Doctor of Historical Sciences,
Professor ofthe Department of Modernand Contemporary History Odessa NationalUniversity named after I.I.Mechnikov BROTHERS SOKALSKY IN THE SOCIO-CULTURAL LIFE OF ODESSA IN THE MIDDLE OF THE XIX CENTURY Summary. In the article the author examines basic directions of activity in Odessa of economist and statistician I.P. Sokalsky, publicist and editor of the regional press N.P. Sokalsky, composer and journalist P.P. Sokalsky, as well as their participation in the country’s life. The publications of brothers Sokalsky on the pages of Odessa press and their positions on the main social, economical and political problems of the Russian empire in the middle of the XIX century are analyzed.
Keywords: brothers Sokalsky, reforms, positions, periodic press, Russian empire, Odessa, region.
A pivotal era of the middle of the XIX century became an important stage in the socio- economic, political and cultural life of the Russian Empire. It was the time of the liquidation of feudal relations, the time of the accession by the country to the path of bourgeois reforms. Public position on the fundamental problems of the era, not only in the capital but also in the regions of the country, was accumulated by the periodicals. Periodicals were responsible for the preparing public opinion for the upcoming changes. It was the first time in Russia, although limited, when the press had an opportunity to influence the development of the reforms. This period was formed by publishers, editors and journalists. The prominent place among the publicists of the middle of XIX century in Odessa belongs to brothers Sokalsky, whose role in the development of socio-political and cultural life of the city and region in the research literature wasn’t studied well enough.
The purpose of this article is to reveal the main activities of brothers Sokalsky in Odessa, to analyze their publications in the local press on the economic and political problems of the middle of the XIX century, to reveal the extent of the impact of their activities on the social and cultural life of the city and the region.
The most important source for the study of the topic is the personal archive of P.P. Sokalsky stored in the fund №1 (literature materials) of the Manuscript Division of the National Library of Ukraine named after V. I. Vernadsky. In addition to the documents belonging to P. Sokalsky, the N.P. Sokalsky’s documents were added to the archive, when, probably after his death, they were passed to his younger brother. Family archive materials are fragmented and they require systematization. It is possible to identify different groups of the documents. The first group includes the materials of the personal origin. A special place among them is belonged to the "Diary. 1849-1854" of P. Sokalsky, which includes mostly records of the Kharkov and Ekaterinoslav periods. P. Sokalsky’s "Excerpt draft biography" complements the information from the diary. The creative path of N. Sokalsky is characterized by the complex materials “To N.P. Sokalsky’s biography” , which were collected by his brothers after his death. The second group of sources characterizes the work of the brothers Sokalsky during the editing of the newspaper "Odesskiy Vestnik": " The project on drafting and distribution of the editorial activities ", " Supplement to the project on drafting and distribution of the editorial activities " by N. Sokalsky ; "A Note on the organization of editorial activities" by P. Sokalsky. They reflect the views of the editorial board of the newspaper on this program, its topics, the formation of the staff, wages , etc. The third group of sources allows us to solve the problem of the attribution of brothers Sokalsky’ publications in periodicals, the need of these publications is explained with the features of functioning of the press in the middle of the XIX century, when most of the materials placed there, were signed with pseudonyms or cryptonyms. P. Sokalsky began the formation of this group of sources, he produced a number of publications of his brother in the press. They were included in three main documents: "N.P. Sokalsky’s articles in the " Odesskiy Vestnik ", " N.P. Sokalsky’s compositions : note "," The materials for the publication of the collected works of N.P. Sokalsky , 1831-1871." The document " The list of some of the articles written by I .P. Sokalsky " reveals the publications which were written by the eldest of the brothers.
The complex of the archive materials characterizes the journalistic activity of P. Sokalsky : " The list of the works published by P.P. Sokalsky, 1832-1886 "," The list of P. P. Sokalsky’s articles with the indication of the magazines where they were printed”, "P. P. Sokalsky’s articles in
"Odesskiy Vestnik " for 1861-1863 "and others. The fourth set of documents is consisted of the brothers Sokalsky’ manuscript of articles; N. Sokalsky’s three notebooks , "My Inspiration" ( two notebooks of poems ) and " N. P. Sokalsky: prose, third book "; and a range of materials, reflecting the interest of N. Sokalsky to the world and national history. He reviewed the problem of origin, resettlement, the life of Slavic and Germanic peoples , the initial stage of development of ancient Russian statehood , "About the Germanic tribes and their neighbors ", " place of the Slavs ", " The life of the prehistoric Slavs ", " The note about the Russian princes” in his manuscripts.
