Changes Ideas: Scientific Method



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Pretend that you are an explorer in the 1700’s. Pretend that you know nothing of the technology currently available to you (no cell phones, GPS, computers or internet). Pretend that you are asked to draw of map of the places you personally visit. Talk to your partner about how you will go about the task of map making. Sketch a brief drawing of a map of some place you have personally visited or you can do this for the town of Weatherford.

  • Pretend that you are an explorer in the 1700’s. Pretend that you know nothing of the technology currently available to you (no cell phones, GPS, computers or internet). Pretend that you are asked to draw of map of the places you personally visit. Talk to your partner about how you will go about the task of map making. Sketch a brief drawing of a map of some place you have personally visited or you can do this for the town of Weatherford.








With your partner, discuss the following topic:

  • With your partner, discuss the following topic:

  • What do you already know about the slave trade out of Africa to North America?

  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TtRaG_bokds





Renaissance ideas

  • Renaissance ideas

  • • Desire for trade routes, spices, and profits or a greater wealth.

  • • Desire to spread Christianity

  • • New technologies in ships and sailing.

  • • Increase country’s power

  • • Absolute monarchs use their wealth and power to support the Age of Exploration.

  • God, Gold and Glory Concept



Changes Ideas: Scientific Method

  • Changes Ideas: Scientific Method

  • Old Science

  • Scholars generally relied on ancient authorities, church teaching, common sense to explain the physical world

  • New Science

  • In time, scholars began to use observation, experiment, and scientific reasoning to gather knowledge and draw conclusions about the world

  • What do you think the new science led to??? What comes next?



Sextant

  • Sextant



Now that the Europeans have better exploring equipment, what is the result?

  • Now that the Europeans have better exploring equipment, what is the result?

  • Improved ships and new navigational instruments made for longer journeys.



Mercantilism an economic system developing during the decay of feudalism to unify and increase the power and especially the monetary wealth of a nation by a strict governmental regulation of the entire national economy usually through policies designed to secure an accumulation of bullion, a favorable balance of trade, the development of agriculture and manufactures, and the establishment of foreign trading monopolies

  • Mercantilism an economic system developing during the decay of feudalism to unify and increase the power and especially the monetary wealth of a nation by a strict governmental regulation of the entire national economy usually through policies designed to secure an accumulation of bullion, a favorable balance of trade, the development of agriculture and manufactures, and the establishment of foreign trading monopolies



Nations increase power in 2 ways

  • Nations increase power in 2 ways

    • 1) get as much gold & silver as you can
    • 2) sell more goods that you buy
    • Goal is to become self-sufficient
  • Causes Changes in European Society



  • How does the growth of mercantilism cause changes in European society? What changes and how does it change?







•Capture of Constantinople and renaming to Istanbul

  • •Capture of Constantinople and renaming to Istanbul

  • • Capture of Mecca, Medina, and Cairo





Cultural and political achievements under Suleiman I

  • Cultural and political achievements under Suleiman I

  • Empire in place until end of World War I



Eastern Europe:

  • Eastern Europe:

  • • Constantinople conquered in 1453 and renamed Istanbul

  • • Suleiman’s advances into Hungary and Austria in 1525 but expansion stopped with the Siege of Vienna in 1529



• Caravanseri (roadside inns for rest) network: assured safety for traveling merchants and envoys

  • • Caravanseri (roadside inns for rest) network: assured safety for traveling merchants and envoys



Naval trade in spices, wheat, and lumber throughout the Mediterranean, Aegean, Black and Red Seas and the Persian Gulf

  • Naval trade in spices, wheat, and lumber throughout the Mediterranean, Aegean, Black and Red Seas and the Persian Gulf







• Goals – Impress world with the power and splendor of Ming China and expand China’s tribute system

  • • Goals – Impress world with the power and splendor of Ming China and expand China’s tribute system

  • • Envoys from different countries travel to China with tribute



However, the Ming leaders feared foreign cultures would corrupt Chinese culture so they moved into a time of isolation. The fleet of ships was too expense to maintain and since there were no longer in use the Chinese burned some ships and let others just rot away.

  • However, the Ming leaders feared foreign cultures would corrupt Chinese culture so they moved into a time of isolation. The fleet of ships was too expense to maintain and since there were no longer in use the Chinese burned some ships and let others just rot away.



  • What would the long-term global effects of the Chinese choosing not to explore anymore?



