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Table 4. Classifying fillers and backchannels

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Table 4. Classifying fillers and backchannels

Directions: Watch the video and every time you hear one of the words or utterances, check that box.






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Table 5. Worksheet to count fillers and backchannels

exposed to natural conversations containing fillers and backchannels.

Activity 3: Add fillers and backchannels to textbook dialogues

In this activity, teachers select an artificial dialogue from the textbook—or write one themselves—and ask students to add fillers and backchannels. Table 6 shows the results after students have added fillers and back- channels. This activity will prompt discussion on the most appropriate places to use fillers and backchannels, their functions in conver- sation, and perhaps the artificiality of some ELT textbook dialogues.

Spoken English activities for phrasal chunks

ELT textbooks tend to emphasize phrasal chunks of spoken English over syntactic conversational structures, perhaps because of their accessibility and relative ease of being learned (Cullen and Kuo 2007). Even though phrasal chunks are featured in many textbooks, a variety of classroom activities can supplement textbook materials; high- light the function, usefulness, and ubiquity of phrasal chunks; and give students more practice incorporating lexical units into their own conversations.

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