Boesenbergia longiflora (Zingiberaceae) and descriptions of five related new taxa

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new species was one of the numerous collections Collins brought to the attention of 

the first author over many years of cooperation.

Additional specimens examined: THAILAND. 

Lamphun Province. Li District, 4 Sep 2010, 

Mood & Triboun 2010 (BISH; *); Li District, 5 Sep 2010, Mood & Triboun 2011 (BISH; *). 

Lampang Province. Wang Tong District, 12 Aug 1998, Mood & Pedersen 1455 (C; *); Wang 

Nua, 28 Jun 1996, Maxwell 96-927 (BKF, CMU, L).

 Phitsanulok Province. Tung Salaeng 

Luang, Jul 1966, Larsen 832 (AAU, BKF; *). 

Phetchabun Province. Pa Prack, Nam Naw, 19 

Jun 1964, Chantanamuck 789 (BKF). 

Loei Province. Phu Luang, 18 Sep 1963, Phusomsaeng 

& Bunchuai 47 (BKF); Loei, Triboun 1424 (BKF; *). 

Nong  Bua  Lam  Phu  Province. 

Suwannakuha District, Ban Chokchai, 16 Aug 2011, Mood & McMakin 3035 (BISH; *). 

Chaiyaphum Province. Thung Lui Lai, 27 Jul 1999, Newman 934 (BKF, E; *). Khon Kaen 

Province. Pha Nok, Khao, 9 Sep 1963, Smitinand 1123 (AAU; *). 

Notes. Boesenbergia collinsii is similar to B. kerrii, but the former has a smaller stature 

with broader lamina that tend to become horizontal when mature. The flower of B. 

collinsii is also larger and longer with more varied coloration and pattern. The plant 

normally lacks the many bulb-like rhizomes at the base of the pseudostem found in B. 

kerrii and 

B. longiflora. 

Boesenbergia maxwellii Mood, L.M.Prince & Triboun,

 sp. nov

Boesenbergiae  longiflorae  (Wall.) Kuntze affinis,  floribus  maioribus  4.5  cm  longis 


3.0 cm latis, labello elongato minus saccato albo demum lutescenti maculis rubris 

roseis vel violaceis differt. 

TYPUS: Mood & Triboun 12P172, Cultivated in Hawaii, USA, 1 Nov 2012 (holo BK; 

iso AAU). Originally from Thailand, Tak Province, Mae Lamung, secondary forest, 

granitic soil, c. 750 m asl, 15º48.085'N 98º53.754'E, 9 July 2010, Mood & Triboun 

2032, cultivated as M2032. (Fig. 12, 13, 18 & 19D)

Deciduous herb  up to 1.5 m tall; rhizome small, globular to elongated, c. 1

2 cm 

diam., externally yellow, internally light violet, numerous cylindrical, tuberous roots 

extending from the rhizome base, c. 10

20× 0.5

0.8 cm, tapering, then enlarging into 

a tuber, c. 2 × 3 cm, externally white, internally pink, translucent, root hairs c. 18 mm 

long, thin, white. Pseudostem up to c. 30 cm, composed of leaf sheaths, base oval, c. 2

cm diam., several leafless sheaths at the base, sheaths longitudinally ridged, externally 

green, glabrous, internally yellow (core) margin hyaline. Leaves 4

6 per pseudostem; 

petiole c. 5

30 cm, channelled, light green, glabrous; ligule slightly bilobed, c. 2 mm 

long, lobes an extension of the hyaline margin, acute, green, glabrous; lamina elliptic

c. 33

50 × 15

25 cm, ventrally dark green, glabrous, dorsally lighter green, glabrous 

with a few hairs on the midrib, base rounded to cordate, apex acute. 


radical, c. 3

10 per pseudostem, up to 15 cm long (including peduncle) produced from 

the rhizome below the stem, peduncle 3

5 × 0.5

8 cm, white, glabrous, basal sheaths 


2, white or pink, glabrous; spike horn-shaped, c. 8

10 × 2 cm. Bracts cymbiform, 


7, c. 5

8.5 × 2

3 cm, distichously arranged, white and pink or red, translucent, 


Gard. Bull. Singapore 65(1) 2013

Fig. 12.  Boesenbergia maxwellii Mood, L.M.Prince & Triboun.  Ink line drawing with 

watercolour of the type plant by Linda Ann Vorobik (2012).


