D E M O K R I T • Distributed E-‐Mobility on Kriti
Short Description of concept and feasibility study for the implementation of a
solar-‐powered public and private e-‐mobility system for citizens and visitors of
the Mediterranean island of Crete (Kriti) | Version 2.0
Crete is only the 5th largest island in the Mediterranean, but its significance as the birthplace of the Myce-‐
Crete has a wonderful climate, is home to a proud and creative population, it is a tourist magnet of the
first order, (25% of tourism in Greece), and a prominent farmer location for fruits, fine wines and world
famous honey & olive oil.
But the island has severe problems: The power generation is inadequate; it is based solely on the
combustion of diesel and marine oil. The power supply is poor and deficient. Constant blackouts are
common. The traffic situation is the same: there is no attractive rail-‐based transport network, the roads
are out-‐dated, the traffic in particular the transport of goods is dangerous, and the costs of fuels run away
exceptionally quickly. High unemployment, declining incomes and rising prices characterize the economic
situation. Finally, tourism -‐ the backbone of the Cretan economy -‐ is also in trouble and that for years.
Due to lack of investment Crete has lost contact to its competitors in many places.
Crete needs new ideas and investments, significantly better infrastructure, more ecologic protection, mo-‐
re cultural support and a pioneering tourism. Crete needs a courageous "Minoan" leap over the past at
the top of the 21 Century. Yes, Crete can do it...
in this situation we want to help to change the positive development on the island with our project
development on the island should be carefully examined, discussed and debated with those concerned if
it is to be successful. Therefore we are convinced that the very innovative concepts, we propose, must be
evaluated and investigated in a investigated for possible unintended side effects and. Our proposal is also
that the results have to be implemented in a discourse of civil society in Crete and translated into a sort
of master plan.
Our proposal is a brand new intelligent energy & transport and business concept Crete. We want to de-‐
monstrate that it is a feasible task to
establish the missing, public rail transport as a modern, fast and environmentally friendly system
take the power for this system not from the already weak Cretan supply system but from a auto-‐
establish a real tourist attraction on the island, not only because it is reasonable and eco-‐friendly,
that you will not find elsewhere;
have a low-‐cost and mass-‐accepted tariff system and customer/owner system, which leads to a
create jobs and stimulate the economy, because the system itself is a Job Machine, the tourism
will be boosted so that the entire economy of the island will be strengthened
built, maintained and developed the main technical components of the system (trains, cars, bikes)
use brilliant new composite materials and design principles that have unlike conventional materials
finally define a model for similar environments, economic zones and cultures and will help Crete
These objectives will be implemented with the following concept study modules:
1. The airports of Chania, Heraklion and Sitia as described in Figure 1 shall be connected with a mono-‐
rail train similar to that one that is currently constructed in Brazil for the Olympic Games. On these
lines, all other towns on the northern coast of Crete to be tied, which lie between the airport and the
main focus of tourist attractions in Crete. The track serves both passenger transport such as road
2. The routing system with its approximate length of 300 km will be used on the entire length to inte-‐
grate the greatest number of photovoltaic modules in the rail construction, the station buildings and
other buildings. As shown in Figure 2 PV power plant build of about 150 MV line and to generate the
power for the train.
Figure 1: Mono-‐Rail Routing
3. The stations shall also be distribution and service centres for electric cars and electric bicycles, so
the right to use the other electric vehicle and share ist. If you want to "share" an e-‐car or an electric
bike you may also take the train conversely. The stations are therefore at the same time technical
and logistical venues for the private transportation sector. This model explicitly allows room for
other stakeholders (eg private car rental companies).
4. The electrical supply to the private e-‐transport is handled via the railway stations stations. The cars
and bikes are cared for there by fast charging or battery replacement after the model of Better Place
with the solar power of the web.
5. Since in particular the e-‐cars but also e-‐bikes are very expensive at the moment, on Crete is a
manufacturing or final assembly of vehicles of both types to be built that are particularly com-‐
petitive. Priority is given to new production techniques and the model at the centre of policy targets.
6. Particular attention will be paid to the materials used and their CO2 footprint. Therefore primarily to
natural composites are used (less than 10% of the CO2 balance of steel, aluminium, etc.). The raw
materials for this should come from the local Cretan agriculture, specifically for economic and
7. The system requires a uniform tariff and usage system. A model for the user tariff for visitors and
citizens to develop. This tariff system should also include cultural and tourist activities. With the train
fare is a broad concept of "Car-‐sharing" are connected, which is separate from the conventional car
hire or replace them.
We consider the completion of the investigation tasks of the study, divided into 10 sections, as follows.
The topics will be covered by and with the partners (which have partially not been included in the
planning yet, but are listed here as the experts, see »Disclaimer«) discussed and then implemented by
them. And very important to us, whatever may become of the project, an insightful study and a
magnificent book is it in any case.