The materials of the archive reflect the P.P. Sokalsky’s activities as the activities of the composer. "The list of all P.P. Sokalsky’s works in the chronological order" includes most of his musical works. The materials of the personal archive complements epistolary heritage of Sokalsky brothers in the personal funds of the writers and publicists in the manuscript department of the Russian National Library in St. Petersburg. The comprehensive analysis of the entire array of sources allows us to make the whole review of the studied problem.
Ivan, Nikolay and Petr Sokaslky, the sons of the professor of the Kharkov University, P. I. Sokalsky, had good home education and got an opportunity to continue their education in the University. The eldest brother I. P. Sokalsky (1830-1896) graduated from the Kharkov University with the degree of master. In the beginning of the 50s of the XIX century, he was invited on the position of the associate of the Richelieu Lyceum and in 1855 he became the professor of the political economy and commerce department. I. P. Sokalsky read the course of the political economy according to the program approved by the Ministry, using as the basis the classics of economic thought and contemporary authors. In his course lecturer covered the history of economics, and reviewed the number of fundamental scientific issues: labor, capital , production, trafficking , pricing , money, credit, etc. I. P. Sokalsky read the course of commerce prepared by his own program which includes the basics of accounting, commodity, commercial geography of the world, as well as the outline of the history of trade in the Novorossiysk Area.
The scientist distinctly understood that teaching activity limits the audience of his listeners only to the students of the lyceum. The cooperation in press organs had broader influence on public opinion and it became another one important direction of his activity. Since 1853 I.P. Sokalsky prepared analytical articles for the year-book topic "About Foreign Trade of Novorossiysk Edge and Bessarabia" "Novorossiysk calendar". He wrote deep scientific articles in "Novorossiysk calendars" in 1853, 1854, 1855 and 1857. There I. Sokalsky tried to review the dynamics of the development of the regional trade in the first half of the XIX century, as the whole system, to review the regularities and features of the separate periods. "In fluctuations of the trade of Novorossiysk edge and Bessarabia we can constantly notice the repetition of the same phenomena.
We see that the years are repeated periodically and almost correctly, they are like pyramid tops, which are different from others and form the groups of others, which are more or less safe, and after them became next years with the little changes" , – the author noted. I. Sokalsky considered 1839, 1847, 1852, 1853 years being the successful years in development of foreign trade of the edge, and he considered 1841-1843, 1851 being unsuccessful.
He paid great attention to the characteristic of a foreign trade turnover of Novorossiya and Bessarabia for 1853. The crop failure in Europe, according to the author, generated special demand for imported grain. The role of the exporters of grain on the European market was assumed by Russia and the USA. However in 1853 the USA couldn't make such a serious competition in a foreign market for Russia as it was in 1847. I. P. Sokalsky confirmed his arguments with the tables, made on the basis of a number of sources. This data testified that "all distribution of bread from the United States in 1853 hardly can be compared with the distribution of grain products from Odessa only". I. Sokalsky during his analysis of the development of foreign trade of the region as the whole, in the first half of the XIX century, declared with confidence that, despite the changes of " the happy and unsuccessful for our edge years", the average level of the trade turnovers "rises incessantly" .
Within one and a half months (since November 16 till December 31, 1857) I.Sokalsky edited the most popular regional newspaper "Odesskiy Vestnik". For this short period he published there a number of substantial articles concerning economic development of Novorossiysk edge. His incidental cooperation with the Odessa press proceeded also after departure to Kharkov at the end of 1858 in connection with the invitation to the position of professor of chair of statistics of the Kharkov University. In publications of this time he acted as the active supporter of creation of the University in Odessa.
N. P. Sokalsky (1831-1871) successfully graduated from the mathematical faculty of the Kharkov University, he arrived to Odessa in 1852, and began to work in the office of the trustee of the Odessa educational district, some time he taught mathematics in the Odessa Second Gymnasium. However literature and journalism became true calling for him. When he was studying at the University, perfectly knowing foreign languages, he was fond of the translation of works of Shakespeare, Goethe, Schiller and other classics of foreign literature from the original into Russian. In Odessa N. Sokalsky started active cooperation with the newspaper “Odesskiy Vestnik” where he improved his literary skill. During the years of the Crimean war N. Sokalsky often visited the Odessa hospital, talked a lot to wounded soldiers and sailors, the majority from which were participants of defense of Sevastopol. Their stories about military events made a strong impression on the publicist, and he began to write down soldier's memoirs, giving them a literary form.
Such way the cycle of the stories representing one of versions of memoirs, literary record, was born. Saving the features of the language of story-tellers, their perception of the events, the writer became their coauthor and the literary editor. The first works on this subject were "The story of the corporal who was wounded at Alma on September 8, 1854" under the pseudonym of "Smiths"  and " The Bombing of Odessa. The story of the night light ", N. Sokalsky placed these stories on pages of "Odesskiy Vestnik" . Some of his stories were published in "Sovremennik" and "Ottechestvennie zapiski". Soon in Petersburg the separate edition under the name "The modern Stories from Military Life of the Russian Soldiers, which were made under N. Sokalsky’s edition" were published.
