Centuries after Hammurabi’s reign, Babylonian empire fell to Nomadic Warriors



Yüklə 449 b.
tarix06.10.2018
ölçüsü449 b.



2 Centuries after Hammurabi’s reign, Babylonian empire fell to Nomadic Warriors

  • 2 Centuries after Hammurabi’s reign, Babylonian empire fell to Nomadic Warriors

  • Fertile Crescent broke into small kingdoms

  • New people moved into the regions



Present day Lebanon

  • Present day Lebanon

    • 33.50º North
    • 35.50º East
  • Popular cities:

    • Tyre
    • Byblos
    • Sidon


Narrow coastal planes

  • Narrow coastal planes

  • Beeka Valley separates

  • Borders Israel & Syria



Mediterranean

  • Mediterranean

    • Mild to cool
    • Wet winters
    • Dry, hot summers
  • Mountains  heavy rain & snow



Snails - most valuable dye

  • Snails - most valuable dye

    • 60,000 snails to 1 pound
  • Cedar trees- hard, usable wood





Cedar is other valuable resource

  • Cedar is other valuable resource

  • Relied on Trade

  • Traded goods from other lands

    • Own colonies too
  • Competed with other city-states

  • Interacted through trade



Desired trade



1100-700 BCE, founded trading colonies

  • 1100-700 BCE, founded trading colonies

  • 300 cities in Africa’s Med. Coast

    • Carthage was greatest


Only 22 symbols

  • Only 22 symbols

  • First appeared around 900 BCE

  • Passed on to other cities

  • Many common people could master

  • Literacy became widespread



Shared & collected ideas

  • Shared & collected ideas

  • Purple dye for royalty

  • Based on trade & ships

  • Alphabet



Boats: single-sailed vessels with long oars

  • Boats: single-sailed vessels with long oars

  • Alphabet: started with the Phoenicians

  • Weapons, cloth, wine, slaves, glass, and ivory



Peaceful society

  • Peaceful society

  • Focused on trade



Hierarchy Status

  • Hierarchy Status

  • “Kings and Priests still had much more power of the trades.”

  • Alphabet & Laws



King + Priests

  • King + Priests

  • Wealthy Commoners

  • Free Commoners

  • Slaves

  • Typical Social Status



Most powerful traders in Mesopotamia area

  • Most powerful traders in Mesopotamia area

  • Invented alphabet

  • Started the importance of sailing

  • Created the royal purple color



Purple dye- made from the squeezing of 60,000 smelly snail glands

  • Purple dye- made from the squeezing of 60,000 smelly snail glands

  • Traded- anything and everything believed valuable

  • “Later, Carthage rivaled Rome in power.”



Phoenicia was centered in the north of ancient Canaan

  • Phoenicia was centered in the north of ancient Canaan

  • It was a coastal area along the Mediterranean Sea

  • Modern Day Lebanon, Syria, Palestinian Territories and Israel



Arvad

  • Arvad

  • Byblos

  • Berytus

  • Sidon

  • Tyre

  • Caesarea





Individual city-states

  • Individual city-states

  • Each city-state had an independent government

  • The king, the temple priests, and the council of wealthy merchants were the main sources of power



They worshipped gods and goddesses sacred to specific city-states

  • They worshipped gods and goddesses sacred to specific city-states

  • Each god and goddess represented a different aspect of life





They had a trade-based economy

  • They had a trade-based economy

  • Their main good was a purple dye derived from snails found on the Tyre island

  • Due to the dye’s scarcity and the time in which it took to make, it became very expensive



They established trading colonies along the Mediterranean coast

  • They established trading colonies along the Mediterranean coast

  • They also traded:

    • Wine
    • Glass
    • Timber
    • Olive oil
    • Precious metals




Spoke a Semitic language

  • Spoke a Semitic language

  • A seagoing culture where trade was the center of civilization

  • Were skilled architects

  • Wealthy trading towns whose centers were the temples



Urban, small trading towns along the Mediterranean coast

  • Urban, small trading towns along the Mediterranean coast

  • Temple was the center of the city

  • Built buildings up to 6 stories high



Laws protected slaves from mistreatment

  • Laws protected slaves from mistreatment

  • Slaves could earn their own money, purchase property, and own their own freedom

  • A freed slave could reach high office in the community



No evidence of polygamy

  • No evidence of polygamy

  • In the case of divorce, the woman was given her possessions

  • Had fundamental rights

  • Women could press charges, make trading contracts, invest in trading, and adopt heirs



The Phoenician Empire had many advancements in:

  • The Phoenician Empire had many advancements in:

    • shipbuilding
    • pottery
    • iron-working
    • literature
    • alphabet


First appeared around 900 B.C.

  • First appeared around 900 B.C.

  • Made an alphabet with 22 symbols

  • The Greeks adopted the alphabet and added 4 symbols



Phoenicia’s location on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea enabled trade with other coastal regions

  • Phoenicia’s location on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea enabled trade with other coastal regions

  • Also, Phoenicia’s lack of natural resources encouraged its people to trade goods for necessary items





The Phoenicians initial trading partners were the Greeks

  • The Phoenicians initial trading partners were the Greeks

  • Established strategic commercial trading outposts

  • They chose peace over war but were defensive





The Persians then conquered the Phoenicians because of the loss of trade power

  • The Persians then conquered the Phoenicians because of the loss of trade power

  • Phoenicians retreated to Carthage

  • There they prospered until the were destroyed by Romans in the Punic Wars



The Phoenician empire fell when Alexander the Great defeated Persia.

  • The Phoenician empire fell when Alexander the Great defeated Persia.

