(b Prague, 29 March 1928). Czech composer. In 1953 he graduated from the Prague Academy of Musical Arts as a pupil of Bořkovec and Dobiáš; he also studied English and music education at Prague University, graduating in 1952. Thereafter he studied theory with Karel Janeček (ScC 1961, PhD 1966). He was editor of Hudební rozhledy (1959–61) and in 1960 was appointed assistant in the music theory department of the Prague Academy and lecturer in 1973. He was dean of the music faculty (1985–90) and deputy chairman of the Union of Czech Composers (1978–89). His attitudes as a composer were formed by his work with student ensembles and by a profound interest in Czech folksong. In addition, his music reflects his wide theoretical knowledge: he has made some use of novel techniques, though these have not been a dominant feature. His subjects are often taken from the world of children or from nature, and contain moral or philosophical messages. His choral compositions are popular among children's choruses and many chamber pieces have been performed widely at home and abroad.
Stage: Mariana (op, 4, Z. Malý, after J. Kozák), 1982, Brno, 11 April 1985
Vocal: Helenčin svět [Helen's World] (cycle of children's choruses, F. Hrubín), 1960; Otevřený dům [The Open House] (chbr cant., M. Florian), C, T, pf, 1961; Nejkrásnější zem [The Most Beautiful Country] (cycle of female choruses, J. Hora), 1973; Nad postýlkou [By the Cot] (Z. Malý), song cycle, S, pf, 1975; Sententiae Nasonis, mixed chorus, 1995
Chbr and solo inst: Sonata a 3, vn, va, hp, 1967; Brass Qnt, 1972; Wind Qnt, 1972; Sonata da requiem, hn/b cl, pf, 1974; Sonata lirica, ob, pf, 1978; Quartetto amoroso, str qt, 1979; Sonata capricciosa, fl, pf, 1981; Sonata poetica, pf, 1988; Sonata concertante, va, pf, 1989
Principal publishers: Český hudební fond, DILIA, Panton, Sup.
Smetanova harmonie [Smetana's harmony] (diss., Charles U., Prague, 1957)
Přínos díla Karla Janečka pro hudební analýzu [Karel Janeček's contribution to musical analysis], HRo, xxxi (1978), 274–9
Základní problémy nauky o hudebních formách [Fundamental problems of musical forms], Živá hudba, viii (1983), 36
J.Macek: ‘Sborová tvorba Václava Felixe’ [The choral works of Václav Felix], HRo, xiii (1960), 754–7
M.Zenkl: ‘Sborová tvorba Václava Felixe’ [The choral works of Václav Felix], HRo, xxxiv (1981), 452–5
A plainchant melody used occasionally in vocal compositions up to the 15th century, and more frequently in English organ settings in the 16th century. The offertory Felix namque es, sacra virgo Maria was prescribed in medieval liturgies for certain feasts and for votive Masses of the Virgin (although it is not found in the oldest sources), and was retained in post-Tridentine and more recent usage (see, for example, Graduale Triplex, p.422, and GS, plate r, the latter from the 13th-century manuscript GB-Ob Rawl. lit.d.3, f.88v). Vocal polyphonic settings of the melody from any period are rare, but there is a two-part setting in the ‘insular’ section of the St Andrews manuscript (D-W Helmst.1099, ff.193v, 210v) and a fragmentary troped setting in the Worcester Fragments (MSD, ii, 1957, no.4). A third English setting, from the 15th century (GB-Ob Douce 381, f.23, incomplete), was long held to be an organ piece (Dart); it is written in score, but the words are underlaid, and it seems more likely to be from a two-part vocal setting.
In England during the first half of the 16th century Felix namque was the most often used melody in a repertory of organ settings of Offertory chants, presumably because it was assigned in Salisbury Use to the daily mass of the Blessed Virgin Mary, with a concluding alleluia except between Septuagesima and Easter and on the Vigil of the Assumption. Since the majority of the settings omit the alleluia they were presumably intended for the penitential season. The chief composers of such settings were John Redford and Thomas Preston. A last reflection of this liturgical tradition is seen in two settings by Tallis, which include the intonation (usually omitted) and alleluia; they are very long and are probably not, in their surviving form, liturgical. Examples of English keyboard settings are printed in MB, i (1966), MB, lxvi (1995) (Tallis) and EECM, x (1969).