In 1856 the activity of the Russian Shipping and Trade Society (RSTS) began. One of the aims of this activity was the regeneration of the edge after the Crimean war on the basis of intensive development of foreign trade. The managing director of the RSTS A. Novoselsky invited N. P. Sokalsky to work in Odessa office as the secretary and also his task was to drew up the reports about an economic condition of Novorossiysk edge, movement of vessels in the Azovo-Chernomorsky basin, trade balance of seaports.
This work demanded from N. Sokalsky careful studying not only commercial business, but also profound knowledge of bank and financial problems. In a year after the creation of RSTS "Odesskiy Vestnik" published his article "Russian Shipping and Trade Society" where the uniqueness of joint-stock company was emphasized: "The history of our industry doesn't represent any similar enterprise made on actions, – and therefore has to confess that the first feat in this field becomes very difficult on that responsibility what assumes almost involuntarily" . Further N. Sokalsky formulated the main task of RSTS, which was consisted, on his opinion, in " justifying trust which was given to him by the young, not enterprising society of capitalists, and in convincing him in undoubted benefits, what is the result of the active dealing with the capitals" . The publicist believed that the success of the RSTS in the present is the first step to the future prosperity.
There was a question of the further destiny of the newspaper, in connection with the departure of the editor of "Odesskiy Vestnik” A.G. Troynitsky on service to Petersburg in the end of 1857. N. Sokalsky appealed to the provincial administration with the request to appoint him on the position of the editor of this newspaper . However at insistence of the trustee of the Odessa educational district N. I. Pirogov’s newspaper was transferred from office of the governor general to the jurisdiction of Rishelyevsky lyceum. During 1858 it was edited by A. M. Bogdanovsky and A.I. Georgiyevsky, the teachers of the lyceum. During this period N. Sokalsky published in the newspaper the great article "Some Remarks about the Coal Industry in Novorossiysk Edge.” Analyzing the problem, the author claimed that the weak development of this branch will take place while " the high cost of firewood and requirement of the increasing population won't generate the need for mineral fuel" and the domestic anthracite will be competitive only at the price no more than 15 kopeks for pood, and for reduction of the prime cost " both the capitals, and hands, and the improved system of means of communication are needed." . Thus, N. Sokalsky considered that for development of extracting branch, it is necessary to solve at the same time three problems: 1) to provide it with free working hands that become real only after serfdom cancellation; 2) to construct the railroads which will connect the coal-mining enterprises with the consumer; 3) to attract the domestic and foreign capital to the branch. It means that, trying to establish the reasons of the slowed-down development of coal industry, the author of article objectively stood up for carrying out bourgeois reforms in the country.
In the late fifties of the XIX century N. Sokalsky took part in the discussion about the cancellation of the free port of Odessa. In article under the neutral name "Some Words about Value of the Railroads for the Odessa Trade" the author mentioned the whole complex of problems, including also the free port, the existence of which had from his point of view not only positive, but also negative consequences for the region.
The thesis that in conditions of free port the domination in the market appeared in the hands of English and French producers that slowed down development of the local industry also became the main one among his arguments. After the cancellation of free port the publicist changed his positions. 
In the article "Whether the Address of Novorossiysk Edge in Free Port is useful" which was signed by the initials of "B. L.", (actually N. Sokalsky was the author of the publication) , he analyzed the opportunities of the industrial development of the region and came to the conclusion that they won’t be able to compete with the industrial North the southern businessmen for a long time. According to this, the author noticed the fact of the "tariff fall on the southern border". N. Sokalsky claimed: "This measure can be really useful. The material life of the South will be sacrificed to the North without it. We will eternally pay for goods which will bring the detriment to ourselves because the West competition, on the one hand, and the North, on the other hand – will never give a permission to us to have our own factories" .
Since 1859 "Odesskiy Vestnik" was returned to the maintaining office of the governor general. N. Sokalsky became the editor there. He controlled the main topics of the newspaper: "The modern chronicle" where questions of internal life of the country were reviewed, and "Political news", the topic, where it was written about the events abroad. N. Sokalsky was the author of many articles and feuilletons concerning development of economy, statistics and law.
Though less sharply, than during the lyceum period, "Odesskiy Vestnik" under the leadership of N. Sokalsky supported the fastest carrying out of the bourgeois transformations in the country. The weakening of an acceptable framework supported this idea, because this factor allowed the periodicals to get access to the discussion of preparing reforms.
