Alfred Nobel was born on the 21st October 1833, in Stockholm Sweden. He was the third son of Immanuel Nobel and Andriette Ahlsell Nobel. In 1842 he moved with his family to saint Petersburg where his father start a torpedo work. Alfred studied chemistry with professor Nikolay Nikolayevich Zinin. When Alfred was 18, he went to the United States to study chemistry for four years and worked for some time for John Ericsson. In 1859, the factory was left to the care of the second son, Ludvig Nobel. Alfred returned to Sweden with his father, and then Alfred decided to dedicate his self to study explosives. To help miners. A big explosion occurred on the 3rd September 1864 at their factory in Helene Borg in Stockholm, killing five people, among them Alfred's younger brother Emil. The foundations of the Nobel Prize were laid in 1895 when Alfred Nobel wrote his last will, leaving much of his wealth for its establishment. Since 1901, the prize has honored men and women for outstanding achievements in physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, for work in peace and now economics.