The Ming Dynasty adopted the following items and ideas as they traveled:

  • The Ming Dynasty adopted the following items and ideas as they traveled:

  • • Spurred by contact with Europe, i.e., telescope

  • Trigonometry

  • • Hydraulic powered devices for irrigation and agriculture

  • • Snorkeling gear for pearl divers

  • Astronomy from India





  • Give examples of physical geographic factors on trade in the Indian Ocean.



Prince Henry the Navigator was interested in trading in Africa and began to do so around her western coastline.

  • Prince Henry the Navigator was interested in trading in Africa and began to do so around her western coastline.

    • Navigation school


Bartolomeu Dias

  • Bartolomeu Dias

  • In 1488, ventures down Africa to reach the tip – men are too tired to continue though. However, his journey let other explores know Africa could be rounded to reach Asia.



First to reach Calicut on the southern coast of India. Amazed by the spices, rare silks, and precious gems that they had to offer. They filled their sips and returned in 1499 to Portugal where he received a hero’s welcome.

  • First to reach Calicut on the southern coast of India. Amazed by the spices, rare silks, and precious gems that they had to offer. They filled their sips and returned in 1499 to Portugal where he received a hero’s welcome.





Hendrik Brouwer was a Dutch explorer, admiral and colonial administrator both in Japan and the Dutch East Indies. He was the first to have sailed to the East Indies for the Dutch East India Company in 1606.

  • Hendrik Brouwer was a Dutch explorer, admiral and colonial administrator both in Japan and the Dutch East Indies. He was the first to have sailed to the East Indies for the Dutch East India Company in 1606.



Abel Tasman – was a Dutch seafarer, explorer and merchant, best known for his voyages of 1642 and 1644 in the services of the United East India Company. He was the first known European explorer to reach the island of Tasmania, New Zealand and to sight the Fiji islands.

  • Abel Tasman – was a Dutch seafarer, explorer and merchant, best known for his voyages of 1642 and 1644 in the services of the United East India Company. He was the first known European explorer to reach the island of Tasmania, New Zealand and to sight the Fiji islands.





After competing with the Dutch, Portuguese, and British over the area the French gain a stronghold in Indochina in 1885.

  • After competing with the Dutch, Portuguese, and British over the area the French gain a stronghold in Indochina in 1885.

  • French Explorers to the region:

  • Henri Mouhot

  • Auguste Jean-Marie Pavie







List some of the major imports and exports of today.

  • List some of the major imports and exports of today.

  • List a few pros and cons for a government to require taxes on imported items.





Give a brief definition of these three words. Do they have anything in common? How are they different?

  • Give a brief definition of these three words. Do they have anything in common? How are they different?

  • Colonization

  • Imperialism

  • Exploration



Exploration- the action of traveling in or through an unfamiliar area in order to learn about it.

  • Exploration- the action of traveling in or through an unfamiliar area in order to learn about it.

  • Imperialism- a policy of extending a country’s power and influence through diplomacy or military force.

  • Colonization- sending settlers to (a place) and to establish political control over it.



Christopher Columbus (Italian: Cristoforo Colombo; Spanish: Cristóbal Colón) – Italian explorer. (1492) He goes to Portugal to gain resources for a voyage west however, they had already funded expeditions to India with the help of Vasco de Gama. So Columbus tried the Spanish. Under Ferdinand and Isabella, the Catholic monarchs, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean that led to general European awareness of the American continents. Those voyages, and his efforts to establish permanent settlements on the island of Hispaniola, initiated the Spanish colonization of the New World.  

  • Christopher Columbus (Italian: Cristoforo Colombo; Spanish: Cristóbal Colón) – Italian explorer. (1492) He goes to Portugal to gain resources for a voyage west however, they had already funded expeditions to India with the help of Vasco de Gama. So Columbus tried the Spanish. Under Ferdinand and Isabella, the Catholic monarchs, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean that led to general European awareness of the American continents. Those voyages, and his efforts to establish permanent settlements on the island of Hispaniola, initiated the Spanish colonization of the New World.  



Actual Voyages

  • Actual Voyages



Treaty of Tordesillas 2 July 1494…to divide trading and colonizing rights for all newly discovered lands of the world between Portugal and Spain to the exclusion of other European nations.