  • Over time all of the city states were conquered

  • Phoenicia and its culture disappeared

  • It later became Syria



They failed to use all of their elements of national power

  • They failed to use all of their elements of national power

  • They succeeded economically, but did not use their wealth to protect their own borders

  • They made contributions which were fundamental in future civilizations





First used Cuneiform

  • First used Cuneiform

  • Began using alphabet around 1050 BCE

  • Quicker to learn and easier to use for trading



Ships important to Phoenician society



Egyptians first to use glass beads, produced naturally

  • Egyptians first to use glass beads, produced naturally

  • Phoenicians developed techniques make it artifically

  • Developed even better technique, glass-blowing, under Roman rule





Most of trade conducted across Mediterranean Sea at ports

  • Most of trade conducted across Mediterranean Sea at ports

  • Many colonies became trade centers, such as Carthage



Phoenicians controlled trade around Mediterranean between 1200-800 BCE

  • Phoenicians controlled trade around Mediterranean between 1200-800 BCE

  • Many city-states continued to be predominant powers long after this



Main Export: Tyrian Purple powder

  • Main Export: Tyrian Purple powder

    • Manufactured in Sarepta and Mogador from the Murex snail shells
  • Trading Partners with Greece





The Phoenicians were particularly good when it came to the sea

  • The Phoenicians were particularly good when it came to the sea

  • Because of this they became a strong naval and trading power of the region



The Phoenicians became famous and wealthy for their dyes, specifically for:

  • The Phoenicians became famous and wealthy for their dyes, specifically for:

    • Reds- from kermes, tiny bugs that live in oak trees
    • Blues- African indigos
    • Royal Purple- most famous and important, came from the Murex sea-snail's shells




Many kings stood out in the Phoenician empire

  • Many kings stood out in the Phoenician empire

  • Hiram I – developed the city Tyre into one of the most important cities of the Phoenician empire

  • Ithobal I – expanded much of the Phoenician empire and established colonies overseas



Elulaios – Assyria captured Tyre under his riegn but he headed many revolts against the Assyrians

  • Elulaios – Assyria captured Tyre under his riegn but he headed many revolts against the Assyrians

  • Baal-Eser II – was ruler when Phoenicia was at its height of influence and exceeded any other empire

  • Pygmalion – built the colonies Kition, Cyprus, and Carthage also shifted Phoenicia’s trade from the middle east to the Mediterranean





The Phoenicians were polytheists and they built many temples to worship their gods

  • The Phoenicians were polytheists and they built many temples to worship their gods

  • They were also great administrators, accountants, and engineers.

  • They built the first temple in Jerusalem in the mid-900’s



The Phoenicians had three different power bases to maintain control:

  • The Phoenicians had three different power bases to maintain control:

  • First came the kings

  • Followed by the temple and the priests

  • And finally the councils of elders





Phoenicia was split into many city-states, which fought for control of the seas and trade

  • Phoenicia was split into many city-states, which fought for control of the seas and trade

  • In 675 and 640 BCE, the Assyrians invaded and defeated the city-states Tyre and Sidon on the Eastern Mediterranean

  • The Babylonians attacked Tyre in 585 BCE ,13 years of fighting, ended with compromise in 572 BCE



The Eastern Phoenicians allied with Greeks against Persia and Egypt

  • The Eastern Phoenicians allied with Greeks against Persia and Egypt

  • Persia and Egypt won the fighting in 539 BCE

  • The Eastern city-states thus went under control of Cyrus the Great, emperor of Persia



The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BCE

  • The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BCE

  • In 813 BCE, the Phoenicians founded Carthage, a colony in North Africa which became a predominant city-state

  • Carthage and Rome were powerful cities in the 200s and 100s which led to their conflicts in the Punic Wars



The First Punic War was a conflict over the control of Sicily between 264 and 241 BCE

  • The First Punic War was a conflict over the control of Sicily between 264 and 241 BCE

  • The Second Punic War was a series of campaigns led by Hannibal, leader of Carthage, against Roman Italy from 218 to 201 BCE

  • The Third Punic War was the Siege of Carthage by the Romans from 149 to 146 BCE



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenicia

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenicia

  • http://phoenicia.org/trade.html

  • http://phoenicia.org/cities.html

  • http://www.geocities.com/soho/lofts/2938/histcult.html

  • http://www.democracyinlebanon.org/Documents/CDL-Documentaries/Phoenicians(NatGeo).htm

  • http://store.fantazpets.com/images/puzzles/boats/phoenician.jpg

  • http://www.oldandsold.com/a1photos/grecian_urns_articles15_pottery_rs.jpg

  • http://www.unrv.com/provinces/syria.php

  • http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0860355.html

  • Saggs, H.W.F. The Babylonians

  • Heath, D.C. World History



Gore, Rick, and Robert Clark. "Who were the Phoenicians?" National Geographic. National Geographic. 11 Nov. 2008 .

  • Gore, Rick, and Robert Clark. "Who were the Phoenicians?" National Geographic. National Geographic. 11 Nov. 2008 .

  • "Lebenon." The World Factbook. 6 Nov. 2008. Central Intelligence Agency. 11 Nov. 2008 .

  • “Phoenician.” Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Encyclopedia. Steven, Mark A. ed. 1 vol. Massachusetts: Springfield 2000.

  • Khalaf, Salim G. "A Bequest Unearthed, Phoenicia,." Phoenician Encyclopedia. Sept. 1996. Encyclopedia Phoeniciana. 11 Nov. 2008 .





Dostları ilə paylaş:


Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©genderi.org 2017
rəhbərliyinə müraciət

    Ana səhifə