Aksum An African Civilisation of Late Antiquity Stuart Munro-Hay



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Aksum 
An African Civilisation of Late Antiquity 
 
Stuart Munro-Hay 
 
Dedicated to the late H. Neville Chittick 
 
Aksum: An African Civilisation of Late Antiquity was first published in 1991. Some errors 
have been corrected in this edition.  
© Stuart Munro-Hay 1991 
[put online with permission by Alan Light, ]  
[A number of readers have wanted to contact Mr. Munro-Hay. His current address is at 
aol.com, user name is munrohay. I'm using that format to try to keep him from getting 
spam.]  
British Library Cataloguing 
  in Publication Data 
Munro-Hay, S. C. (Stuart C), 1947- 
  Aksum: an African civilization of late antiquity. 
  1. Axumite Kingdom, history 
  I. Title 
  963.4 
 
Contents 
 
Chronological Chart
 
Preface
 
  
1.   Introduction
 


  
2.   Legend, Literature, and Archaeological Discovery
 
    
1. The Legends of Aksum
 
    
2. Aksum in Ancient Sources
 
    
3. The Rediscovery of Aksum in Modern Times
 
  
3.   The City and the State
 
    
1. The Landscape
 
    
2. Origins and Expansion of the Kingdom
 
    
3. The Development of Aksum; an Interpretation
 
    
4. Cities, Towns and Villages
 
    
5. The Inhabitants
 
    
6. Foreign Relations
 
  
4.   Aksumite History
 
    
1. The Pre-Aksumite Period
 
    
2. Comparative Chronological Chart; Rulers, Sources and Sites
 
    
3. Period 1; Early Aksum until the Reign of Gadarat
 
    
4. Period 2; Gadarat to Endubis
 
    
5. Period 3; Endubis to Ezana
 
    
6. Period 4; Ezana after his Conversion, to Kaleb
 
    
7. Period 5; Kaleb to the End of the Coinage
 
    
8. The Post-Aksumite Period
 
  
5.   The Capital City
 
    
1. The Site
 
    
2. The Town Plan
 
    
3. Portuguese Records of Aksum
 
    
4. Aksumite Domestic Architecture
 
    
5. The Funerary Architecture
 
    
6. The Stelae
 
  
6.   The Civil Administration
 
    
1. The Rulers
 
    
2. Officials of the Government
 
  
7.   The Monarchy
 
    
1. The King and the State
 
    
2. The Regalia
 
    
3. Dual Kingship
 
    
4. Succession
 
    
5. The Royal Titles
 
    
6. The Coronation
 
  
8.   The Economy
 
    
1. Population
 


    
2. Agriculture, Husbandry, and Animal Resources
 
    
3. Metal Resources
 
    
4. Trade, Imports and Exports
 
    
5. Local Industries
 
    
6. Food
 
  
9.   The Coinage
 
    
1. Origins
 
    
2. Introduction and Spread of the Coinage
 
    
3. Internal Aspects of the Coinage
 
    
4. The Mottoes
 
    
5. The End of the Coinage
 
    
6. Modern Study of the Coinage
 
  
10.  Religion
 
    
1. The Pre-Christian Period
 
    
2. The Conversion to Christianity
 
    
3. Abreha and Atsbeha
 
    
4. Ecclesiastical Development
 
    
5. Churches
 
  
11.  Warfare
 
    
1. The Inscriptional Record
 
    
2. The Military Structure
 
    
3. Weapons
 
    
4. The Fleet
 
    
5. The Aksumite Inscriptions
 
  
12.  Material Culture; the Archaeological Record
 
    
1. Pottery
 
    
2. Glassware
 
    
3. Stone Bowls
 
    
4. Metalwork
 
    
5. Other Materials
 
  
13.  Language, Literature, and the Arts
 
    
1. Language
 
    
2. Literature and Literacy
 
    
3. The Arts
 
    
4. Music and Liturgical Chant
 
  
14.  Society and Death
 
    
1. Social Classes
 
    
2. Funerary Practice
 
  
15.  The Decline of Aksum
 


    
1. The Failure of Resources
 
    
2. The Climate
 
    
3. External and Internal Political Troubles
 
    
4. The najashi Ashama ibn Abjar
 
    
5. The hatsani Danael
 
  
16.  The British Institute in Eastern Africa's Excavations at Aksum
 
  
17.  Bibliography 
  
Index 
Aksum: An African Civilisation of Late 
Antiquity 
 
  
  
Chronological Chart 
 
Period 1. Early  Aksum until the reign of GDRT. 1st-2nd centuries AD.  
100AD  Zoskales Periplus 
 
 
Ptolemy 
c.150AD  
 
Period 2. GDRT-Endubis. Beginning of 3rd century AD to c.270AD.  
200AD   
 
 
GDRT, BYGT 
South Arabian inscriptions 
230AD  `DBH, GRMT 
 
 
Sembrouthes 
 
260AD  DTWNS and ZQRNS  
Period 3. Endubis to Ezana before his conversion. c.270AD to c.330AD  
270AD  
 
 
Endubis*  Coinage begins 
300AD  
 
 
Aphilas*   
 
Wazeba*   
 
Ousanas*  
 
Ezana* 
Inscriptions. 



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