supply food grain for a steadily increasing human population from a fixed or limited land resource, improvements to existing farming practices are inevitable. From the soil conservation and fertility standpoint, intercropping of grain legumes within the major cropping systems should be encouraged whenever possible. Similarly, planting grasses and legumes on terrace risers, on farm boundaries and on irrigation bunds should be practised more widely. Legume crops such as cowpea, and crops such as oats and berseem can be grown after the rice is harvested using zero tillage, with broadcasted seed while the ground is still moist. Such practices would provide substantial amounts of forage with a minimum of labour, and render the soil more fertile. Improved crop varieties will give more return over local varieties, particularly where intensive cultivation, and irrigation facilities, or other input supplies are available. However, to achieve this in the hills, government subsidies in addition to technical information may be necessary.


Perbaikan Simpanan dan Aplikasi Pupuk / Rabuk Organik

Because of a present lack of awareness of correct preparation methods, manure is often mixed with farm and forest waste in a heap, does not decompose properly, and so is inferior in quality. To alleviate such problems, the pit method of composting should be adopted, and if possible a “starter” such as dung slurry, should be applied to assist proper decomposition. However, possible socio-economic constraints need to be evaluated before recommending these changes to farmers on a wide scale, because of the implied extra labour requirements involved.


Penggunaan Pupuk Alternatif
Input tambahan (pupuk dan teknologi) diperlukan untuk meningkatkan produktivitas tanaman. Pada saat suplai pupuk organik tidak cukup, penggunaan pupuk kimia harus dipertimbangkan. Meskipun mahal, dan tidak dapat diandalkan pasokannya di daerah pelosok pedesaan, penggunaan pupuk kimia dapat melengkapi aplikasi kompos atau pupuk kandang. Hati-hati menggunakannya, sebaiknya dalam kombinasi dengan pupuk organik, supaya dapat meningkatkan hasil tanaman tanpa menyebabkan kerusakan kualitas tanah. Penggunaan pupuk hayati, air banjir, dan inokulasi Rhizobium yang sesuai pada benih legum, juga dapat membantu untuk mengurangi efek kelangkaan pasokan pupuk organik.
Kompos dan Pupuk Hijau

The present trend of only exploiting green manuring plants should be changed to one of developing their production on a sustainable basis. More than twenty species have been identified that have some sort of role as green manure, but very few are being consciously propagated by farmers. Research into the most suitable species for assessing their quality, and the feasibility of increasing their production should be given high priority.


Penguatan Kelembagaan dan Pemberdayaan SDM

The limited number of scientists to investigate problems of soil fertility, and also suffers from insufficient infrastructural and technical laboratory facilities at present. This is hampering the development of improved soil conservation and fertility maintenance methods, through lack of technical information and analytical support services.




AKUAKULTUR
Budidaya perairan (akuakultur) merupakan bentuk BUDIDAYA berbagai hewan atau tumbuhan perairan yang menggunakan air sebagai komponen pokoknya. Kegiatan-kegiatan yang umum termasuk di dalamnya adalah budidaya ikan, budidaya udang, budidaya tiram, serat budidaya rumput laut (alga). Dengan batasan di atas, sebenarnya cakupan budidaya perairan sangat luas namun penguasaan teknologi membatasi komoditi tertentu yang dapat diterapkan. Budidaya perairan adalah bentuk perikanan budidaya, untuk dipertentangkan dengan perikanan tangkap. Di Indonesia, budidaya perairan dilakukan melalui berbagai sarana. Kegiatan budidaya yang paling umum dilakukan di kolam/empang, tambak, tangki, karamba, serta karamba apung. (http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Budidaya_perairan).


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