(fl 1620–37). Italian composer of Flemish origin. In 1620 and 1621, already a priest, he was a tenor in the cappella maintained by the city authorities of Caltagirone, Sicily. Between 1627 and 1629 he was organist there. Documents of 1628 and 1629 refer to him as Doctor of Theology and Doctor of Medicine respectively. By 1637 he was working at Messina, Sicily, where his earliest known collection of music, Cantate a tre voci (now lost), was published in 1632. On the title-page of his sole surviving publication, Pastorali concenti al presepe, co’ responsorij della sacra notte del natale di N[ostro] S[ignore] op.3, for two to six voices and continuo (Venice, 1637), he is styled ‘Dottor Don Francesco Fiamengo’. In the dedication, which is dated 1 May 1637, he referred to a volume of masses that he had published a few months earlier. The 1637 book comprises Latin responses, a Sonata pastorale for four instruments and several vernacular pieces in celebration of Christmas. A recitative-dialogue for four voices, based on the Sofronia and Olindo episode in Tasso’s Gerusalemme liberata (ed. in Balsano) survives in manuscript in the archives of St John’s Co-Cathedral, Valletta.
See alsoPastoral, §4.
L.Bianconi: ‘Sussidi bibliografici per i musicisti siciliani del Cinque e Seicento’, RIM, vii (1972), 3–38, esp. 22
M.A.Balsano: ‘Sofronia e Olindo: Tasso, Mazzocchi e Fiamengo’, Tasso, la musica, i musicisti, ed. M.A. Balsano and T. Walker (Florence, 1988), 91–119
S.Bonta: ‘The Use of Instruments in Sacred Music in Italy 1560–1700’, EMc, xviii (1990), 519–35, esp. 533–4
SeeWerrecore, Matthias Hermann.
Stromenti da fiato or simply fiati are wind instruments.
Fiauto [flauto] d'echo
Fibich, Zdeněk [Zdenko] (Antonín Václav)
(b Všebořice, Bohemia, 21 Dec 1850; d Prague, 15 Oct 1900). Czech composer. After Smetana and Dvořák he was the most prominent Czech composer of the second half of the 19th century, notably of operas and orchestral and piano music. His concert and stage melodramas were some of the most ambitious and effective ever written and prompted other Czech composers to write in the same genre, thus creating a sizable and unique repertory for Czech music. Among his compositional strengths were lucid portrayals of the dramatic, particularly apparent in the symphonic poems and concert overtures, a command of miniature forms reminiscent of Schumann and a gift for producing effective melodic lines that range from the straightforward and aggressive to the strikingly poignant.
3. Instrumental works.
4. Vocal works.
JOHN TYRRELL/JUDITH A. MABARY
His father, Jan Fibich, came from a long line of forestry officials who served the Auersperg estate; his mother, Marie Römisch, was from a cultured, German-speaking Viennese family. He enjoyed a happy childhood in woodland surroundings, both at Všebořice (south-east of Prague) and Libáň (north-east of Havličkův Brod), where his father was transferred in 1857. He attended Hermann's Öffentliche Hauptschule (1859–62) and the Academic Gymnasium (1862–3) in Vienna before transferring to the Czech Gymnasium in Prague's Malá strana (Little Quarter) (1863–5). Fibich's mother had begun teaching him the piano (with his sister Marie) in 1857 and, encouraged by a local priest, František Černý, he wrote his first composition (Pange lingua), now lost, in 1862. In Prague he attended (1864–5) the private music institute (founded 1860) of Zikmund Kolešovský, organist at St Ignác. By the middle of 1865, when Fibich left Prague, he had written about 50 works, mostly songs and piano pieces (including Le printemps, published that year as his op.1), but also an overture and closing music for Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, a sketch, in string quartet form, for a symphony in E and part of an opera, Medea, to his own libretto.
