Define the following key concepts and terms



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Chapter 13: European Society in the Age of the Renaissance
Define the following key concepts and terms.


Renaissance

Communes


Oligarchy

Popolo

Condottieri

Signori

Princely courts

Republic

Humanism


Individualism

Secularism

Christian Humanism

Patrons


“Orders”

“debate about women”

Gabelle

Pragmatic Sanction of Bouges



War of the Roses

Royal council

Court of Star Chamber

Justices of the Peace



Hermandades

Spanish conversos(New Christians)




Identify and explain the significance of the following people and terms.


Francesco Petrarch

Giovanni Boccaccio

Pico della Mirandola

Desiderius Erasmus

Thomas More

Donatello

Baldassare Castiglione

Niccolo Machiavelli

John Gutenberg

Lorenzo Valla

Savonarola

Brunelleschi

Leonardo da Vinci

Michelangelo

Masaccio

Conquest of Granada

Habsburg-Valois wars

Jan van Eyck

Jerome Bosch

Francois Rabelais




Explain why each of the following is considered a “new monarch”.

Louis XI of France—

Henry VII of England—

Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain—

Charles VII of France—

Cesare Borgia—


Review Questions

  1. What five powers dominated the Italian peninsula in the fifteenth century? How did the Italian city-states contribute to modern diplomacy?

  2. Why did Italy become a battleground for the European superpowers after 1494?

  3. What is humanism? What do humanists emphasize?

  4. How does the concept of individualism help explain the Renaissance? Did women and common people play a role in the Renaissance?

  5. Discuss Christian humanism by describing the works and ideas of Thomas More and Desiderius Erasmus.

  6. How did the invention of movable type revolutionize European life?

  7. How was Renaissance art different from medieval art?

  8. How did the Renaissance in northern Europe differ from that of Italy?

  9. Why were blacks valued in Renaissance society? What roles did they play in the economic and social life of the times?

  10. There was a new social class in twelfth-century Italy of wealthy urban merchants and bankers. How and why did this social class come into being and how did it affect the movement toward republican government?

  11. In what ways did life for upper-class women change during the Renaissance?

  12. What were the obstacles to royal authority faced by the kings of France in the Fifteenth century? How did Charles VII and his successors strengthen the French monarchy?

  13. What devices did Henry VII of England use to check the power of the aristocracy and strengthen the monarchy?

  14. What were the achievements of Ferdinand and Isabella in the areas of national power and national expansion? How did they accomplish this?

  15. Who were the New Christians (conversos) in Spain and why were they ultimately killed or expelled?





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