Boesenbergia longiflora (Zingiberaceae) and descriptions of five related new taxa



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LAO P.D.R. 

Champasak Province. Near Pakxong, secondary forest, 2006, 1286 m., collected 

by T. Wood, Mood 11P26 (BISH; *).  THAILAND.



 Mae Hong Son Province. 6 Sep 2010, 

Mood & Triboun 2017 (BISH; *); Mae Hong Son, Khun Yuam, 5 Sep 1974, Larsen 34174 

(AAU). 


Chiang Mai Province. Dong Duat waterfalls, 4 Sep 1999, Mood 11P124 (BISH; *); 

Chiang Mai, Fang, 7 Jun 1973, Geesink 5750 (BKF); Chiang Mai, Doi Sutep, 18 Jun 1988, 



Maxwell 88-875 (BKF; *); Chiang Mai, Sop Aep, 1 Oct 1971, Murata T-15458 (BKF); Chiang 

Mai, Mae Sanam, 27 Jun 1978, Phengkhlai 4140 (BKF); Chiang Mai, Doi Inthanon 14 Jul 

1990, Phengkhlai 7516 (BKF); Chiang Mai, Doi Inthanon NP, 20 Jul 1988, Phengkhlai 6619 

(BKF; *); Chiang Mai, Doi Chiang Dao, 25 Sep 1971, Murata T-14944 (AAU, BKF; *); 

Chiang Mai, Doi Inthanon, 20 Jul 1988, Tamura T-60130 (BKF); Chiang Mai, Doi Sutep, 9 

Aug 1988, Tamura T-60782 (BKF); Chiang Mai, Doi Chiang Dao, 9 Jun 1955, Fehrain 12477 

(BKF); Chiang Mai, Doi Sutep, 11 Jul 1987, Maxwell 87-659 (BKF, CMU, L; *); Chiang Mai, 

Chiang Dao, Doi Chiang Dao, 10 Jun 1989, Maxwell 89-731 (E); Chiang Mai, Fang, 26 May 

1991, Maxwell 91-509 (E); Chiang Mai, Bo Luang, 4 Jul 1968, Larsen 2097 (AAU, BKF, L); 

Chiang Mai, Doi Inthanon, 15 Sep 1995, Larsen 46499 (AAU); Chiang Mai, Doi Chiang Dao, 

11 Sep 1967, Tagawa T-9865 (AAU); Chiang Mai, Baan Tham, Doi Chiang Dao, Watthana 

737 (AAU). 

Lampang Province. Lampang, Doi Kuhn Dahn, 27 Jun 1993, Maxwell 93-695 

(BKF, CMU, L; *); Lampang, Jae Sawn NP, 24 Aug 1995, Maxwell 95-575 (BKF, CMU, L). 



Tak Province. 9 Aug 2010, Mood & Triboun 2040 (BISH; *). Chiang Rai Province. Chiang 

Rai, Doi Yup, 13 Jun 1926, Garrett 294 (BKF); Tha Sai, 12 Aug 1998, Mood & Pedersen 1450 

(C; *).

Notes.  This species is closely related to B. kingii as discussed in the phylogenetic 

analyses. Since B. maxwellii has a rhizome architecture different from B. kingii, there 

is  little  chance  of  misidentification  where  their  ranges  might  overlap,  i.e.,  Burma, 

Thailand and possibly China. The most westerly (known) record of B. maxwellii is 

in Chin State, Burma, separating it geographically from B. hamiltoniiBoesenbergia 

maxwellii

  differs  from  the  latter  in  having  larger  flowers,  different  flower  shape, 

greater labellum texture, orange throat, a light and dark pink labellum and plant size 

to c. 1.5 m. 



Boesenbergia kingii Mood & L.M.Prince,

 sp. nov

Boesenbergiae  longiflorae  (Wall.) Kuntze affinis,  caulibus  multiplicis,  floribus 

maioribus 5



6 cm longis 2.5



2.7 cm latis, labello minus saccato elongato cremee albo 

fauce rubra differt

TYPUS:  Mood & Vatcharakorn 12P173, Cultivated in Hawaii, USA, 1 Nov 2012 

(holo BK; iso AAU). Originally from Thailand, Kanchanaburi Province, Huai Kayeng, 

secondary forest margin, c. 200 m asl, 14º38.49'N 98º31.40'E, 21 August 2011, Mood 



& Vatcharakorn 3074, cultivated as M3074. (Fig. 14, 15, 18 & 19E)

Deciduous herb up to c. 1 m tall; rhizomes numerous, horizontal runners of variable 

length, multiple nodes, c. 0.5

-1.5 cm diam., pink or red when young, orange or red 

when mature, internally yellow to orange; tuberous roots few, elongate c. 6 × 0.3 cm, 

orange or white externally and internally, root hairs few, short, thin, white. Pseudostems 

many, up to 30 cm, composed of leaf sheaths, base oval, c. 2.5 cm diam., 1

-2 short, 

76

Gard. Bull. Singapore 65(1) 2013




Fig. 14. Boesenbergia kingii Mood & L.M.PrinceWatercolour on paper by Edward King of 

G. King 1020 (1874).  Originally annotated as 

Gastrochilus longiflora. Reproduced by kind 

permission of the Director, Botanical Survey of India.

