(d 1551). Spanish composer. He is probably to be identified with Diego Fernández de Córdoba, maestro de capilla of Málaga Cathedral from 11 August 1507 until his death in 1551, although the name is a common one and no clear proof of identity has been found. It is suggestive, nonetheless, that he would have been at Málaga at the same time that Juan de Encina held a canonry there (1508–19), which might account for the inclusion of two songs by him in the Cancionero Musical de Palacio (E-Mp 1335).
His villancico Tres moricas m'enamoran (ed. in MME, v, 1947, no.25) is a reworking of the previous song, Tres morillas m'enamoran (no.24), which Ribera believed to be of Arabic origin. It is marked ‘alio modo’ in the source and is an example of the courtly adaptation of a song of popular origin. The four-voice De ser mal casada (no.197) is in the relatively unusual quintuple metre which, together with the song's narrow melodic range, would suggest that it, too, had roots in the popular tradition.
J.Ribera y Tarragó: Disertaciones y opúsculos (Madrid, 1928)
J.Romeu Figueras: ‘El cosante en la lírica de los cancioneros musicales de los siglos XV y XVI’, AnM, v (1950), 15–61
J.Romeu Figueras: La música en la corte de los Reyes Católicos, iv/1, MME, xiv/1 (1965), 18
T.W.Knighton: Music and Musicians at the Court of Fernando of Aragon, 1474–1516 (diss., U. of Cambridge, 1984), i, 268
ISABEL POPE/TESS KNIGHTON
(b Montevideo, 28 July 1952). Uruguayan guitarist. He began learning the guitar at the age of seven with Raúl Sanchez and later studied with Guido Santórsola and Abel Carlevaro. His first recitals were in duo with his brother in 1963 but in 1971 he began to pursue a solo career. He has won many international prizes including the Andrés Segovia Competition in Palma de Mallorca (1975). In 1977 he made his New York début, and subsequently toured extensively. He gave the first performance of Herbert Chappell’s Caribbean Concertoat the Queen Elizabeth Hall, London, in 1991. Fernández has recorded a wide range of guitar music, from transcriptions of keyboard works by Scarlatti and Rameau to the avant garde. He has established an international reputation as an expressive, scrupulous musician, with a technique of effortless virtuosity, yet refined and searching in his fidelity to the musical text.
M.J.Summerfield: The Classical Guitar: its Evolution and its Players since 1800 (Newcastle upon Tyne, 1992)
T.Wassily Saba and C.Cooper: ‘Eduardo Fernández’, Classical Guitar, xi/9 (1992–3), 11–16 [interview]
(b Asturias, 1766; d Asturias, 14 Feb 1852). Spanish piano maker. He settled in Madrid before 1789; by 1799 he had established a piano workshop at Corredera de San Pablo 20, where he competed with the court piano maker, Francisco Flórez. In 1804 Fernández moved to the Calle del Barquillo. On 14 March 1806 he was named honorary maker to the Royal Chamber of Carlos IV; the post came into effect on 8 December 1816. Between 1814 and 1828 his workshop was situated at Calle San Fernando 5 (now Calle Libertad). In 1835 his post was brought to an end by Queen María Cristina, and he returned to his native village in Asturias, where he set up a new workshop and lived on a limited income until his death.
Fernández made and repaired pianos for the royal household and for some members of the nobility, such as the Duchess of Benavente, but he mostly made affordable instruments for domestic use. A keen advocate of the social and scientific ideology of the Enlightenment, he took an interest in the Spanish piano-making industry and, to alleviate the expense of importing instruments, proposed two projects: one being to create an indigenous school of piano making, the other to collect and study the best quality woods from various parts of Spain in order to use them for making instruments. In spite of receiving official support, the projects were never fully realized, although he did have several pupils at the school, the best-known being Julián Lacabra.
Fernández was awarded gold medals at the Spanish Industry Exhibitions of 1827 and 1828. He also invented a special tuning device, the ‘chromameter’, which he publicly announced in 1831. Several pianos with his signature have been preserved. The oldest, dating from about 1800 (now in a private collection, Madrid), is a square piano based on Zumpe’s models with a compass of five octaves (F'–f'''). Another two instruments of the same pattern, one dated 1807, are preserved in separate private collections, also in Madrid. At the Palacio Real (Madrid) there is an upright piano from 1805 in the shape of a bookcase, and a grand piano attributed to Fernández or to his workshop. Another square piano is preserved in the Palacio Real, El Escorial. It dates from 1827 and has a special mechanism in which the hammers strike the strings from above; a full soundboard covers the entire mechanism. The 1828 square piano at the Museu de la Música, Barcelona, with a compass of six octaves (F'–f''''), has a built-in device for tuning, consisting of a single string plucked by a plectrum, with a sliding bridge over a scale.
C.Bordas Ibáñez: ‘Dos constructores de pianos en Madrid: Francisco Flórez y Francisco Fernández’, RdMc, xi (1988), 807–51
C.Bordas: ‘Otros pianos de F. Flórez y F. Fernández’, RdMc, xiii (1990), 227–30
(b Mayarí, 16 March 1944). Cuban pianist, teacher and composer. He began studying music with his mother while still a child. In 1962 he entered the Amadeo Roldán Conservatory, specializing in piano and choral conducting. He twice won the National Competition for Choral Works (1963, 1964) and in 1966 won the Competition for Performers of the Union of Cuban Writers and Artists, which enabled him to undertake further piano studies in Moscow with Victor Merzhanov. On his return he began his career as soloist, playing in the various concert halls of the country.
For Berlin Radio he has made recordings of works by Beethoven and Schumann, and for the Madrid recording company Fonomusic recordings of works by Bach and Chopin. He has given concerts throughout Europe, Russia, East Asia, and Central and South America. As a professor at the Havana Instituto Superior de Arte his students have included Jorge Luis Prats, Victor Rodríguez and Leonel Morales. His compositions are characterized by a distinctly romantic tendency, with broad, expressive melodies and transparent orchestration.
Dance: Pas de seul (ballet), pf, 1979; Génesis (dance score), pf, synth, str, 1980
Film scores: La gran rebelión, 1980; Cuando pienso en el Che, 1980; Niños deudores, 1981; La casa colonial, 1985; Gelabert, 1985; Asalto al amanecer, 1987; Erase una vez un comandante, 1988; Venir al mundo, 1989; Carlos Enríquez, 1990; Después de la batalla, 1990; Chaplin, 1991; José Martí, 1991; Tierra brava, 1995
Choral: Lunita redonda, children’s chorus, 1965; Canción de cuna no.1, children’s chorus, 1968; Vértigo de lluvia, mixed vv, 1968; Paloma de mayo, children’s chorus, 1969; Suite infantil, children’s chorus, 1969; Cant. a Haydee Santamaría, mixed vv, orch, 1981; Cant. XXX aniversario del Moncadam, mixed vv, orch, 1983
Inst: Canción y vals joropo, pf, 1975; Zapateo por derecho, 2 pf, 1978; Hacia nuevas victorias, pf, orch, 1980; Mausoleo Segundo Frente, pf, str, 1986; Son Guantánamo, pf, ens, 1987; Canción de la mañana, pf, chbr orch, 1989; Canto del silencio, ob, pf, str, 1989; Expocuba/89, ob, perc, pf, synth, str, tres, 1989; Fantasía, pf, 1990
T.Lavandero: ‘Frank Fernández y su único piano’, Revolución y cultura, no.59 (1977)
M.Martínez: ‘El piano como un reto’, Revolución y cultura, new ser. (1985), no.4