Control rod

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Control rod
Control rod is a rod made of chemical elements capable of absorbing many neutrons without fissioning themselves. They are used in nuclear reactors to control the rate of fission of uranium and plutonium. Because these elements have different capture cross sections for neutrons of varying energies, the compositions of the control rods must be designed for the neutron spectrum of the reactor it is supposed to control. Light water reactors (BWR, PWR) operate with "thermal" neutrons, breeder reactors with "fast" neutrons.
Operation principle

Control rods are usually combined into control rod assemblies — typically 20 rods for a commercial Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assembly — and inserted into guide tubes within a fuel element. A control rod is removed from or inserted into the central core of a nuclear reactor in order to control the neutron flux — increase or decrease the number of neutrons which will split further uranium atoms. This in turn affects the thermal power of the reactor, the amount of steam generated, and hence the electricity produced.

Control rods often stand vertically within the core. In pressurised water reactors (PWR), they are inserted from above, the control rod drive mechanisms being mounted on the reactor pressure vessel head. Due to the necessity of a steam dryer above the core of a boiling water reactor (BWR) this design requires insertion of the control rods from underneath the core. The control rods are partially removed from the core to allow a chain reaction to occur. The number of control rods inserted and the distance by which they are inserted can be varied to control the reactivity of the reactor.
Materials used

Chemical elements with a sufficiently high capture cross section for neutrons include silver, indium and cadmium. Other elements that can be used include boron, cobalt, hafnium, dysprosium, gadolinium, samarium, erbium, and europium, or their alloys and compounds, e.g. high-boron steel, silver-indium-cadmium alloy, boron carbide, zirconium diboride, titanium diboride, hafnium diboride, gadolinium titanate, and dysprosium titanate. The choice of materials is influenced by the energy of neutrons in the reactor, their resistance to neutron-induced swelling, and the required mechanical and lifetime properties. The rods may have the form of stainless steel tubes filled with neutron absorbing pellets or powder. The swelling of the material in the neutron flux can cause deformation of the rod, leading to its premature replacement. The burnup of the absorbing isotopes is another limiting lifetime factor.

Silver-indium-cadmium alloys, generally 80% Ag, 15% In, and 5% Cd, are a common control rod material for pressurized water reactors. The somewhat different energy absorption regions of the materials make the alloy an excellent neutron absorber. It has good mechanical strength and can be easily fabricated. It has to be encased in stainless steel to prevent corrosion in hot water.
Boron is another common neutron absorber. Due to different cross sections of 10B and 11B, boron containing materials enriched in 10B by isotopic separation are frequently used. The wide absorption spectrum of boron makes it suitable also as a neutron shield. Mechanical properties of boron in its elementary form are unfavorable, therefore alloys or compounds have to be used instead. Common choices are high-boron steel and boron carbide. Boron carbide is used as a control rod material in both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors.
Hafnium has excellent properties for reactors using water for both moderation and cooling. It has good mechanical strength, can be easily fabricated, and is resistant to corrosion in hot water. Hafnium can be alloyed with small amounts of other elements; e.g. tin and oxygen to increase tensile and creep strength, iron, chromium and niobium for corrosion resistance, and molybdenum for wear resistance, hardness, and machineability. Some such alloys are designated as Hafaloy, Hafaloy-M, Hafaloy-N, and Hafaloy-NM. Its high cost and low availability limit its use in civilian reactors, though it is used in some US Navy reactors.
Dysprosium titanate is a new material currently undergoing evaluation for pressurized water control rods. Dysprosium titanate is a promising replacement for Ag-In-Cd alloys due to its much higher melting point, no tendency to react with cladding materials, simple fabrication, non-radioactive waste, no swelling, and no outgassing. It was developed in Russia, and is recommended by some for VVER and RBMK reactors.
Hafnium diboride is another such new material. It can be used standalone or prepared in a sintered mixture of hafnium and boron carbide powders.

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