Faà di Bruno, Giovanni Matteo [Horatio, Orazio] 83

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Ferand, Ernest T(homas)

(b Budapest, 5 March 1887; d Basle, 29 May 1972). American musicologist and music educationist of Hungarian birth. After early study of the piano and violin, he took a diploma in composition at the National Hungarian Royal Academy of Music (1911). He remained in Budapest as a teacher at the Fodor Conservatory of Music (1912–19), studied with Jaques-Dalcroze at his school in Hellerau, near Dresden (1913–14), and attended the University of Budapest, studying music history, philosophy and psychology. Besides serving as a music critic for several German and Hungarian newspapers, he contributed articles to music periodicals, played in a symphony orchestra, and was a guest producer at the Royal Hungarian Opera. From 1920 he directed the Dalcroze school at Hellerau, teaching theory, ear training, rhythm and music history. In 1925 he moved with the school to Schloss Laxenburg, near Vienna. Being interested in modern dance, he served as conductor for the Hellerau-Laxenburg Dance Group and collaborated in the production of classical Greek dramas in several ancient theatres and temples in Italy. From 1933 he studied musicology and psychology at the University of Vienna, where he took the doctorate in 1937 with a dissertation on the history of improvisation. He emigrated to the USA in 1938, and began to teach at the New School for Social Research in New York in 1939; he retired to Basle in 1965.

Ferand’s earliest publications reflect his interest in music education, rhythmic training and dance. His major work, Die Improvisation in der Musik (1938), was followed 20 years later by a valuable anthology of examples of improvisation, containing 39 pieces in multiple versions to illustrate the roles of composer and performer in ornamentation and elaboration. Ferand also published many related articles, notable for their philological, philosophical and psychological insights.


Összhangzattan [Harmony manual] (Budapest, 1914)

Die Improvisationspraxis in der Musik (diss., U. of Vienna, 1937; Zürich, 1938 as Die Improvisation in der Musik: eine entwicklungsgeschichtliche und psychologische Untersuchung)

‘The “Howling in Seconds” of the Lombards’, MQ, xxv (1939), 313–24

‘Improvisation in Music History and Education’, PAMS 1940, 115–25

‘Ein neuer Frottola-Fund’, AcM, x (1938), 132–5; Eng. trans., enlarged, as ‘Two Unknown Frottole’, MQ, xxvii (1941), 319–28

‘“Zufallsmusik” und “Komposition” in der Musiklehre der Renaissance’, IMSCR IV: Basle 1949, 103–8

Die Improvisation in Beispielen aus neun Jahrhunderten abendländischer Musik, Mw, xii (1956, 2/1961; Eng. trans., 1961)

‘Improvised Vocal Counterpoint in the Late Renaissance and Early Baroque’, AnnM, iv (1956), 129–74

‘Über verzierte “Parodiekantaten” im frühen 18. Jahrhundert’, Musikwissenschaftlicher Kongress: Vienna 1956, 203–15; Eng. trans. in JAMS, x (1957), 133–7; enlarged in MQ, xliv (1958), 40–64

‘Bemerkungen zu der neuen Quelle von Heinrich Fabers Musica poetica’, Mf, xi (1958), 340–41

‘Begegnungen mit Béla Bartók’, Geist und Werk aus der Werkstatt unserer Autoren, zum 75. Geburtstag von Dr. Daniel Brody (Zürich, 1958), 87–123

‘Zum Begriff der “Compositio” im 15. und 16. Jahrhundert’, IMSCR VII: Cologne 1958, 104–6

‘Guillaume Guerson’s Rules of Improvised Counterpoint (c1500)’, Miscelánea en homenaje a Monseñor Higinio Anglés (Barcelona, 1958–61), 253–63

‘Marcello: A. oder B.?’, Mf, xii (1959), 86 only

‘Die Motetti, Madrigali, et Canzoni francesediminuiti … des Giovanni Bassano (1591)’, Festschrift Helmuth Osthoff, ed. L. Hoffmann-Erbrecht and H. Hucke (Tutzing, 1961), 75–101

Anchor che col partire: die Schiksale eines berühmten Madrigals’, Festschrift Karl Gustav Fellerer zum sechzigsten Geburtstag, ed. H. Hüschen (Regensburg, 1962), 137–54

