Encapsulate what varies



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Encapsulate what varies



“Abstraction arises from a recognition of similarities between certain objects, situations, or processes in the real world, and the decision to concentrate upon those similarities and to ignore for the time being the differences.” Tony Hoare

  • “Abstraction arises from a recognition of similarities between certain objects, situations, or processes in the real world, and the decision to concentrate upon those similarities and to ignore for the time being the differences.” Tony Hoare

  • “An abstraction denotes the essential characteristics of an object that distinguish it from all other kinds of objects and thus provide crisply defined conceptual boundaries, relative to the perspective of the viewer.” Grady Booch

  • Q: Examples in programming/code?

  • Q: Why abstraction?



“Encapsulation is the process of compartmentalizing the elements of an abstraction that constitute its structure and behavior; encapsulation serves to separate the contractual interface of an abstraction and its implementation.” Grady Booch

  • “Encapsulation is the process of compartmentalizing the elements of an abstraction that constitute its structure and behavior; encapsulation serves to separate the contractual interface of an abstraction and its implementation.” Grady Booch

  • “Encapsulation is a mechanism used to hide the data, internal structure, and implementation details of an object. All interaction with the object is through a public interface of operations.” Craig Larman

  • Q: Language constructs that support encapsulation?

  • Q: Why encapsulation?



Classes should be opaque

  • Classes should be opaque

  • Classes should not expose their internal implementation details

  • Use getters and setters

    • Compare
  • public double speed;

    • vs
      • private double speed;
      • public double getSpeed() { return speed; }
      • public void setSpeed(double speed) { this.speed = speed; }


Classes should be opaque

  • Classes should be opaque

  • Classes should not expose their internal implementation details

  • Use getters and setters

    • Compare
  • public double speed;

    • vs.
      • private double speed;
      • public double getSpeed() { return speed; }
      • public void setSpeed(double speed) { this.speed = speed; }


Centralized checking of constraints

  • Centralized checking of constraints

  • Add useful side-effects (monitoring)

  • Decouple internal representation from function:

    • Improved encapsulation
    • Reduced coupling of components


Encapsulate what varies

  • Encapsulate what varies

  • Minimize access of members

  • Favor composition over inheritance

  • Program to interface

  • Open-closed principle

  • Liskov substitution principle



Two different methods for code reuse

  • Two different methods for code reuse

  • Delegation (prototype) vs inheritance (OO)

  • Black box vs. white/grey box reuse

  • Q: pros and cons? which one to use?



Method of reuse in which new functionality is obtained by creating an object composed of other objects

  • Method of reuse in which new functionality is obtained by creating an object composed of other objects

    • New functionality obtained by delegating to objects being composed
  • Sometimes called aggregation or containment

    • Aggregation - when one object owns or is responsible for another object and both objects have identical lifetimes (GoF)
    • Aggregation - when one object has a collection of objects that can exist on their own (UML)
    • Containment - a special kind of composition in which the contained object is hidden from other objects and access to the contained object is only via the container object (Coad)


Contained objects are accessed by the containing class solely through their interfaces

  • Contained objects are accessed by the containing class solely through their interfaces

  • "Black-box" reuse, since internal details of contained objects are not visible

  • Good encapsulation

  • Fewer implementation dependencies

  • Each class is focused on just one task (cohesion)

  • The composition can be defined dynamically at run-time through objects acquiring references to other objects of the same type



Resulting systems tend to have more objects

  • Resulting systems tend to have more objects

  • Interfaces must be carefully defined in order to use many different objects as composition blocks



Method of reuse in which new functionality is obtained by extending the implementation of an existing object

  • Method of reuse in which new functionality is obtained by extending the implementation of an existing object

  • The generalization class (superclass) explicitly captures the common attributes and methods

  • The specialization class (subclass) extends the implementation with additional attributes and methods



New implementation is easy, since most of it is inherited

  • New implementation is easy, since most of it is inherited

  • Easy to modify or extend the implementation being reused



Breaks encapsulation, since it exposes a subclass to implementation details of its superclass

  • Breaks encapsulation, since it exposes a subclass to implementation details of its superclass

  • "White-box" reuse, since internal details of superclasses are often visible to subclasses

  • Subclasses may have to be changed if the implementation of the superclass changes

  • Implementations inherited from superclasses can not be changed at runtime.



public class InstrumentedHashSet extends HashSet {

  • public class InstrumentedHashSet extends HashSet {

  • private int addCount = 0; // The number of attempted element insertions

  • public InstrumentedHashSet() { super(); }

  • public boolean add(E e) {

  • addCount++; return super.add(e); }

  • public boolean addAll(Collection c) {

  • addCount += c.size(); return super.addAll(c); }

  • public int getAddCount() { return addCount; }

  • }













Look at the API document, e.g., JDK 8 says

  • Look at the API document, e.g., JDK 8 says

        • public boolean addAll(Collection c) of AbstractCollection
        • Adds all of the elements in the specified collection to this collection (optional operation). …This implementation iterates over the specified collection, and adds each object returned by the iterator to this collection, in turn. …
  • Look at the source code.