T.Dart: ‘A New Source of Early English Organ Music’, ML, xxxv (1954), 205 only
F.Ll.Harrison: Music in Medieval Britain (London, 1958, 4/1980)
J.Caldwell: English Keyboard Music before the Nineteenth Century (Oxford, 1973/R)
(b Milan, 4 Nov 1927). Italian composer. He studied composition with Luciano Chailly at the Milan Conservatory, graduating in 1951, while at the same time taking university courses in mathematics and physics. In 1955 and 1956 he attended the Darmstadt summer courses. Between 1956 and 1959 he was secretary to the Accademia Filarmonica in Rome, and from 1960 to the Italian branch of the ISCM; his Requiem di Madrid gained him an award at the latter’s first international composition competition, in 1959. In 1960 he began to teach harmony, counterpoint, fugue and composition at the Donizetti Institute in Bergamo, and in 1982 he was appointed artistic director of the Bergamo annual Incontri Europei con la Musica.
His earliest compositions display the influence of neo-classicism, in particular the contrapuntal techniques of Hindemith and Petrassi. Towards the end of the 1950s he felt the need for a broader linguistic base and, without seeking to rebel against tradition, he began to exploit the procedures of 12-note serialism as currently applied in Italy. Working within the post-Webernian avant garde, Fellegara, like Nono in his choral music of the same period, placed special emphasis on structuring and enhancing the expressive power that derived from the tensions latent in a 12-note set. Works such as Requiem di Madrid (a setting of a text by García Lorca) and the ballet Mutazioni exhibit a charged dramatic atmosphere and strong ideological commitment. Fellegara subsequently allowed a more intimate, lyrical approach to take over, as in his settings of texts by Eluard (Epitaphe and Chanson) and Leopardi (Cantata). At the same time he began to pay greater attention to niceties of form and the refinement of sound patterns, as in Trauermusik, Metamorfosi and to complex polyphonic construction (Shakespearian Sonnet). From the 1980s on, he has devoted greater attention to chamber music, writing a number of works that demonstrate a return to more traditional formal and stylistic models (as in Herbstmusik: omaggio a Mahler and Nuit d’été) and exploit the expressive and textural possibilities of, for him, new groupings of instruments (such as in Winterzeit and Imaginary Nocturne).
Stage: Mutazioni (ballet, 6 scenes, N. Balestrini), 1962; Milan, La Scala, 1965; Woyzeck (incid music, G. Büchner), 1971; other incid scores; inst arrs. for Weill: Die Dreigroschenoper, Milan, Piccolo, 1956
Choral: Lettere di condannati a morte della resistenza italiana, spkr, chorus, orch, 1954; Requiem di Madrid (F. García Lorca), chorus, orch, 1958; Dies irae (García Lorca), chorus, 6 tpt, timp, perc, 1959; Notturno (P. Verlaine), S, A, male chorus, orch, 1971; 2 Lieder (N. Sachs), female chorus, orch, 1974; Shakespearian Sonnet (W. Shakespeare), 16vv, 1985
Solo vocal: Epigrafe per Ethel e Julius Rosenberg, spkr, 5 insts, 1955; Epitaphe (P. Eluard), S, S, 5 insts, 1964; Cantata (G. Leopardi), S, S, orch, 1966; Madrigale (anon.), (5 solo vv, 14 insts)/(small chorus, chbr orch), 1968; Chanson (Eluard), S, chbr orch, 1974
Orch: Fuga, str, 1951; Conc. for Orch, 1952; Conc. breve, chbr orch, 1956; Sinfonia 1957, 1957; Frammenti I, chbr orch, 1960; Variazioni (Frammenti II), chbr orch, 1961; Mutazioni, 4 sym. fragments, 1962 [from Mutazioni (ballet), 1962]; Pf Conc., 1968; Studi in forma di variazioni, chbr orch, 1978 [after J.S. Bach]; You, Wind of March, fl, orch, 1978; Trauermusik, str, 1981; Contrasti, 12 wind, str, perc, 1982; arrs. of early music