Katerina Despot, Vaska Sandeva
Abstract: The design represents the outward appearance of a product or subject. The design
is what makes the products attractive, beautiful and desirable, and has a significant impact on sales
of the product and enhancing its commercial and artistic value.
The main conditions that a design must meet to individuality and uniqueness, as well as its
features to not only have technical function, but also have artistic value.
Bionics is a tool for expression in the design of furniture, or a way to explore the similarities
in animate and inanimate nature for further use of the established principles of construction and
operation of biological systems and their elements to improve the existing technical systems,
creating new functional forms-furniture.
designs. One source of inspiration is nature. Examples from nature and inspiration from
natural forms that surround us daily were solutions to create a lot of designs, both in the
past and today. Designers have used natural forms, compile, and mechanisms applied in
many designs. In the world of industrial design natural forms were not visible in the past,
but today there are serious attempts to use nature as inspiration for design - bionics,
innovation inspired by nature.
That is the subject of the environment which man makes as imitation of forms from
nature, and any creation of such a product of nature is characterized by striking suitability,
reliability, durability, efficiency in various shapes and designs.
In 1995, the American scientist Jackie Style introduces the word "bionics" to express
the symbiosis between nature and technology. This is an original interpretation of bionics,
which stems from the terms "organic" and "technology". But Jackie Steele believes in the
principle of "learning from nature", so bionics are defined as learning from nature.
This principle is commonly used by various specialized sciences such as
mathematics, engineering and architecture. It basically determines the way of
investigating living systems with analytical criteria in order to find better solutions to
Bionics is not science, but a method in which man should implement their
imagination with an understanding of how and why things work in nature.
Bionics explains all shapes representing the imitation of forms from nature. One of
the main reasons why bionics is more popular today is that man finally has the tools and
skills to analyses the nature and learn from her many processes.
Bionics in furniture design
In recent year’s bionics gained popularity, so that more and more seen as a model
and touchstone. Millions of years of evolution in nature and mechanisms produce
compositions that are very effective, avoid waste and sustainable in almost closed
materials and manufactured articles, and biological mechanisms and processes, in order
to create products which are nature imitation. The field of bionics is interdisciplinary and
covers the study of biological functions, structures and laws of nature, which are studied
by biologists, chemists and other scientists.
By studying successful solutions in nature, to solve many human problems in the
field of design and construction products. This way of designing and thinking can be
defined as an innovation inspired by nature. The possible extinction of many animal and
plant species and knowledge of the environment in humans began to develop abstract
thinking and it allows them to create forms based on their application and possibilities of
materials for their realization.
Shaping the facilities it is largely determined by the technological characteristics of
its creation, the organization that defines the outer shape of rhythm or repetition. It
rhythmic organization of form created by man makes an external manifestation of the
internal structure, obtained by specific technological research. So rhythmic organization of
form created by man, makes an external manifestation of the internal structure derived
from certain technological research.
The inspiration for the development of new technologies is at the core of the
approach of bionics. Great diversity of biological forms allows certain attributes to be used
as inspiration for innovative design solutions. Insects, plants and animals daily engineers
and teachers with a lot of knowledge. They are a whole system that works and is all
Nature is a big secret for the man, and each of his understanding of the system is a
big step. The specific stage of development of forms of wildlife that not only formal
aspects of wildlife and established connections between the laws of nature and
development of the design concept.
Figure 1. Bionics
inspiration of the designers did not just wake up the forms in nature, but also the
processes and survival of living organisms. Today, more and more people seek to
understand the nature and seize all its graces and transforming its forms and processes in
its designs that facilitate human life.
Bionics place slowly finds in the design, in terms of shape and materials of design
decisions. While the methodology for complex imitation of nature in respect to the
structure, processes and functions in the future more and more will be developed.
The furniture industry has many examples that are created on the principle of
bionics. Furniture, lighting fittings, decorations and other items that are natural forms such
as bird nests, leaves, spider webs, flowers. At this stage designers do not use external
forms of wildlife, but only those properties and characteristics of forms that reflect the
function of a particular organism. That is the function to form within the laws - this is the
main way of bionics design.
New Bionic inspired aesthetics of lighting in interior design is not achieved only by
imitating natural forms, but by imitating the natural process of bioluminescence, a natural
chemical phenomenon by which organisms living deep in the seas, and certain types of
fungi, bacteria, insects and worms,
produce light to survive in the hostile
and dark environment.
The most important phase of
the work of the designer is the study
of the wildlife.
The main method is functional
bio design - analogous comparative
principles and means for shaping the
design and wildlife.
properties of the materials is
particularly important for the design. According to the principle called "lotus effect"
characteristic of the lotus leaf, thanks to the discovery that microscopic lumps covered
with a layer of wax reject water droplets and also removes dirt out, designed a fabric and
"Lotus" coloured properties of refusing water and self-cleaning. These materials have high
potential for use in interior design. I.e. analysis of natural form designer tries
In the arrangement of the internal spaces and interesting bionics inspired
discoveries of several materials, such as anti-microbial material that mimics the structure
of the skin of Galapagos sharks; fabric "Morforex" made by imitating the morphology of
the wings of butterflies, a mixture of nylon and polyester whose shining colors and cannot
fade; bio-plastic derived from the shells of
crabs and CO2 technology that mimics the
metabolism of plants; strong adhesives and
adhesive materials "Geckskin" that can hold
objects weighing up to 317 kilograms attached
to oily wall, inspired by the lizard legs.