N. Sokalsky placed the cycle of the articles "Historical Sketch of Trade of Novorossiysk Edge" in the first numbers of "Odesskiy Vestnik" for 1859. The articles represented the deep analysis of the condition of the world trade and influence on the USA economic crisis. The author emphasized that "The American crisis of 1857 was the first time when the industrial crisis was so widely spread, and had the influence on such a great number of shopping centers" . N. Sokalsky tried to define the nature of crisis and its features.
"The crisis of 1857 was mostly the trade problem: the precondition for this crises was the exchange crises in 1856 which had a great influence at first in Paris, then in Germany and effected on actions, bonds and other credit papers" , – as he noted. According to the author, the USA, England, Sweden, France suffered from an economic crisis especially hard; the reflection of the crises could be seen in the economy of Switzerland, Holland and Russia. For Novorossiysk edge the "influence of crisis was found in the considerable fall of a rate of exchange, which was begun in the autumn of 1857 and didn’t stop until 1858" . The publicist revealed the interrelation between the beginning of the capitalist integration and the spread of crisis in the sphere of its action, he showed a deep knowledge of the economic problems and they became the main subjects of his performances in the press.
N. Sokalsky's publications on the pages of "Odesskiy Vestnik" about advantages of free trade, a problem of reforming of banking, revision of the joint-stock legislation in Russia, development of local government and other things were also very deep. 
N. Sokalsky was not only the talented publicist, but also the tireless organizer of newspaper business that allowed him to unite the group of like- minders around "Odesskiy Vestnik". Thanks to his efforts the newspaper got correspondents in the majority of the cities of Novorossiysk edge and the Bessarabia area, and also abroad. At the same time the edition had no sufficient means for the maintenance of staff of constant employees. The most valuable for the editor was the help of his brothers who became N. Sokalsky’s unselfish associates in the edition of "Odesskiy Vestnik”.
The youngest brother – P.P. Sokalsky (1832-1887) who became later the well known Ukrainian composer also worked in the press. In 1852 P. Sokalsky graduated from the Kharkov university with the degree of the candidate on physical and mathematical faculty and he was appointed as the teacher of natural sciences of the Ekaterinoslavsky gymnasium, and soon he changed his work to the position of the teacher at Odessa second gymnasium. For a short time P. Sokalsky worked as the official in the department of agriculture, also he defended the dissertation on degree of the master of chemistry, but in August, 1856 he was dismissed from service on a state of health . For some time P. Sokalsky was the personal secretary of the Russian consul general in the USA, but soon he returned to Odessa. In the letter to the well known publicist and publisher from Petersburg A.A. Krayevsky of March 12, 1858. where he explained that the reason of his return from America was his" assistance to his brother, Nikolay Sokalsky, in the edition of "Odesskiy Vestnik" and the magazine “Yuzhniy Sbornik”..
Musical creativity became other extremely significant activity for P.P. Sokalsky. The composer was the author of a number of the operas the most known of which was the opera "Mazepa" (1859), piano works, cantatas, ballads, processing of national songs. P. Sokalsky became the initiator of renewal of activity in Odessa philharmonic society. There were also a lot of articles about this theme as well as about the musical life of the city in "Odesskiy Vestnik".
Sokalskiy brothers established close connection with the publishers of the capital newspapers and magazines. In one of the letters N. Sokalsky, pointed on the influence of the provincial press and expediency of the cooperation with it for the central editions: "Believe my words that in our region people still believe the printing word and lead the way which the press shows." . The understanding of force of the printing word obliged edition to take part not only in economic, but also in the political debates of the reformate era. The problem of expansion of publicity became one of noticeable subjects of the newspaper. In the article "Public tasks: the aim of the publicity", that was signed by D. Balinsky (one of N. Sokalsky's pseudonyms), the editor gave an assessment of effectiveness of participation of the press in discussion of the main matters of time. "It is necessary to confess that publicity right at the beginning brought many good results: it shook some false principles, destroyed all traces of bribery, exposed ugly forms of monopoly, showed the abnormality of system of prohibitive tariffs, payoffs, concerned even the internal organization of society" , –as the author wrote. Though N. Sokalsky exaggerated the progress of publicity of that time a little bit, but he did it with the purpose to prove the need of its further development, and also free development of periodicals as the guarantor of existence of publicity in society.