Boesenbergia longiflora and related taxa

Fig. 13. Boesenbergia maxwellii Mood, L.M.Prince & TribounA. 

First-day flower of M2032.  

B. Flowers of M2032. C. Flowers of M11P124. D. Flower of M11P26 from the Lao P.D.R. E. 

Flowers, Chin State, Burma. F. Rhizome and tuberous roots of M2040. (Photos: A


D & F, J. 

Mood; E, H. Funakoshi)


Gard. Bull. Singapore 65(1) 2013

glabrous, each bract enclosing one flower, apex attenuate; bracteole cymbiform, c. 4 

× 0.5 cm, white, translucent, glabrous, open to the base, apex 2-dentate. Flowers 5

per inflorescence, up to c. 16 cm long. Calyx tubular, 3 × 0.5 cm, white, translucent, 

glabrous, apex tri-dentate. Floral tube c. 12

-14 cm long, 3 mm wide at the base, white 

with a pink tinge, glabrous externally and internally, dorsal corolla lobe oblong, 3.6 × 

1.3 cm, white, glabrous, apex cucullate, margins involute, ventral lobes linear, c. 4.3 

× 1 cm, white, glabrous, apex sometimes cucullate, margins involute; androecial tube 

cup-shaped, c. 10

-16 mm long, c. 12 mm diam. at the top, white, glabrous externally 

and internally. Labellum slightly saccate, elongate, 4.5

-5.0 cm long,  2.7-3.0 cm wide 

(when flattened at the broadest point) white, throat centre orange-red, maculate with 

white showing through as dots, lip with an irregular, dark pink band, followed with a 

lighter pink and white band to the apex, abaxial surface with few glandular hairs, lip 

surface crinkled, margins crisped, apex entire, irregular; lateral staminodes obovate, 

c. 2.3 × 1 cm, white, abaxial surface with few glandular hairs, margins irregular, apex 

revolute.  Stamen

 12 mm long, filament c. 3 mm long, c. 2 mm wide at base, white, 

few glandular hairs, anther 10 mm long, 3 mm wide (first day) then c. 6 mm wide 

(thecae diverging on the second day) apex slightly bilobed, with no anther crest, thecae 

10 × 1 mm, white, dehiscing along the entire length. Ovary c. 7 × 3 mm, trilocular, 

axile placentation, white, glabrous; style 

filiform, white, glabrous, stigma round, white, 

ostiole round, without cilia, exuding a sticky liquid on the second day; epigynous 

glands linear, two, 6 mm long, tan. Fruit a capsule, cylindrical, slightly ridged, c. 2 × 1 

cm, trilocular, white, glabrous, calyx and floral tube remain partially intact, dehiscence 

loculicidal; seed globular, c. 3 mm diam., yellowish-brown, slightly pubescent, aril 

white, translucent. (Measurements based on living, cultivated material of M2032).

Distribution. This species is very common in northern Thailand. Collections from Chin 

State, Burma and the Lao P.D.R. are known. It might also occur in Yunnan, China.

Ecology.  This species occurs in a variety of forest types to include evergreen, dry 

deciduous and mixed evergreen/deciduous. Most collections are at middle to higher 

elevations in mountainous terrain.  Soil types vary from granitic to calcareous with 

high organic matter content.


Flowers from June to November with a two-day flowering cycle for each 


Etymology.  Named in honour of James F. Maxwell, Curator of the Chiang Mai 

University Herbarium, Thailand (CMU). For many years he has diligently collected, 

documented, identified and preserved the flora of Thailand, Burma, Cambodia and the 

Lao P.D.R. to include hundreds of Zingiberaceae.  Several of his collections represent 

this new taxon. 

Additional specimens examined: BURMA. Chin State. Kanpetlet, Laung Pan, Aug 2011, 

Funakoshi s.n. (MBK; *); Kanpetlet, near Laung Pan, Aug 2011, Funakoshi s.n. (MBK). 


Boesenbergia longiflora and related taxa

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