In addition aesthetic and functional
environmental and economic value. Today,
more and more attention is paid to such
properties of designs and designers strive to create environmentally friendly designs.
These few examples of designs inspired by nature, mainly used in the design of
interiors, and although a bit numerous and not sophisticated enough, unlike other areas
where applied bionics, however clearly show the extent to which bionics can and should
serve as a basis for further development of interior design.
Given the wide scope, as well as its aesthetic, functional, environmental and
economic values bionic design promises great achievements in the future of humanity
and change the former understanding of technology, industry and design.
Designs inspired by nature in function of design furniture
many of the questions posed by modern engineers, architects and designers. But perhaps
now, the most intriguing question is how the integration of bionic discoveries can
transform into practice? The easiest way may be considered a direct imitation of nature,
but this is often difficult or even impossible. Nevertheless, studies have found that it is
more reasonable to understand the principles of how things work in nature, rather than
running copying natural models. They make analysis of natural form and determine its
tectonics and thus develop harmony with well-defined laws and principles. Perception and
acceptance of harmony make structural models or images of natural form requires some
Bionic design is an innovative approach in which the nature and natural processes
requires inspiration to create products, processes and facilities that it’s functional design
challenges are resolved by devising and applying natural strategies, methods and
principles. The method of functional organic design analogies. Application of bionics in the
design of the system wakes creative thinking, makes you think, look, and apply the laws
of nature. Bionics is widely used in the design. Such use occurs in two ways - borrowing
purely external form and machine construction, furniture created based on the laws
peaking in nature.
In bionics seeks to answer more questions, for example: how nature solves the
problem of insulation, nature reduces friction as nature stifling noise like nature solves the
problem of moisture, such as nature collects energy, nature collects water and many other
issues which man tries to find them and to make life easier. Bionic approach aims to
create a design that is not only visually appealing and elegant but also functional. The
design- solution can be bionic in terms of shape, material, structure, process or function.
These products meet constantly and particularly noticeable in the field of
architecture. Broadest range of furniture has inspired precisely by natural forms, and as
such is used in all kinds of interior and exterior. The transformation of natural forms
provides an opportunity for designers to combine different shapes, colors, textures.
The shape of the shells is inspiring form, and often meets as a transformation into
some sort of furniture, and even architecture. This form provides an opportunity for
designers to create interesting shapes to suit multiple purposes. There are elegant line
and fits into any space. Starting with sofas, shelves, chairs, armchairs, sinks and other
parts of the interior, the shape of the shell is found in whole architecture. Such objects
have an internal space that can be adjusted in an interesting living space, and the outer
appearance is unusual and interesting.
This interesting area furniture inspired by the shell can be combined and the interior
and exterior solutions. It can fit multiple styles of arrangement, and give emphasis on
Figure 4. Shelves inspired by the shape of the shell
designs with a different purpose. In this way, through different designs, industrial products
available are closer to nature, mimicking its forms, processes, materials. But except
furniture, the shape of the shell was inspiring for architects who created the interesting
Figure 5. Architectural objects inspired by the shape of the shell
of nature. It was inspiring long ago. Primitive civilizations made drinking vessels and
vases shaped shell. Later in the Greco-Roman period they were created domes, spiral
staircases and decorations on the walls in the form of a shell. At the time of rococo one of
the main features of this style was the decoration in the form of shell. Today inspiration of
this form is seen in the design of furniture, decorative objects and architectural objects.
Over the years, many designers and architects seeking funds to assist in the
process of creating new harmonic forms. With the development of technology, the
discovery of new materials and improved conditions for new designs, new forms and
interesting solutions. Today, a very important feature is the ecological value of the
products produced. Man tries more and more to adapt to nature, and to create a healthy
environment. Many design solutions, architectural structures, industrial products, furniture
and materials are created by transformation of natural forms and processes.
Expected inspiration from nature to contribute to the improvement of technology and
its impact and be felt in all spheres of life. Some designs may seem impossible
performance today, but more and more improving human understanding of nature and
improve skills so that in future all designs to be realized. Design forms arising from the
development of the creative process of shaping the laws of nature - it is not the forms of
nature and synthesis of natural forms and means that available to a designer.
Process modelling in bio-design includes systematic study of natural forms and
geometric analysis of their fundamentals. In this process, there is usually a incredible
precision with which nature makes calculations of ideal geometry, although sometimes it
is hidden and difficult to distinguish. However, by consciously learning, feeling great and
open soul, designers can find inspiration in such research.
Living systems are very different and complex technical designs. It should be borne
in mind that biological form often cannot be calculated because there is extraordinary
complexity. The secret of the structure of living organisms occur in them details of the life
processes, the structure and operation can be found only with modern equipment.
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Prof. Dr. Katerina Despot,
Prof. Dr. Vaska Sandeva
Goce Delcev University – Stip, R. Macedonia
Krste Misirkov b.b. P.O. Box 201 Stip 2000, Macedonia,