  • Treaty of Tordesillas 2 July 1494…to divide trading and colonizing rights for all newly discovered lands of the world between Portugal and Spain to the exclusion of other European nations.

  • So, how do you think other countries are going to handle this treaty?



Ferdinand Magellan - was a Portuguese explorer. He was born in a still disputed location in northern Portugal, and served King Charles I of Spain in search of a westward route to the "Spice Islands.” Magellan's expedition of 1519–1522 became the first expedition to sail from the Atlantic Ocean into the Pacific Ocean (then named "peaceful sea" by Magellan; the passage being made via the Strait of Magellan), and the first to cross the Pacific. His expedition completed the first circumnavigation of the Earth.

  • Ferdinand Magellan - was a Portuguese explorer. He was born in a still disputed location in northern Portugal, and served King Charles I of Spain in search of a westward route to the "Spice Islands.” Magellan's expedition of 1519–1522 became the first expedition to sail from the Atlantic Ocean into the Pacific Ocean (then named "peaceful sea" by Magellan; the passage being made via the Strait of Magellan), and the first to cross the Pacific. His expedition completed the first circumnavigation of the Earth.



Hernando de Soto (1539) -was a Spanish explorer and conquistador who, while leading the first European expedition deep into the territory of the modern-day United States, was the first European documented to have crossed the Mississippi River.

  • Hernando de Soto (1539) -was a Spanish explorer and conquistador who, while leading the first European expedition deep into the territory of the modern-day United States, was the first European documented to have crossed the Mississippi River.



Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo (1542) -was a Portuguese explorer noted for his exploration of the west coast of North America on behalf of Spain. Cabrillo was the first European explorer to navigate the coast of present day California in the United States.

  • Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo (1542) -was a Portuguese explorer noted for his exploration of the west coast of North America on behalf of Spain. Cabrillo was the first European explorer to navigate the coast of present day California in the United States.



How do the explorations funded by the Ming Dynasty and commanded by Zheng He compare with those of the Spanish explorers?

  • How do the explorations funded by the Ming Dynasty and commanded by Zheng He compare with those of the Spanish explorers?



Conquistadors (conquerors)

  • Conquistadors (conquerors)

  • Hernán Cortés (1504)-  was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico. Cortés was part of the generation of Spanish colonizers that began the first phase of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.



Francisco Pizarro (1509) -was a Spanish conquistador who conquered the Inca Empire.

    • Francisco Pizarro (1509) -was a Spanish conquistador who conquered the Inca Empire.


Francisco Vásquez de Coronado y Luján - was a Spanish conquistador, who visited New Mexico and other parts of what are now the southwestern United States between 1540 and 1542. Coronado had hoped to conquer the mythical Seven Cities of Gold.

  • Francisco Vásquez de Coronado y Luján - was a Spanish conquistador, who visited New Mexico and other parts of what are now the southwestern United States between 1540 and 1542. Coronado had hoped to conquer the mythical Seven Cities of Gold.





Explain the difference between an explorer and a conquistador.

  • Explain the difference between an explorer and a conquistador.



Henry Hudson (1609) - was an English sea explorer and navigator.

  • Henry Hudson (1609) - was an English sea explorer and navigator.

  • Hudson made two attempts on behalf of English merchants to find a prospective Northwest Passage to Cathay (today's China) via a route above the Arctic Circle.

  • Hudson explored the region around modern New York metropolitan area while looking for a western route to Asia under the auspices of the Dutch East India Company.  He explored the river which eventually was named for him, and laid thereby the foundation for Dutch colonization of the region.



Jacques Cartier (1534-1535)- was a French explorer who claimed what is now Canada for France.

  • Jacques Cartier (1534-1535)- was a French explorer who claimed what is now Canada for France.



Samuel de Champlain - "The Father of New France", was a French navigator, cartographer, draughtsman, soldier, explorer, geographer, ethnologist, diplomat, and chronicler. He founded New France and Quebec City on July 3, 1608. He is important to Canadian history because he made the first accurate map of the coast and he helped establish the settlements.

  • Samuel de Champlain - "The Father of New France", was a French navigator, cartographer, draughtsman, soldier, explorer, geographer, ethnologist, diplomat, and chronicler. He founded New France and Quebec City on July 3, 1608. He is important to Canadian history because he made the first accurate map of the coast and he helped establish the settlements.