He continued his training in Leipzig (1865–7), where he studied the piano with Moscheles and theory with E.F. Richter at the Leipzig Conservatory until Christmas 1866. He then studied privately with Salomon Jadassohn, who encouraged an interest in Bach and counterpoint. In addition to several songs and a second symphony (G minor), Fibich wrote three operas while in Leipzig: two works to his own text (Kapellmeister in Venedig, 1866, and Gutta von Guttenfels, probably in 1867) and one and a half acts to Geibel's Loreley (1866–7), which he knew from Max Bruch's setting. After eight months in Paris (1868–9), where he made his living as a piano teacher and pursued his interest in art and sculpture, he concluded his studies in Mannheim (1869–70) with the conductor Vinzenz Lachner, who staged Wagner's Meistersinger during Fibich's stay. After his return to Bohemia, he lived with his parents first in Žáky (south of Čáslav) (1870–71), then, when his father retired in Prague. During this period Fibich devoted himself to composition, producing several songs, including a series of pieces to texts from Goethe's Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre, as well as his first extant opera, Bukovín, to a libretto obtained six years earlier, at his request, from Karel Sabina, the librettist for Smetana's The Bartered Bride.
In February 1873 Fibich married Růžena Hanušová and in September accepted a choir-training post in Vilnius. Růžena died in October 1874 shortly after she and her husband moved back to Prague, and in the summer of 1875 Fibich married Růžena's older sister Betty (1846–1901), a contralto at the Provisional and National Theatres who created leading roles in several of Smetana's and Fibich's operas.
From 1875 to 1881 Fibich was deputy conductor and choirmaster of the Provisional Theatre in Prague. Adolf Čech was principal conductor and Fibich conducted mostly operettas. From 1878 to 1881 he was also choirmaster of the Russian Orthodox Church, which he found more congenial and less time-consuming. (He succeeded Karel Bendl in both positions.) It was also during this period that he began writing reviews for the periodical Dalibor. After 1881 he turned entirely to composition and private teaching (piano and theory) when a post at the Prague Conservatory failed to materialize.
In 1886 Anežka Schulzová (1868–1905), the daughter of Ferdinand Schulz (1835–1905), a well-known historian, writer and literary critic, began to study the piano with Fibich. In 1892, when she started composition lessons, Schulzová began to have a profound effect on her teacher. The passionate relationship that developed was the inspiration for many of Fibich's later compositions. Schulzová became Fibich's collaborator and wrote the librettos for his last three operas, Hedy, Šarka and Pád Arkuna (‘The Fall of Arkona’). In 1900 František Urbánek's publishing firm in Prague released Schulzová's book Zdenko Fibich: eine musikalische silhouette under the pseudonym Carl Ludwig Richter.
During the last year of his life, Fibich returned to public service in a temporary post as Dramaturg for the National Theatre (1899–1900). The theatre management changed shortly after Fibich's appointment and abolished the position, forcing him to return briefly to private teaching, despite declining health and a weak heart. He died of pneumonia on 15 October 1900, less than a month before the première of his last opera, The Fall of Arkona.
Unlike his contemporaries Smetana and Dvořák, who cultivated a pervasive Czech style in many of their works, Fibich more often borrowed discriminatingly from folk sources to add familiar spice. The highly stylized version of a polka in the second movement of his First Symphony (op.17) is one such example.
While historians have often distinguished Fibich from Smetana and Dvořák because he seems less ‘Czech’, it should be noted that all three were significantly influenced by foreign models and all were, to some extent, followers of Wagner in their concern with programmatic content and their devotion to opera. But it was perhaps Fibich, more than his contemporaries, who proved to be the most tenacious in the search for extramusical inspirations and convincing means of translating them to music. The range of works inspired by such sources is wide, from personal experience in the symphonic poem V podvečer (‘At Twilight’) and the piano suite Z hor (‘From the Mountains’) to the illustration of Schulzová's physical attributes in the ‘piano diary’ Nálady, dojmy a upomínky (‘Moods, Impressions and Reminiscences’), interpretations of art in the piano suite Malířské studie (‘Studies of Paintings’) and nature in the symphonic poem Vesna (‘Spring’). His stage works show a similar diversity, drawing their inspiration from Czech legend (Šárka), Greek myth (Hippodamia) and some of the greatest writers in the wider scope of European literature, including Schiller, Shakespeare and Byron.