    • The internal implementation of addAll() in the superclass superclass invokes the add() method!
    • First we add 2 to addCount in InstrumentedHashSet’s addAll().
    • Then we invoke super’s addAll().
      • For each element, this addAll() invokes the add() method,
      • which as overridden by InstrumentedHashSet adds one for each element.


Look at the API document, e.g., JDK 7 says

  • Look at the API document, e.g., JDK 7 says

        • public boolean addAll(Collection c) of AbstractCollection
        • Adds all of the elements in the specified collection to this collection (optional operation). …This implementation iterates over the specified collection, and adds each object returned by the iterator to this collection, in turn.
  • Look at the source code.

    • The internal implementation of addAll() in the superclass superclass invokes the add() method!
    • First we add 2 to addCount in InstrumentedHashSet’s addAll().
    • Then we invoke super’s addAll().
      • For each element, this addAll() invokes the add() method,
      • which as overridden by InstrumentedHashSet adds one for each element.






Let’s write an InstrumentedSet class that is composed of a Set object.

  • Let’s write an InstrumentedSet class that is composed of a Set object.

  • Our InstrumentedSet class will duplicate the Set interface, but all Set operations will actually be forwarded to the contained Set object.

  • The contained Set object can be an object of any class that implements the Set interface (and not just a HashSet)



public class InstrumentedSet implements Set {

  • public class InstrumentedSet implements Set {

  • private final Set s;

  • private int addCount = 0;

  • public InstrumentedSet() { s = new HashSet(); }

  • public boolean add(E e) {

  • addCount++; return s.add(e);

  • }

  • public boolean addAll(addAll(Collection c) {

  • addCount += c.size(); return s.addAll(c);

  • }

  • public int getAddCount() { return addCount; }



public void clear() { s.clear(); }

  • public void clear() { s.clear(); }

  • public boolean contains(E e) { return s.contains(e); }

  • public boolean isEmpty() { return s.isEmpty(); }

  • public int size() { return s.size(); }

  • public Iterator iterator() { return s.iterator(); }

  • public boolean remove(E e) { return s.remove(e); }

  • public boolean containsAll(Collection c) { return s.containsAll(c); }

  • public boolean removeAll(Collection c) { return s.removeAll(c); }

  • public boolean retainAll(Collection c) { return s.retainAll(c); }

  • public E[] toArray() { return s.toArray(); }

  • public E[] toArray(E[] a) { return s.toArray(a); }

  • public boolean equals(E e) { return s.equals(e); }

  • public int hashCode() { return s.hashCode(); }

  • public String toString() { return s.toString(); }



Use inheritance only when all of the following criteria are satisfied:

  • Use inheritance only when all of the following criteria are satisfied:

  • A subclass expresses “is a special kind of” and not “is a role played by a.”

  • An instance of a subclass never needs to become an object of another class.

  • A subclass extends, rather than overrides or nullifies, the responsibilities of its superclass.

  • A subclass does not extend the capabilities of what is merely a utility class.

  • For a class in the actual Problem Domain, the subclass specializes a role, transaction or device.



Encapsulate what varies

  • Encapsulate what varies

  • Minimize access of members

  • Favor composition over inheritance

  • Program to interface

  • Open-closed principle

  • Liskov substitution principle



Q: interface vs. implementation?

  • Q: interface vs. implementation?

    • A sorted set class provides a “choose” operation that returns an arbitrary element contained in the set. You learned that the operation always returns the smallest element of the set. Is this an interface or implementation feature?


Interfaces express types in a limited way.

  • Interfaces express types in a limited way.

  • An interface is the set of methods one object knows that it can invoke on another object.

  • An object can have many interfaces.

  • Different objects can have the same type and the same object can have many different types.

  • An object is known by other objects only through its interface.







Clients are unaware of the specific class of the object they are using.

  • Clients are unaware of the specific class of the object they are using.

  • One object can be easily replaced by another.

  • Object connections need not be hardwired to an object of a specific class, thereby increasing flexibility

  • Loosens coupling.

  • Increases likelihood of reuse

  • Improves opportunities for composition since contained objects can be of any class that implements a specific interface



Encapsulate what varies

  • Encapsulate what varies

  • Minimize access of members

  • Favor composition over inheritance

  • Program to interface

  • Open-closed principle

  • Liskov substitution principle



Software should be open for extension, but closed for modification

  • Software should be open for extension, but closed for modification



The Open-Closed Principle (OCP) says that we should attempt to design modules that never need to be changed.