Robert de La Salle (1682)– also called René-Robert Cavelier - was a French explorer. He explored the Great Lakes region of the United States and Canada, the Mississippi River, and the Gulf of Mexico. La Salle claimed the entire Mississippi River basin for France.

  • Robert de La Salle (1682)– also called René-Robert Cavelier - was a French explorer. He explored the Great Lakes region of the United States and Canada, the Mississippi River, and the Gulf of Mexico. La Salle claimed the entire Mississippi River basin for France.



John Cabot - was an Italian navigator and explorer, called Giovanni Caboto whose 1497 discovery of parts of North America under the commission of Henry VII of England is commonly held to have been the first European encounter with the mainland of North America since the Norse Vikings visits to Vinland in the eleventh century. The official position of the Canadian and United Kingdom governments is that he landed on the island of Newfoundland.

  • John Cabot - was an Italian navigator and explorer, called Giovanni Caboto whose 1497 discovery of parts of North America under the commission of Henry VII of England is commonly held to have been the first European encounter with the mainland of North America since the Norse Vikings visits to Vinland in the eleventh century. The official position of the Canadian and United Kingdom governments is that he landed on the island of Newfoundland.



Sir Francis Drake, was an English sea captain, privateer, navigator, slaver, and politician of the Elizabethan era. Elizabeth I of England awarded Drake a knighthood in 1581. He was second-in-command of the English fleet against the Spanish Armada in 1588. He also carried out the second circumnavigation of the world, from 1577 to 1580.

  • Sir Francis Drake, was an English sea captain, privateer, navigator, slaver, and politician of the Elizabethan era. Elizabeth I of England awarded Drake a knighthood in 1581. He was second-in-command of the English fleet against the Spanish Armada in 1588. He also carried out the second circumnavigation of the world, from 1577 to 1580.



Sir Walter Raleigh (1609)- was an English aristocrat, writer, poet, soldier, courtier, spy, and explorer. He is also well known for popularizing tobacco in England. Instrumental in the English colonization of North America, Raleigh was granted a royal patent to explore Virginia, which paved the way for future English settlements. First settlement in Virginia will become Jamestown.

  • Sir Walter Raleigh (1609)- was an English aristocrat, writer, poet, soldier, courtier, spy, and explorer. He is also well known for popularizing tobacco in England. Instrumental in the English colonization of North America, Raleigh was granted a royal patent to explore Virginia, which paved the way for future English settlements. First settlement in Virginia will become Jamestown.



Some 100 people, many of them seeking religious freedom in the New World, set sail from England on the Mayflower in September 1620. That November, the ship landed on the shores of Cape Cod, in present-day Massachusetts. A scouting party was sent out, and in late December the group landed at Plymouth Harbor, where they would

  • Some 100 people, many of them seeking religious freedom in the New World, set sail from England on the Mayflower in September 1620. That November, the ship landed on the shores of Cape Cod, in present-day Massachusetts. A scouting party was sent out, and in late December the group landed at Plymouth Harbor, where they would

  • form the first permanent settlement of

  • Europeans in

  • New England. 



What reasons were there that motivated Europeans to explore and colonize the Western Hemisphere in the 16th century?

  • What reasons were there that motivated Europeans to explore and colonize the Western Hemisphere in the 16th century?



English get rid of the Dutch

  • English get rid of the Dutch

  • England Battles France

    • French and Indian War (Seven Years War)
  • Result: Britain controls nearly the entire eastern ½ of North America



Relationships

  • Relationships

    • Dutch & French –peaceful
    • English – conflict (land & religious)
  • Natives fall to disease

  • Ones that are left are displaced (moved to other lands.)





What was the cause of the Atlantic Slave trade?

  • What was the cause of the Atlantic Slave trade?

  • Why did Europeans see African as better source of labor than the Native Americans?



Slavery in Africa – Slavery in Africa existed when the Muslim Empire ruled. Non-Muslims were sold as slaves.

  • Slavery in Africa – Slavery in Africa existed when the Muslim Empire ruled. Non-Muslims were sold as slaves.

  • Because the Native American were dying of diseases carried by the Europeans the Europeans had to find workers for their new crops somewhere else so African became the disable target.



African from ruling tribes and merchants played a willing role in the slave trade - they saw little difference between selling to a Muslim or a Westerner. Most Europeans waited in sea ports where Africans from the interior tribes were brought to them. They were usually exchanged for guns, gold, and other goods.