Fibich was also responsible for an impressive number of firsts in Czech music. His nationalistic symphonic poem Záboj, Slavoj a Luděk (‘Záboj, Slavoj and Luděk’, 1873), the earliest based on a Czech subject, inspired Smetana's cycle Má vlast. (The opening theme of Smetana's Vyšehrad, c1872–4, bears a striking resemblance to Záboj's theme. Both works also contain strategically important and substantial parts for the harp.) His Toman a lesní panna (‘Toman and the Wood Nymph’, 1874–5), based on František Čelakovský's ballad from the cycle Ohlas písní českých (‘Echo of Czech Songs’, 1839), antedated Dvořák's symphonic poems on K.J. Erben's ballads by more than 20 years. Fibich's concert melodramas heralded a Czech vogue for the genre, to which J.B. Foerster and Otakar Ostrčil made some of the most significant later contributions. (The most important successor to Fibich's staged melodrama Hippodamia, 1888–91, was Josef Suk's Radúz and Mahulena, 1897–8.)
Fibich is often referred to as the greatest Czech Romantic composer. A cultured man with a broad knowledge of art and literature as well as an extensive familiarity with music of the past, he numbered the poet Jaroslav Vrchlický and the aesthetician Otakar Hostinský among his friends. These two writers provided him with some of the best Czech opera librettos of the 19th century. In his development of the concert melodrama he achieved great popularity in a perilous medium and prepared the way for his unique achievement, the trilogy of stage melodramas Hippodamia.
Fibich was the master of a fluent technique that, in its manipulation and transformation of themes, was capable of great subtlety and extraordinary inventiveness. His large-scale works incorporate certain of Wagner's techniques, particularly the leitmotif, and shifts of harmony reminiscent of Smetana, with his own precise dramatic interpretations and sumptuous melodies, which include some of the most lyrical and luxuriant.
Broader aspects of Fibich's style can be related to three lines of development. Springtime subject matter and moods in his early music, culminating in the cantata Jarní romance (‘A Springtime Tale’, 1880–81), the tone poem Vesna (‘Spring’, 1881) and the F major Symphony (1877–83), stem from a love of nature formed during his youth and cherished throughout his life. He exhibits a fondness for the ballad and its melancholy, fearful and fatalistic moods, particularly in the works based on Erben's texts – the concert melodramas Štědrý den (‘Christmas Day’, 1875) and Vodník (‘The Water Goblin’, 1883) – and in the tone poem Toman and the Wood Nymph. In his operas this tendency is characterized by the prominent ‘fate’ themes that run from Bukovín (1870–71) to The Fall of Arkona (1898–9). A more intimate mode of expression was awakened by his liaison with Anežka Schulzová, resulting in the piano diary Moods, Impressions and Reminiscences (1892–9), which describes minute details of their relationship, as well as a series of female-centred operas, including Šárka, his most successful, to a libretto by Schulzová.
Although melodies and rhythms characteristic of folk music occur in the chamber pieces, along with several convincing polkas in the orchestral works, folklike music is not an organic feature in most of Fibich's compositions. Yet an enthusiastic German critic of The Tempest (1893–4) went perhaps too far when he described it as fundamentally German music (‘in seinen Wurzeln deutschen Musik’). While it is true that Schumann, Weber and Wagner were potent musical influences and while Fibich wrote his first operas and well over 100 songs to German texts, he was no less competent when he turned to Czech, devoting great care and skill to idiomatic word-setting.
Fibich's music is solidly crafted, with forceful rhythms and mellow orchestration rich in horns. His skilful use of chromatic harmony complements abundantly fertile melodic gifts and, like Smetana, he could manipulate constantly modulating phrases in such a way that they sounded forthright and unambiguous.
3. Instrumental works.
The three completed symphonies of Fibich's maturity were written over a period of 20 years, interspersed among the operas: no.1 in F, op.17 (1877–83), no.2 in E, op.38 (1892–3) and no.3 in E minor, op.53 (1898). Nos.2 and 3 belong to the period of Fibich's attraction to Schulzová. In fact, a central theme of the second movement of the Third Symphony comes from the piano diary. Ostensibly all three symphonies are conventional four-movement works, observing the formalities of sonata form in their outer movements. Fibich's melodic gifts are evident in the variety of themes in the expositions. His inventive craftsmanship is likewise apparent in the monothematic treatment of the first movement of no.2 in E, the first Czech cyclic symphony. Perhaps the most compelling first movement is found in the E minor symphony, however, where a persistent ostinato figure provides the tension that propels the movement forward.