P.P. Sokalsky published his works in the newspaper under the pseudonyms: V. Chibisov, V. Ch-ov, Fagot, and Dnesterovsky. He was the author of many feuilletons, literary and journal reviews. In his publications with illumination of fundamental public issues much attention was paid to questions of the development of literature and art. The objects of the critical analysis in his "Literary reviews" were works of I.S. Turgenev, G. P. Danilevsky, N. A. Nekrasov, Marko Vovchok whose literary talent was appreciated highly by the author. Especially he liked the publications devoted to creativity of T.G. Shevchenko. In February, 1860 P. Sokalsky published in the newspaper the message about the receiving in Odessa the books of T. Shevchenko’s poetry in Ukrainian, where he claimed with the pain for destiny of the Ukrainian people: "If the people of that dialect on which it was written could read it, – how much moral pleasure this people could take out from this small, but so much meaningful volume! How many vivifying tears would be spilled if these people could meet there the echo of their feelings, harmonious expression of their life, their joys, their cares and their grief! " .
With the purpose to make positions of the newspaper stronger and to become independent from the guardianship of provincial administration in 1859 editorial office he decided to create the magazine “Yuzhniy Sbornik”. The brothers N.P and I. P Sokalsky and the graduated in a military academy of lyceum N. I. Maksimov who requested the acceptable committee in Odessa to give a permission to publish the scientific literary magazine. The program of the magazine included departments: 1) The review of political events in Russia and abroad; 2) The review of the remarkable phenomena in all spheres of public life; 3) Mix. In spite of the fact that the right of the joint edition of the magazine was acquired at once by three cofounders, anyway the life introduced the amendments. Professor of Rishelyevsky lyceum I.P. Sokalsky by the beginning of 1859 left Odessa, and his brother N. P. Sokalsky, having been fond of the “Odesskiy Vestnik”, the newspaper edition, wasn’t interested in the position of the editor of the magazine any more. Therefore the magazine was headed by the third of applicants – the graduated from the military academy of lyceum N. I. Maksimov. However Sokalsky brothers actively cooperated. " Yuzhniy Sbornik" left monthly small brochures as a tabloid of "Odesskiy Vestnik". The editorial office was proud of the fact that " Yuzhniy Sbornik" belonged to "the first and only constant magazines issued in the province, magazines with the scientific and literary contents" . Really, besides Odessa from all country towns of the country during this period, only Perm had the literary and public magazine.
In " Yuzhniy Sbornik" articles of the scientific contents and literary works were published in a poetic or prosaic form. Circulation of the magazine reached 1000 copies. Followers of "Odesskiy Vestnik" received it free of charge, and for other readers the subscription price made 3 rub. The quantity of the followers of " Yuzhniy Sbornik" was not very big and as P.P. Sokalsky in correspondence with A.A. Krayevsky noted, that it was reached 100 . The magazine included a large number of socially significant articles and materials which reflected positions of provincial publicists on the ripened social, economic and political problems.
N. Sokalsky in " Yuzhniy Sbornik" published the works under the pseudonyms: Balinsky, Elenev, Stoykovich . So, already in the first number two substantial articles on the hot topics were published: “Whether joint stock companies will satisfy the economic needs of Russia? " behind the signature "D. Balinsky" and "About the value of the competition in grain trade in relation to Novorossiysk edge" , this article was written under the pseudonym "P. Stoykovich". In the second number of " Yuzhniy Sbornik" his poetic drama "Vatican of Times Feudal", signed by "N. M. Elenev" was published. N. Sokalsky's first article is of special interest. There the author acted as the resolute defender of economic and political transformations in the Russian Empire. Standing up for development of the competition which, in his opinion, "always was and will be the most charitable manifestation of a personal interest" , N. Sokalsky controlled closely formation of joint stock companies in the country. According to his calculations, in Russia only in 1857-1858 there were 52 new companies. "Certainly, for us, who haven't got used yet to similar establishments, this figure is considerable, but we will be hardly surprised with it if we remember that in France during only 1856, there were 4159 industrial associations founded” , –as the author emphasized. It was noted that the majority of the Russian joint stock companies managed to keep not for long afloat. The publicist saw the reasons of it in the absence of professionalism of founders, weak preparation at a stage of formation of the companies, and the main thing – in the absence of the conditions of feudal system of the strong base for their emergence. The author drew a serious conclusion: "In the West they were caused by the need of law, economic development of society, when the means of separate associations started being insufficient. However, we have an exception, the phenomenon created more by the imitation, than conscious belief in their need" .
The article "About the Value of the Competition in Grain Trade in relation to Novorossiysk Edge" was devoted to the consequences of the Crimean war for development of foreign trade of the region. N. Sokalsky claimed, that even short-term restrictions in trade during the Russian-Turkish war of 1828-1829 forced the former partners to look for the new grain markets. Even more noticeably, this process took place in years of the Crimean war though it was shown not at once. "Still on January the 1st, 1854 the Novorossiysk edge was at the highest steps of trade power. It had just made the best turn in 65 million rubles. Also it saved Europe from disasters of hunger. But the hostile relations, which were the part of our live since 1854 concerning the major centers for sale of our rural works, had to cause them to opening new or to vigorous initiation of activity of the old historical markets: Egypt, North Africa, Levant and others" , –as the author noted.