  • African from ruling tribes and merchants played a willing role in the slave trade - they saw little difference between selling to a Muslim or a Westerner. Most Europeans waited in sea ports where Africans from the interior tribes were brought to them. They were usually exchanged for guns, gold, and other goods.

  • Many Africans cried out to their people to stop the trade, but it was too profitable. Any rulers that refused to cooperate were bypassed and new routes were developed.







  • What would some of the challenges be for those traveling on the Middle Passage?







Harsh Life

  • Harsh Life

  • Resistance and Rebellion















A depopulation of certain African areas due to the slave trade

  • A depopulation of certain African areas due to the slave trade

  • A growth of plantation agriculture, especially in the southern colonies

  • A diffusion of ideas among Caribbean, African and Latin American cultures



Africa (particularly West Africa)

  • Africa (particularly West Africa)

  • • Political – Trade in slaves promoted warfare between African states; European weapons (guns) become an important component of political power; Europeans control very little territory in Africa

  • • Economic – Atlantic slave trade increased demand for African slaves by Europeans; volume of trade increased; trade patterns shifted to west coast; demand for European manufactured goods (guns)

  • • Cultural – Introduction of Christianity to west Africa; African artists created products for European markets

  • • Technological – Gunpowder guns

  • The Americas

  • • Increase in the African populations, both directly from Africa and those who were subsequently born in the Americas and Caribbean

  • • The dispersal of Africans throughout the New World is directly related to slavery, as they were forced to go wherever labor was demanded.

  • • British colonies, in what is now the southern United States, depend on slave labor for production of cash crops

  • • Knowledge of agriculture including rice that spread into the Southern colonies

  • • Aspects of African food, music and art leave a lasting influence on American cultures



Explain the impact of the Atlantic slave trade on West Africa and the Americas.

  • Explain the impact of the Atlantic slave trade on West Africa and the Americas.









  • Impact on the Americas:

  • • New livestock including horses, cattle, sheep, and pigs. Horses led to the defeat of many Native Americans

  • Foods from Africa including bananas, black-eyed peas, and yams

  • Grains such as rice, barley, wheat, and oats

  • Diseases such as smallpox, measles, and influenza that led to the deaths of millions of Native Americans

  • Slaves from Africa

  • Impact on Europe:

  • • New foods and plants including corn, tomatoes, chocolate, tobacco, quinine, and potatoes



Complete a Venn Diagram explaining the impact of the Columbian Exchange on the Americas and Europe.

  • Complete a Venn Diagram explaining the impact of the Columbian Exchange on the Americas and Europe.



How has America today been affect as a result of the Atlantic Slave Trade?

  • How has America today been affect as a result of the Atlantic Slave Trade?



Commercial Revolution – New business and trade practices brought about in Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries because of new wealth brought from colonies in the Americas.

  • Commercial Revolution – New business and trade practices brought about in Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries because of new wealth brought from colonies in the Americas.



• Rise of capitalism – Private ownership and investment of wealth for profit lead to the growth of the merchant class and an increase of the money supply.

  • • Rise of capitalism – Private ownership and investment of wealth for profit lead to the growth of the merchant class and an increase of the money supply.



Joint-stock companies (Jamestown, Virginia) – Investors pooled their money together to establish American colonies and usually faced minimal monetary losses because of the large number involved in the investment.

  • Joint-stock companies (Jamestown, Virginia) – Investors pooled their money together to establish American colonies and usually faced minimal monetary losses because of the large number involved in the investment.



What would be the opposite of Capitalism?

  • What would be the opposite of Capitalism?

  • Compare similarities of the joint-stock company to today?



• Mercantilism – Colonies provided gold and silver (bullionism) as well as a favorable balance of trade since they were both suppliers of raw materials and markets to their mother countries

  • • Mercantilism – Colonies provided gold and silver (bullionism) as well as a favorable balance of trade since they were both suppliers of raw materials and markets to their mother countries

  • • Establishment of new institutions such as banks, stock exchanges, insurance companies and futures markets

  • Explain the concept of

  • Inflation





Emerging middle class

  • Emerging middle class

  • Rise of capitalism

  • Sailing innovations



What were the results of European exploration of the Americas?

  • What were the results of European exploration of the Americas?

  • 1.

  • 2.

  • 3.

    • North American Colonization
    • The Columbian Exchange
    • Large trade networks developed


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