Faà di Bruno, Giovanni Matteo [Horatio, Orazio] 83

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(It.: ‘pause’).

The sign of the corona or point surmounted by a semicircle showing the end of a phrase or indicating the prolongation of a note or a rest beyond its usual value. ‘Fermata’ came into American usage during the 19th century; H.W. Pilkington, in A Musical Dictionary (Boston, 1812), still gave only ‘pause’, but both fermata and Pause are now used for this sign. See also Organ point.




See Ornaments, §5.

Fermoselle, Juan de.

See Encina, Juan del.

Fernandes, António

(b Souzel, nr Évora, ?c1595; d after 1680). Portuguese theorist. After studying with Duarte Lobo, to whom he dedicated the treatise by which he is remembered, he became a priest and vicar-choral at S Catarina de Monte Sinai, Lisbon. He may have been the António Fernandes who in 1642 belonged to King João IV's Vila Viçosa chapel choir and who, when he became eager to increase his income, alternated between singing and conducting (see P-La 51–VIII–5, f.70). His Arte de musica de canto dorgam, e canto cham & proporções (Lisbon, 1626), consisting of 131 quarto leaves, is the first music treatise in Portuguese, the first of a long line that later stretches from Frouvo to Luís Álvares Pinto's Arte de solfejar (1761). To honour his mentor an engraving of the Lobo family arms adorns Fernandes's frontispiece, and Lobo's picture surmounts a genealogical music tree variously inserted in the extant examples of his treatise. Following a tradition as old as Boethius he began by dividing music into ‘animatica’ and ‘organica’, the first being subdivided into ‘mundana’ and ‘humana’, the second into natural and artificial instruments. Well read in Zarlino – or at least as much of him as Cerone took over – he made no pretence at originality but instead intelligently and lucidly summarized his predecessors, always with an eye to the needs of a practising choir director: thus he first discussed polyphony, then plainsong, and only at the end such more academic topics as proportions and the genera. According to the 1649 catalogue of João IV's library (p.118), he also wrote, in 1634, an unpublished speculative treatise dealing with musical secrets, Especulação de segredos de Musica. Barbosa Machado, whose version of this title is Explicação dos segredos da Musica, also claimed that the library bequeathed by Francisco de Valhadolid in 1700 contained three other unpublished works by Fernandes: Arte da musica de canto de orgaõ composta por hum modo muito differente do costumado por hum velho de 85. annos dezejoso de evitar o ocio (‘Treatise on polyphony, written along very different lines from the usual, by an old man of 85 eager to avoid idleness’); Theorica do manicordio, e sua explicaçaõ; and a Mappa universal illustrating the whole science of music, with ‘demonstraçoens mathematicas’.


D. Barbosa Machado: Bibliotheca lusitana, i (Lisbon, 1741/R), 268–9; music entries ed. R.V. Nery as A música no ciclo da Bibliotheca lusitana (Lisbon, 1984)

J. de Vasconcellos, ed.: El-Rey D. João o 4to Biographia (Oporto, 1900), 51–2

J.A. Alegria: Biblioteca pública de Évora, catálogo dos fundos musicais (Lisbon, 1977), 4, 23


Fernandes, Armando José

(b Lisbon, 26 July 1906; d Lisbon, 3 May 1983). Portuguese composer and pianist. He studied at the Lisbon Conservatory with Colaço and Varela Cid (piano) and with Freitas Branco (theory) and Costa Ferreira (composition); his studies were continued in Paris with Boulanger, Dukas, Roger-Ducasse and Cortot. Soon his activities as a composer and teacher prevailed over his career as a pianist. He accepted a teaching post at the Academia de Amadores de Música in Lisbon (1940) and joined the music studies department of the national broacasting station, under whose auspices most of his works were written. In 1944 he received the Moreira de Sá Prize for composition and in 1946 the Círculo de Cultura Musical prize. He was a lecturer in counterpoint at the Lisbon Conservatory, 1953–76. His music reveals his introspective temperament, which made him prefer the chamber medium and classical forms. His musical language is rather conservative but he used some chromaticism and, occasionally, popular themes.


(selective list)

Ballet: O homem do cravo na boca, 1941

Orch: Fantasia sobre temas populares portugueses, pf, orch, 1938, rev. 1945; Vn Conc., 1947–8; Suite, str, 1949–50; Conc., pf, str, 1951, arr. pf, orch, 1966; O terramoto de Lisboa, sym. poem, 1961; Suite concertante, hpd, orch, 1967

Chbr: Sonata, vc, pf, 1943; Sonatina, va, pf, 1945; Sonata, vn, pf, 1946; Pf Qnt, 1952; Pf Qt, 1953; Sonata a 3, vn, vc, pf, 1980

Pf: 5 prelúdios, 1928; Sonata, 1928; Scherzino, 1930; 5 peças breves, 1932; 3 peças (Estudo, Homenagem a Fauré, Fandango), 1937; Sonatina, 1941; Prelúdio e fuga, 1943; Introdução e marcha, 1980

Vocal: Canção do mundo perdido, v, pf, 1937; Ode a Horácio, 4 solo vv, 1937; 3 canções populares, 1 v, pf/orch, 1942

Edns of Portuguese early music

MSS in P-Ln

Principal publisher: Sassetti


Catálogo geral da música portuguesa: Repertório contemporâneo (Lisbon, 1978–80)

N. Barreiros: Semana Armando José Fernandes (Lisbon, 1988)


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