For grain trade of the region N. Sokalsky considered being the most serious problem , the fact that when "upon termination of war, Novorossiya still was one of the oldest markets of Europe , what was the usual area of its work, – its place was already occupied by new producers" .
The main competitors of edge were, according to the remark of the publicist, such states as the USA, Egypt, Algeria, Pridunaysky principalities. And still N. Sokalsky optimistically claimed that the Novorossiysk edge can successfully compete with the new producers of grain. Further he explained his thought in the work "Two chapters from the economic history of Novorossiysk edge", that was published in 2 and 3 numbers of the magazine.
P.P. Sokalsky in the article "Public Charity in America" addressed to experience of this country in development of private, state and public charity. Relying on his personal supervision of times of recent stay in North America, he noted that from all forms of charity, the greatest one was the development of public charity. P. Sokalsky considered it being quite justified . N. I. Maksimov possessed the article "About buying System" in which the journalist acted as the resolute opponent. The main theses of the author about the theme of "the buying system became obsolete, it won back the historical role", "the buying system will demoralize officials and the people", "interests of national economy and public moral press which demands the fastest cancellation of such type of system". Instead of this system he offered the introduction of the indirect tax on alcoholic drinks at preservation of monopoly of the state on wine products. "We are deeply convinced that the cancellation of the payoffs and the introduction of indirect tax on grain wine and beer will make financial means of the government stronger and it will improve the financial and moral position of the people" , –as the author claimed.
His article was one of the presentations in the sub acceptable press against the system of payoffs liquidated by the government in 1863 under the pressure of peasants uprisings and public opinion, sounding, including from press pages. The most meaningful problems were lifted also by other authors of the journal publications.
During 1859 there were 12 numbers of " Yuzhniy Sbornik". The readers were kindly favorable disposed to the magazine which materials clearly testified to the awakening of political thought in the region. However the simultaneous edition of the newspaper and the magazine was too expensive enterprise for the edition. " Yuzhniy Sbornik "worked only one year, and then stopped its existence.
Sokalsky brothers were concentrated on the edition of "Odesskiy Vestnik". The newspaper editorial office saved the tradition of substantial reviews of political life within the country and abroad. If the international events and situation in Russia after the end of the Crimean war found multidimensional lighting in political department of "Odesskiy Vestnik", the Polish revolt in the newspaper was reviewed in strictly official way. The special circular of the February 16, 1861, which was addressed to all acceptable committees, demanded that "concerning incidents in Warsaw. It was allowed to publish in periodicals of St. Petersburg only the articles without any additions and discussions about these events" . The press of the southern provinces which didn't have direct contacts with the Polish Kingdom and didn’t feel such a strong influence of the Polish revolt, didn't try to be beyond this circular. The Odessa press was limited to the materials reprinted from "Russian disabled person" and "A northern bee", press paid to the Polish question much less attention, than regional newspapers of Right-bank of Ukraine. The comparative analysis of the publications on this problem in a local press of two regions can show this. Anyway even short messages allowed the readers to receive necessary information about the growing of the liberation movement in Poland at the beginning of the 60s of the XIX century, the same as about polish rebellion.
The newspaper editorial office allowed the publication of critical materials about the internal political life of the country. Commitment of the brothers Sokalsky to accusatory literature was dictated by belief in its effectiveness. Not incidentally in one of unpublished notes "About public opinion" P. Sokalsky claimed that "public life is expressed mainly in two forms: in self-government and in the press" therefore the public opinion is shown, first of all "in literature and journalism" . In this regard of its article "Flat-bottomed liberalism deserves special attention. (Ivan Ivanovich Zhabokritsky exposing his belief)". Saltykov-Shchedrin "Writers inhabitants" where the writer raised a question of scanty and shallow accusatory literature. The effectiveness, accurate political orientation was proclaimed the purpose of journalism in this article. At the same time some postulates of liberal movement of that time called into question.
"Long time ago it was noticed that separation of the circles, instability of opinions, superficiality of views, and owing to that and intolerance of belief characterize the ordinary manifestations of any young society. We are in the similar moment of social development" , –as the author wrote. At a critical stage he considered as characteristic feature of public life of Russia the emergence of "a special class of publicists", as he called them "flat-bottomed liberals", and believed that they were "time product". P. Sokalsky claimed that "flat-bottomed" people weren't created for serious public affairs; they are intended, on a troupe of the publicist, as well as broad-bottomed vessels, "they weren’t created for shipping in the sea and wide, deep rivers, but only on little rivers and bogs of our guilty life" .
