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WORD 1643436334562
sadafdasfasdfsdgfsfsadfasdfasdffsdfdfasfffsdsd, 1-sinf-tarbiyaviy-soat-konspekt, 2 sinf harakatli oyinlar dars ishlan, Bola shaxsi vazifalari, 3.1 лекция, importance of teacher\'s physical presence in class
Create vagueness: when you do not want to or cannot be very specific

Modify: to modify an amount

Mark discourse structures:

to connect ideas












Answers: sort of, kind of, stuff like that, or something

Possible additional phrases: or so, more or less, and so on

Answers: a bit, a little bit, quite a lot of, plenty of

Possible additional phrases: a great deal of,

a little, a large number of, the majority of



Answers: you know,

I mean, as I was saying, by the way, speaking of



Possible additional phrases: on the other hand, basically, actually, let’s see

Table 7. Categorizing phrasal chunks


teacherluke.co.uk/2011/03/29/london-video- interviews-pt-3).

To transcribe their interview, students must listen carefully to their recording many times and analyze the authentic data, increas- ing their understanding of spoken grammar, its function in conversation, and its frequency in authentic speech. To prepare students for this project, the teacher could have students first transcribe and analyze texts in class before attempting the project on their own. Luke’s English Podcast (http://teacherluke.co.uk) is a useful resource for this activity, as it contains interviews of native speakers with transcripts already prepared. After watching the videos and analyzing the transcripts, students will feel empowered and motivated to make and share their own videos with their own inter- view questions.



Conclusion

A major goal of communicative language teaching is to develop students’ abilities to communicate in meaningful contexts. This article has outlined specific features of spoken English grammar and shown their usefulness in meeting the demands of interactive, real- time conversation. As Basturkmen (2001, 5) points out, recent communication methodol- ogies often focus on “activities to get students to speak, rather than on providing them with the means to interact.” It only makes sense, then, that in order for our students to com- municate effectively in spoken English, they need to both recognize and use these features of spoken grammar, even in an EFL context. For teachers who find that ELT materials lack activities for teaching spoken grammar, this

article outlines a variety of activities for teach- ing features that contribute to the develop- ment of fluency by allowing students to adapt to the pressures of real-time communication (Mumford 2009).

With English increasingly being used to communicate in international contexts, it is more important than ever that students be taught conventions and features of spoken English that will allow them to become effective communicators. Any teacher who advocates a communicative language teach- ing approach should also support specific instruction and practice of select features of spoken English, which allow students to cope with the pressures and interactive nature of English conversation. By incorporating a few of the suggested activities into English classes, teachers can both help students interact in English and prevent them from sounding like an inauthentic English textbook.



References

Basturkmen, H. 2001. Descriptions of spoken lan- guage for higher level learners: The example of questioning. ELT Journal 55 (1): 4–13.



Carter, R., and M. McCarthy. 1995. Grammar and the spoken language. Applied Linguistics 16 (2): 141–158.

Cullen, R., and I. Kuo. 2007. Spoken grammar and ELT course materials: A missing link? TESOL Quarterly 41 (2): 361–386.

Goh, C. 2009. Perspectives on spoken grammar.

ELT Journal 63 (4): 303–312.

Hughes, R., and M. McCarthy. 1998. From sen- tence to discourse: Discourse grammar and English language teaching. TESOL Quarterly 32 (2): 263–287.



Leech, G. 2000. Grammars of spoken English: New outcomes of corpus-oriented research. Language Learning 50 (4): 675–724.




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