77

Boesenbergia longiflora and related taxa



Fig. 15. Boesenbergia kingii Mood & L.M.PrinceA. Flower of M3074B. Flower of M08P161. 

C. Plant habit of M3074D. 

Inflorescence, flower and leaf of M3074E. Rhizomes of M3074



F. Spreading habit (Assam, India). (Photos: J. Mood)

78

Gard. Bull. Singapore 65(1) 2013




leafless sheaths at the base, leaf sheaths longitudinally ridged, cross-hatched, reddish 

or green, glabrous, margin hyaline. Leaves 3

-7 per pseudostem; petiole 11-15 cm, 

deeply channelled, green or red, glabrous; ligule slightly bilobed, an extension of the 

hyaline margin, 4 mm long, white, translucent, glabrous; lamina elliptical 40

-45 × 


15

-16 cm, ventrally dark green, glabrous, dorsally lighter green, glabrous with a few 

hairs on the midrib, base rounded to cordate, apex acute to attenuate. 

Inflorescence 

radical, c. 3

-10 per pseudostem, up 18 cm long (including peduncle) produced from 

the top of the horizontal rhizome near the pseudostem, peduncle 1

-3 × 0.5-1 cm, 

white or pink, glabrous, basal sheaths 1

-2, 4-6 × 1.5-2 cm, white; spike cylindrical, 

slightly asymmetric, 11

-14 × 1-1.5 cm. Bracts linear to cymbiform, 4-5, c. 6-11 × 

1.5


-2 cm, distichously arranged, white, green or red, glabrous, surface veined, each 

bract enclosing one flower, apex acute; bracteole lanceolate, c. 5-6 × 0.5 cm, white, 

translucent, glabrous, open to the base, apex 2-dentate. Flowers 4

-

5 per inflorescence, 



up to c. 20 cm long. Calyx tubular, 2

-2.3 × 0.5 cm, white, translucent, glabrous, apex 

tri-dentate. Floral tube c. 10

-15 cm long, c. 0.3-0.4 cm wide at the base, white, tinged 

or striped pink, glabrous externally and internally, corolla lobes (dorsal and ventral) 

oblong, c. 3.8

-4  × 1.4 cm, creamy-white, glabrous, margins involute; androecial 

tube cup-shaped, c. 10

-12 mm long, c. 13 mm diam. at the top, white, glabrous 

externally and internally. Labellum slightly saccate, elongate, 5

-6  cm long, c. 4 

cm wide (when flattened at the broadest point) white to creamy-white, throat centre 

bright red, maculate with white showing through as dots, lip creamy-white, abaxial 

surface with a few glandular hairs, margin undulate, wrinkled, apex entire; lateral 



staminodes obovate, 2.5 × 1.5 cm, creamy-white, abaxial surface with few glandular 

hairs, apex rounded, revolute. Stamen 

12 mm long, filament 3-4 mm long,  2-3 mm 

wide at the base, white, glabrous, anther 8

-

9 mm long, 3 mm wide (first day) then c. 



5 mm wide (thecae diverging on the second day) apex slightly bilobed with no anther 

crest, thecae 9 × 1 mm, white, dehiscing along the entire length. Ovary c. 7 × 3 mm, 

trilocular, axile placentation, white, glabrous; style 

filiform, white, glabrous, stigma 

elongate, white, ostiole vertically rectangular, without cilia, exuding a sticky liquid on 

the second day; epigynous glands narrowly ovate, two, 8 mm long, white. Fruit not 

seen. (Measurements based on living, cultivated material of M3074).

Distribution. A widespread species, found in Bangladesh, Burma, NE India, SW China 

and Thailand. 



Ecology. The type locality is in a disturbed area on the margin of a secondary, riverine 

forest in very light shade at c. 200 m asl. The soil is a brown, gravelly alluvium. Recent 

observations of this species in Eastern Assam and Eastern Thailand were in disturbed, 

lowland  forest  with  light  shade.  From  limited  observations,  it  seems  to  prefer  flat 

terrain with loose soils having high moisture holding capacity. 

Phenology. 

Flowers from May to September with a two-day flowering cycle for each 

flower.

79

Boesenbergia longiflora and related taxa






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