P. Sokalsky also wrote the article "Nihilism and Nihilists", which was published in 1862 in "Odesskiy Vestnik". Such statement of the problem was very actual: during this period representatives of a radical current on which the government began vigorous approach were called nihilists. In 1862 N. G. Chernyshevsky and the group of his adherents was arrested, the edition of the magazines “Sovremennik” and “Russkoye slovo” was suspended. P. Sokalsky tried to reveal both positive and negative sides of the nihilism, the phenomenon, in his opinion, which is the characteristic for various eras of history of Russia. In modern nihilism P. Sokalsky saw a specific form of the protest and tried to establish its reasons. "As the phenomenon, journal nihilism of the present is a reaction against excessive prevalence of authoritativeness in almost all branches of our life.
The authorities tried to stop our development for a long time and in different form until the weight of this oppression gave us the strength to fight against any submission", – he declared, hinting at the oppression of censorship and the government as a whole . This article came into the view of the Minister of Internal Affairs P. A. Valuyev immediately. "At all darkness and reserve of a statement, it is necessary to guess that the author condemns the law issued for the simple people without its participation and council, and blames establishment in Russia of monocracy …", – he wrote to Special office, analyzing contents of article. P. A. Valuyev insisted that "article contains sharp judgments, thoughts and expressions, and isn't approving in the acceptable relation" .
In 1862-1863 the talented composer P.P. Sokalsky studied in the Petersburg conservatory, also during this period he continued his journalistic activity. He cooperated with some of the Petersburg editions and with editorial office of the Odessa newspaper. P. Sokalsky's correspondence ("Letters from Petersburg") was systematically published in "Odesskiy Vestnik", where he reported about the news of the capital life. Though the regional press in the middle of the XIX century he took an active part in the discussion about the vast majority of preparing transformations, but one of them, military reform, wasn’t available for the provincial press. Only once in June, 1862 on the pages of "Odesskiy Vestnik" in his “letter from Petersburg" P.P. Sokalsky dared to touch to discuss this topic. He believed that "the most visible" among the capital news was "the project of transformation of military management and army". The author of correspondence presented a historical retrospective of formation of regular army in the country, since Peter I times.
Having reported about the alleged transformations in this area, P. Sokalsky declared, hinting at defeat of Russia in the Crimean war: "I can't and I am not able to tell about the details of military science, but even these general reasons are sufficient to convince that the real organization of our military unit, though it absorbs 3/5 of the state revenues, it doesn't satisfy the appointment anyway" . The discussion attempt in the regional press of military reform in such a sharp form was stopped by acceptable department .
From the capital, but already in the personal letter of August 26, 1863 he wrote to the writer G. P. Danilevsky about the things which worried him the most. Knowing the details of the preparation of "the valuyevsky decree", P. Sokalsky told to his adherent that "the Ukrainian question" in the center "faced two enemies: Valuyev and Katkov" and while "they are in force, the question will be the same". Further, emphasizing the tragedy and the absurd of a ban of Ukrainian, the publicist noticed that "Golovnin was for Ukraine and Ukrainians, but he wasn’t able to overcome coppery-headed" .
When he came back to Odessa, Sokalsky P. with enthusiasm began to work in the local press again and he became faithful and reliable partner of his brother. At the same time he became an initiator of creation of Music Amateur Association, created and became the head of chorus in 1864. This chorus became a ground for Odessa Music Association and music school. The composer upheld the ideas of folk origins in the art both in his works and in his articles for periodicals. He discussed socio-political themes too. After publication of new censorial law, one of few comments (as press wasn’t used to discuss documents approved by the Emperor) about Publishing law became the article of Sokalsky P.P. “Ivan Ivanovich is afraid of censorship” that was published 21 August 1865 in periodical “Odesskiy vestnik” and caused indignation of Censorship Office with its irony .
In 1864 gubernial administration let a Contract with Sokalsky N. for five years. This Contract broadened his rights of editor. This document defined the structure of the newspaper and daily columns of informal department: 1) “Sovremennaya letopis” had materials about economic and literature life as in Russia and in Novorossiya; 2) “Inostrannie izvestiya”; 3) Feuilleton; 4) Trade report; 5) Personals. Since 1864 “Odesskiy vestnik” became daily newspaper according to Contract with editor . During document preparation, Sokalskiy N. attempted to broaden the Political Department of “Odesskiy vestnik”. According to the column of “Inostrannie izvestiya” accented that the main task of this department is not to miss any of political questions and observe all of them and explain them when it is necessary . Such formulation gave a hope on large powers of editorial staff for media buying in the section of “Inostrannie izvestiya”, but “Odesskiy vestnik” received remarks about articles on foreign-policy theme from Censorship Office.