‘Didactic Embellishment Literature in the Late Renaissance: a Survey of Sources’, Aspects of Medieval and Renaissance Music: a Birthday Offering to Gustave Reese, ed. J. LaRue and others (New York, 1966/R), 154–72


E. Lichtenhahn: ‘Zum Tode von Ernst T. Ferand’, SMz, cxii (1972), 220–21


Ferandiere [Fernandiere, Ferrandiere], Fernando

(b c1740; d c1816). Spanish composer, violinist and guitarist. From 1752 to 1759 he studied at the Colegio Seminario de Músicos in Zamora and was appointed violinist at the cathedrals of Mondoñedo (1761) and Oviedo (1763). In 1769 he obtained the post of second violinist at Málaga Cathedral where, according to his treatise Prontuario músico para el instrumentista de violín y cantor (Málaga, 1771), he also taught music and composed for the theatre. He later became first violinist at the Teatro Español and Teatro Francés in Cádiz. In 1779 he moved to Madrid, where he continued teaching music and composing for the theatre and published his second treatise, Arte de tocar la guitarra española por música (Madrid, 1799/R with Eng. trans. and transcrs., London, 1977; 2/1816). This treatise contains a catalogue of his guitar works. 233 compositions are listed, including 40 trios for guitar, violin and bass, six concertos for guitar with large orchestra, six sacred adagios for quartet, a Theme and Variations and the composition Obra instrumental titulada ‘El ensayo de la Naturaleza’, explicada en tres quartetos de guitarra, violín, flauta y fagót. Almost all these works have been lost.

Ferandiere was a significant figure in Spanish music. His Prontuario provides interesting details of the art of violin playing and singing in late 18th-century Spain, while his Arte is an important manifesto on the future role of the guitar at a crucial moment of transition in the instrument. The small number of his surviving works includes sacred, dramatic and instrumental music, especially for the guitar. His sacred and dramatic works in particular display a balanced mix of formal Italian influence with more popular Hispanic elements.



Villancicos (all 1769): Al agua al mar, SSAT, SATB, insts; Amayna, amayna, SSAT, insts; Oh! Virgen venerada, T, insts: all E-MA

Lamentación segunda del Jueves Santo, B, vn, va, hn, org, b, 1781, ZAc; Mass, SATB, SATB, vn, va, fl, hn, org, b, 1787, SA (inc.)


Tonadillas: La consulta, 1v, 1778; El cortesano y la paya, 2vv, 1778; Los españoles viajantes (2nd part), 3vv, 1778; La viuda engañada, 3vv, 1781, Los avaros; La nueva jardinera, 1v; Los majos operantes, 2vv: all E-Mm, Mn

Music in comedies: El rico avariento, 1798; Triunfar una mujer: both Mm


8 lessons: Lección primera, Alemanda, Minue, Rondó, Contradanza de los currutacos, El laberinto armónico, Polaca y boleras: all pubd in Arte (Madrid, 1799)

Sonata tercera, gui, b, op.1a, E-Mc; Sonata cuarta, gui, b, op.1a, Mc; [6] Divertimentos, 2 gui, Mc; 6 dúos, 2 gui, Mm; Tema con 10 variaciones, gui, Mm

Inc. works: 3 dúos nuevos, vn, gui (Madrid, 1801) [vn pt only]; Los cuatro tiempos del año, vn, va, vc, gui [va, vc pts only], Mm; Dúo, C, 2 gui [2nd gui only], Mc


B. Saldoni: Diccionario biográfico-bibliográfico de efemérides de músicos españoles, iv (Madrid, 1881/R), 95–6

F. Pedrell: Diccionario Biográfico y Bibliográfico de músicos y escritores de música, i (Barcelona, 1897), 668ff

J. Subirá: La tonadilla escénica sus obras y sus autores (Barcelona, 1933), 159ff

F.J. León Tello: La teoría española de la música en los siglos XVII y XVIII (Madrid, 1974), 717ff

A. Martín Moreno: Historia de la música española, iv: Siglo XVIII (Madrid, 1985), 325ff, 335ff

A. Vicent: Fernando Ferandiere (ca.1740–ca.1816): un perfil paradigmático de un músico de su tiempo (diss., Autonomous U. of Madrid, 1996)


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