  • The Open-Closed Principle (OCP) says that we should attempt to design modules that never need to be changed.

  • To extend the behavior of the system, we add new code. We do not modify old code.

  • Modules that conform to the OCP meet two criteria:

    • Open For Extension - The behavior of the module can be extended to meet new requirements.
    • Closed For Modification - the source code of the module is not allowed to change.
  • How can we do this?

    • Abstraction
    • Polymorphism
    • Inheritance
    • Interfaces
    • Design patterns such as template methods
    • New programming paradigms or languages such as AOP and AspectJ


Consider the following method that totals the price of each part in the specified array of parts of some class:

  • Consider the following method that totals the price of each part in the specified array of parts of some class:

    • public double totalPrice(Part[] parts) {
    • double total = 0.0;
    • for (Part p: parts) {
    • total += p.getPrice();
    • }
    • return total;
    • }
  • If Part is a base class or an interface and polymorphism is being used, then this class can easily accommodate new types of parts without having to be modified!

  • It conforms to the OCP.



Suppose the Accounting Department decrees that motherboard parts and memory parts should have a premium applied when figuring the total price.

  • Suppose the Accounting Department decrees that motherboard parts and memory parts should have a premium applied when figuring the total price.

    • public double totalPrice(Part[] parts) {
    • double total = 0.0;
    • for (Part p: parts) {
    • if (p instanceof Motherboard)
    • total += (1.45 * p.getPrice());
    • else if (p instanceof Memory)
    • total += (1.27 * p.getPrice());
    • else
    • total += p.getPrice();
    • }
    • return total;
    • }


Suppose the Accounting Department decrees that motherboard parts and memory parts should have a premium applied when figuring the total price.

  • Suppose the Accounting Department decrees that motherboard parts and memory parts should have a premium applied when figuring the total price.

    • public double totalPrice(Part[] parts) {
    • double total = 0.0;
    • for (Part p: parts) {
    • if (p instanceof Motherboard)
    • total += (1.45 * p.getPrice());
    • else if (p instanceof Memory)
    • total += (1.27 * p.getPrice());
    • else
    • total += p.getPrice();
    • }
    • return total;
    • }


Suppose the Accounting Department decrees that motherboard parts and memory parts should have a premium applied when figuring the total price.

  • Suppose the Accounting Department decrees that motherboard parts and memory parts should have a premium applied when figuring the total price.

    • public double totalPrice(Part[] parts) {
    • double total = 0.0;
    • for (Part p: parts) {
    • if (p instanceof Motherboard)
    • total += (1.45 * p.getPrice());
    • else if (p instanceof Memory)
    • total += (1.27 * p.getPrice());
    • else
    • total += p.getPrice();
    • }
    • return total;
    • }


A better idea is to have a PricePolicy class which can be used to provide different pricing policies:

  • A better idea is to have a PricePolicy class which can be used to provide different pricing policies:

    • public class Part {
    • private double price;
    • private PricePolicy pricePolicy;
    • public void setPricePolicy(PricePolicy pricePolicy)
    • { this.pricePolicy = pricePolicy; }
    • public void setPrice(double price) { this.price = price; }
    • public double getPrice() { return pricePolicy.getPrice(price); }
    • }


/**

  • /**

  • * Class PricePolicy implements a given price policy.

  • */

  • public class PricePolicy {

  • private double factor;

  • public PricePolicy (double factor) { this.factor = factor; }

  • public double getPrice(double price) {

  • return price * factor;

  • }

  • }



/**

  • /**

  • * Class PricePolicy implements a given price policy.

  • */

  • public class PricePolicy {

  • private double factor;

  • public PricePolicy (double factor) { this.factor = factor; }

  • public double getPrice(double price) {

  • return price * factor;

  • }

  • }



An example of OCP application from standard libraries or frameworks like JDK?

  • An example of OCP application from standard libraries or frameworks like JDK?



Encapsulate what varies

  • Encapsulate what varies

  • Minimize access of members

  • Favor composition over inheritance

  • Program to interface

  • Open-closed principle

  • Liskov substitution principle



An object of a subtype may be substituted for an object of its supertypes.

  • An object of a subtype may be substituted for an object of its supertypes.

    • An object of a subtype should behave like an object of its supertypes.
    • Q: Why?
  • A program that uses supertypes must be able to use objects of the subtypes.

  • Barbara Liskov, Turing Award 2008



Syntactically:

  • Syntactically:

    • If a method T1 m(T2 x) of class T is overridden in a subclass S,
    • T2_S is a superclass of T2_T (contra-variance of argument types)
    • T1_S is a subclass of T1_T (covariance of return type)
    • Q: Java rule?
    • Q: How about exceptions that may be thrown?
  • Semantically:

    • An overriding method should behave like an overridden method
    • Pre_TPre_S
    • Post_SPost_T


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