In 1850-1860 “Odesskiy vestnik” had authority over readers and its circulation was increasing all the time and varying between 1500 and 1900 copies . The influence of newspaper publication on readership and on socio-cultural life of region was very significant and it was mentioned in the memoirs of many contemporaries. In 1868 N. Sokalsky with his brother tried to found a private newspaper “Noveishie izvestiya” in Odessa that would be freer of gubernial administration, but they were refused in the right to edit it. However, N.P. Sokalsky was the editor of the most successful regional newspaper “Odesskiy vestnik”.
In 1860 P.P. Sokalsky was an editor of “Zapisky obschestva selskogo khozyaistva Yuzhnoi Rossii”, where the articles about agriculture and cattle-breeding were published, and since 1871 till 1876 (after the death of his brother) he was an editor of “Odesskiy vestnik”. During Russo-Turkish wars (1877-1878), he was a journalist of Saint-Petersburg newspaper “Golos”. In the last decade of his life he continued the cooperation with Odessa and capital editions, but he didn’t continue his musical work.
So, brothers Sokalsky made a weighty contribution in the socio-cultural life of Odessa and country in the middle of 19 century. The graduators of University in Kharkov began their activity in the education and were employees of Ministry of National Education. At a later date the life of each of brothers became different. Sokalsky I.P. became the famous scientist, professor of the University in Kharkov. Sokolsky N.P. became the editor and publicist of regional press, Sokalsky P.P. was the composer. However, in period of change aspiration to express political opinions, to state economic views about country and region development was the idea that connected brothers and made them participants of socio-political struggle in the press. The cooperation in the newspaper “Odesskiy vestnik” and magazine “Yuzhniy sbornik” show high level of professionalism, skills to uphold their ideas and retain views of representatives of local community for decision of key problems of the century. Their articles were sharp and topical due to the literal talent, deep knowledge of socio-economic problems. The analysis of publications of Nikolay, Ivan and Petr Sokalsky in Odessa press allows confirming that brothers demanded to make the preparation to bourgeois reform quicker and defended interests of region residents. Information that was published in “Odesskiy vestnik” and “Yuzhniy sbornik” gives an opportunity to see the development of thoughts about economic and political situation in the country and to make a research of peculiarities of socio-cultural life in Odessa and the region.
List of sources:
1. Новороссийский календарь на 1855 год. – Одесса, 1854. – С. 371.
2. Новороссийский календарь на 1857 год. – Одесса, 1856. – С. 401.
3. Рукописный отдел Национальной библиотеки Украины имени В.И. Вернадского (далее – РО НБУ). – Ф. 1. – Д. 38519. – Л. 2.
37. Российский государственный исторический архив (далее – РГИА). – Ф. 773. – Оп. 1 (1862). – Д. 233. – Л. 1.
38. Одесский вестник. – 1862. – 7 июня.
39. ГАОО. – Ф. 1. – Оп. 173 (1860-1862). – Д. 20. – Л. 22-23.
40. РО РНБ. – Ф. 236 (Данилевский Г.П.). – Д. 143. – Л. 19.
41. РГИА. – Ф. 776. – Оп. 3 (1865). – Д. 136. – Л. 1-2.
42. ГАОО. – Ф. 162 (Архив Зеленого П.А.). – Оп. 1. – Д. 4. – Л. 82.
43. Там же. – С. 76.
44. РГИА. – Ф. 1281. – Оп. 6 (1864). – Д. 46. – Л. 29; – Оп. 7(1866). – Д. 42. – Л. 27.
Аннотация. В статье рассматриваются основные направления деятельности в Одессе экономиста и статистика И.П. Сокальского, публициста и редактора региональной печати Н.П. Сокальского, композитора и журналиста П.П. Сокальского, их участие в социокультурной жизни страны. Проанализированы публикации братьев Сокальских на страницах одесской прессы, освещены их позиции по коренным социально-экономическим и политическим проблемам Российской империи середины XIX ст.
Ключевые слова: братья Сокальские, реформы, позиции, периодическая печать, Российская империи, Одесса, регион.
Грєбцова И.С. Брати Сокальські у соціокультурному житті Одеси середини XIX ст.
Анотація. У статті розглядаються основні напрямки діяльності в Одесі економіста і статистика І.П. Сокальського, публіциста і редактора регіональної преси М.П. Сокальського, композитора і журналіста П.П. Сокальського, їх участь в соціокультурному житті країни. Проаналізовані публікації братів Сокальських на сторінках одеської преси, висвітлені їх позиції з корінних соціально-економічних і політичних проблем Російської імперії середини XIX ст.
Ключові слова: брати Сокальські, реформи, позиції, періодична преса, Російська імперія, Одеса, регіон.