**Computer Graphics**
**Prepared By--Ipsita Panda**
**SEM-7**^{th} **Sub code-**PCCS4401
**Short Questions:-**
**1.** Define Computer graphics.
**2.** What is meant by refreshing of the screen?
**3.** Define Random scan display?
**4.** What is persistence?
**5.** What is resolution and Aspect ratio?
**6.** The glow given off by the, phosphor during exposure of the electron beam is known as what?
**7.** What is a Line cap?
**8**. What are the major components of CRT?
**9****.** What are the advantages of laser printer?
**10.** Define pixel?
**11.** What is frame buffer?
**12**. What is bitmap?
**13.** What is a Vector display or stroke writing or calligraphic display?
**14.** Where the video controller is used?
**15.** What is a Raster scan display?
**16.** What is an output primitive?
**17.** What do you mean by ‘jaggies’?
**18.** Write short notes on lines?
**19.** Define Circle and Ellipse.
**20.** Define polygon. Distinguish between convex and concave polygons?
**21.** What is seed fill algorithm?
**22.** What is scan line algorithm? What is an active edge list in the scan line algorithm?
**23.** What is a winding number?
**24.** What is pixel mask? What is Color Look up table?
**25.** What is aliasing and antialiasing?
**26.** Back face removal is an example of________?
**27. **What is the need of homogeneous coordinates?
**28.** What is the use of control points? What is cubic spline?
**29.** What is color look up table?
**30.** What is Morphing? What is computer graphics realism?
**Long Questions:-**
**31.** Explain any 3 uses of Computer Graphics. How graphics is used in presentations.
**32.** Draw the block diagram and explain different component of CRT.
**33.** Discuss the logical classifications of input devices.
**34.** What is a refresh CRT? Where it is used? What are the primary components of an electron gun in a CRT?
**35. **What is the difference between bitmap and pixmap?
**36.** Differentiate between Random Scan and Raster Scan displays.
**37.** Describe the DDA line drawing algorithm.
**38**. Define clipping .Explain cohen- sutherland algorithm for line clipping
**39.** Explain Bresenhams line drawing algorithm.
**40.** Write the composition transformation matrix for scaling, translation and Rotation.
**41.** What are the advantages and disadvantages of DDA algorithm?
**42.** Applying Bresenham’s algorithm to draw a line from (4, 4) and end point is (-3, 0).
**43.** Write the matrix representation for 3-d transformation?
**44.** Describe Morphing with an example.
**45. **Discuss about composite transformations.
**46.** What is Gouraud shading? What is Fast Phong shading?
**47.** How the rotation of an object about the pivot point is performed?
**48.** Explain the pipeline for transforming a view of a world-coordinate scene to device coordinates.
**49.** Consider a line from (0, 0) to (6, 7).Using simple DDA algorithm, rasterize this line.
**50.** Calculate the new coordinates of a block rotated about x axis by an angle of 30 degrees. The original coordinates of the block are given relative to the global xyz axis system.
A (1, 1, 2) B (2, I, 2) C (2, 2, 2) D (1, 2, 2)
E (1, 1, 1) F (2, 1, 1) G (2, 2, 1) H (1, 2, 1).
**51.** Define clipping? What is fixed point scaling?
**52. **The reflection along the line y=x is equivalent to the reflection along the x-asis followed by counter clockwise rotation by D degree. Find the value of D.
**53. **Calculate the pixel location approximating the first octant of a circle having centre at (4, 5) and radius 4 units using bresenham’s algorithm.
**54.**Discuss on area subdivision method of hidden surface identification algorithm.
**55.** Define shadow masking and Beam penetration method.
**56.** What is vertex list, edge list & surface list for polygon surface?
**57.** Distinguish between convex and concave polygons?
**58.** Differentiate between interpolation spline and approximation spline?
**59.** What are the advantages of laser printer?
**60.** What is diffusion reflection & Lambertion reflection?
**61. **Compare and contrast between RGB and CMY color model.
**62.** List any four Graphical system disadvantages.
**63. **Explain Visualization.
**64.** Discuss in detail about the advantages of Graphical User Interface.
**65.** Explain the following transformation with the matrix representations. Give suitable diagram for illustration, i) translation. ii) Scaling. iii) rotation.
**66. **What is match-band effect in shading? How to eliminate it?
**67.** Define computer graphics animation? Define frame and key frame? What is the normal speed of a visual animation?
**68.** Consider a raster system with the resolution of 1024 x 768 pixels and the color palette calls for 65,536 colors. What is the minimum amount of video RAM that the computer must have to support the above mentioned resolution and number of colors?
**69.** Define B-Spline and spline? Differentiate between interpolation spline and approximation spline?
**70.** Write down and explain the midpoint circle drawing algorithm. Assume 10 cm as the radius and co-ordinate origin as the centre of the circle.
**71.** What is cavalier projection and cabinet projection?
**72**. What you mean by parallel projection and Perspective projection?
**73.** Define Projection. Explain different types of parallel projections?
**74.** Distinguish between window port & view port?
**75.** What is the use of hidden line removing algorithm? Explain.
**76.** What is Bezier Basis Function? What are the important properties of Bezier Curve?
**77.** What are the steps involved in 3D transformation?
**78**. A cube has. its vertices located at A(0, 0, 10), B(10, 0,10), C(10, 10, 10), D (0, 10,10), E(0,0,0), F(10, 0, 0), G(10, 10, 0), 11(0, 10, 0). The Y axis is vertical and Z axis is oriented towards the viewer. The cube is being viewed from point (0, 20.80). Calculate
the perspective view of the cube on XY plane.
**79.** What is Transformation? Define translation, rotation and scaling shearing and reflection.
**80**. What is Fractals? What is a Fractal Dimension? What is random fractal and geometric fractal?
**81**. What are the features of Inkjet printers and electrostatic plotters?
**82.** Define view plane and view distance? What is Projection reference point? Explain the use of it?
**83.** What is vanishing point? What do you mean by principle vanishing point? Explain.
**84.** How much time is spent scanning across each row of pixels during screen refresh on a raster system with resolution of 1280 X 1024 and a refresh rate of 60 frames per second?
**85.** Use the Cohen Sutherland algorithm to clip line P1 (70 , 20) and p2(100,10) against a window lower left hand corner (50,10) and upper right hand corner (80,40).
**86.** Write a note on hidden surface removal.
**87.** List the differences between perspective projection and parallel projection.
**88.** Write objective of MPEG, discuss how the I-frame, P-frame and B-frames useful in video compression.
**89**. What does the A-buffer algorithm specify?
**90.** What is inside-outside test?
**91.** What is animation? What are the steps involved in it?
**92**. Write notes on 3D viewing.
**93.** Explain halftoning and phong shading.
**94. **Write the equation of Bezier curve. Draw the Bezier curve using a set of control points (1, 2) (4, 5) (7, 7) and (9, 3).test the order of continuity.
**95.** What are the methods involved in projecting three dimensional objects on a two dimensional view plane? Explain.
**96**. Discuss the Illumination and shading models for polygons.
**97.** Explain 3D basic transformations with an example.
**98. **Discuss the computer animation technique.
**99.** .Explain the Depth-sorting method for the elimination of Hidden surfaces. What are the basic functions it performs?
**100**. Discuss Depth sorting method for hidden surface elimination. What tests are performed when there is depth overlap?
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