The investigative tasks of the study are as follows:
I. Construction of the railway, routing, environmental influences: Bombadier, Forster + Partner
GmbH and investigate in cooperation with ZETA Constructions SA and the Technical University of
Crete, the rail concept, the features, the design of the features and design of the stations and the
construction of the railway line. Bombadier to investigate the combination of passenger and cargo
II. Integration of the PV power plant: investigate SolarWorld, Mechatron and Foster + Partners, the
PV power plant concept, the design of the equipment, building integration, etc.
III. Overall architectural solution: Foster + Partners to develop a total architectural design of the track
and the trains.
IV. Operation and maintenance of the trains: Bombardier developed the concept of operations and
the O & M plan for the "Monorail" Trains
V. E-‐Mobility Integration into the stations: Bombadier, NAMCO, IFM, SolarWorld and Foster +
Partners examine how the private electric vehicles can be integrated at the stations in the entire
system, power is to be examined under alternative approaches
VI. Design and manufacturing concept of private electric vehicles: NAMCO, IFM, Oxyx Composite and
TU Crete develop cost models for e-‐vehicles, both people moving and transport should also be mat-‐
Oxyx Composite to develope a concept for the use of natural compounds for frame & body-‐
the delivery of raw materials.
VII. Car-‐Sharing & tariff system: Dt. Carsharing Association developed a functioning tourist fare system
based on different models of renting and sharing. The cultural and tourist service model is the Dt.
Car sharing association studied.
VIII. Modes of funding: Solar Development Consulting developed a comprehensive financing strategy
for planning, construction and operation of the entire system including the power generation and
IX. Acceptance Studies, Economic Impact: Solar Development Consulting conducts extensive social
science research acceptance over the whole range of methodological
European Parliament the social discourse on the concept of civil society in Crete.
In our opinion »innovative« in the strict sense is the following:
The combination of rail-‐transport with an autonomous power supply from renewable sources,
The design of the entire system with a comprehensive design that covers all system components
The combination of a transport system for citizens and tourists with a simple and harmonized
The concept of developing well-‐functioning and low-‐cost electric cars with a thoughtful charging
A major project of this kind joined in social discourse in advance -‐ in the sense of a learning
DEMOKRIT promotes international cooperation for future partners in the creation of the internal energy
market. As unquestionably the project does this through the rational use of energy resources and the ac-‐
cess to renewable energy sources for sustainable development. The intended effects of the economic
approach are equally positively as they affect the entire European financial and economic situation positi-‐
gy shortages and massive traffic problems on the island. Crete should not be the "battery of Europe", it is
to benefit from its resources of the island through a cost-‐effective, energy-‐self-‐sufficient and sustainable
transport system of public and private e-‐mobility for tourists and Cretan population as well so it can offer
a working way out of the cost and supply gap on the island.
The main added value of DEMOKRIT, however, is: the concept is a solution for the Mediterranean region.
When this model can be implemented in Crete, it is also applicable to all other islands or regions with si-‐
milar conditions in the Mediterranean. It has therefore a dedicated European added value for the EU
Member States of the Mediterranean region mainly affected by the euro and state crisis in particular.
What fits to »STEER«
DEMOKRIT is a proposal for an application to the EU STEER program because our proposal it is precisely
in the focus of the STEER program. STEER has two dedicated targets to be especially encouraged:
Energy-‐efficient transport: measures to reduce the circulation of private vehicles and road transport and
to shift to more efficient modes and traffic systems.
Clean and energy efficient vehicles: Measures that help to transform the market towards more energy-‐
efficient vehicles and to support and supplement the recent legislation in this area.
goals of the STEER program in the framework of the offered EU added values:
1. The proposed concept of a solar-‐powered monorail that transports both persons and for goods; for
Crete it is in particular a very efficient mode of transport, which contributes in an outstanding way to
2. The proposed concept for the explicit production of efficient and cost-‐effective electric vehicles contri-‐
butes in a marvellous way to transform the market towards more energy-‐efficient vehicles; our proposal,
however, focuses the energy-‐efficiency not only on the traction-‐technology, but also on the manufactu-‐
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The information in this document is the copyright of the author Prof. Dr. Dieter Otten, University of Osnabrück and
Member of the »Stiftung Internetforschung«, Germany. The cited names, institutions and companies in this
document as »partners« are understood exclusively as indication of the professional competence and technical
excellence of the cited institutions and persons in the opinion of the author. For the involvement of the cited in the
concept, they yet are to be informed, invited and convinced. The goal of the document is to form a platform and team
of invited pandits and companies, in order to carry out a pre-‐feasibility study for distributed e-‐mobility on Crete. The
main target however shall be to build it with the support of all.
The document is for information purposes only and is not intended for investors potentially interested in acquiring a
business. It is not intended and cannot replace a financial, technical, environmental, legal and any other due diligence
deemed necessary. This document further contains no representation or warranty and does not represent a
solicitation to submit a binding offer. The institutions named in this paper as »partners« are not linked to this
documents by any kind of agreement or consultation. The information included in this document is a proposal strictly
scientific and is intended to open a public discussion. The information in this document – even though protect by
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