Some of Fibich's most effective orchestral writing is found in the symphonic poems and overtures. Noc na Karlštejně (‘A Night at Karlštejn [Castle]’, 1886), dedicated to Saint-Saëns, and the Komenský Overture (1892) are thematically ingenious (the former in its treatment of the rhythmically incisive first theme, the latter in the way in which the introductory chorale from the Amsterdam hymnbook, published by Komenský in 1659, provides the material for future themes in the Allegro). But in both cases it is their programmes, more than any other single factor, that seem to have sparked Fibich's imagination. His other programme music ranges from the general evocation of mood (as in Vigiliae, 1883–5, and the monothematic tone poem Spring, where transformations of a single theme suggesting different aspects of spring are enlivened by a polka in the middle section) to the Shakespeare tone poems (on Othello and The Tempest), in which he followed Smetana's plan in Richard III of elaborating a sonata-form structure with themes representing contrasting incidents and characters in the play without reproducing the story in detail. Záboj, Slavoj and Luděk, based on material from the Dvůr Králové manuscript, delineates musically the contrasting personalities of Záboj and Luděk while conveying specific events in the legend. Further examples include At Twilight, a reminder of evenings spent on Prague's Žofín island with his favourite companion, Anežka Schulzová, that incorporates the theme from no.139 of the piano diary (‘Poème’) and Toman and the Wood Nymph, which echoes in musical analogies almost every incident in Čelakovský's poem.
Fibich's chamber music was written mainly during the early part of his career, and includes several works for violin and piano duo, two piano trios, two string quartets and a piano quartet. The most important of his chamber works, however, is the last, a quintet for piano, clarinet, horn, violin and cello (1893). The use of material from the diary reveals the work's genesis in Fibich's relationship with Schulzová and conveys his happiness during the latter part of his career. Its unusual scoring provided the opportunity for an ingenious mixture of timbres to complement the work's melodic inventiveness.
Fibich's piano music includes several early sonatas for two hands, suites and arrangements for four hands, and the broadly conceived Velká teoreticko-praktická škola hry na klavír (‘Grand Theoretical and Practical School of Piano Playing’, 1883–7, compiled with Jan Malát), in which he incorporated several early works along with newly composed pieces. In addition, he completed two late suites for piano that were connected with his favourite pastimes: the cyclic From the Mountains (1887) based on his impressions of the Alps, where he frequently went for holidays (each piece is preceded by a motto from Vrchlický praising the mountain scenery), and Studies of Paintings (1898–9), consisting of five musical interpretations of paintings by Ruysdael, Pieter Bruegel, Fra Angelico (Fra Giovanni da Fiesole), Correggio and Watteau.
The most unusual of Fibich's piano works are the 376 Moods, Impressions and Reminiscences recording his love for Anežka Schulzová, to whom he presented six of the pieces as a birthday gift in 1893. The collection contains pieces that range from one line to several pages in many styles and moods. Many are in ternary or simple rondo form and some are grouped into suites. These miniatures assumed a special significance for Fibich and Schulzová. The cross-referencing among the pieces and quotations from other works by Fibich and other composers, represent specific situations in their relationship. Fibich also assigned private titles to the pieces but they were not included in the published scores. Except in a few obvious cases, the titles are more a code than a descriptive programme.
Zdeněk Nejedlý's commentary Zdeňka Fibicha milostný deník (‘Zdeněk Fibich's Erotic Diary’, 1925), based on a study of Fibich's annotations on many of the manuscripts and on Schulzová's own notes, brought the work's private messages into public view. Nejedlý's action provoked arguments about its propriety, but convincingly documented the diary's central significance for Fibich during the last phase of his career. Nejedlý's work explains the pieces’ non-chronological grouping for publication into sets of narrative ‘reminiscences’ (of specific events such as Schulzová's counterpoint lesson, their conversations, their walks along the street, Fibich's confession of love, meeting her parents, various journeys etc.), lyrical ‘impressions’ (many devoted, in comprehensive detail, to parts of Schulzová's body) and ‘moods’ (which combine features of the two other groupings, including a succession of pieces illustrating Schulzová in different clothes).
Fibich soon began to borrow thematic material from Moods, Impressions and Reminiscences for other works, including the E minor Symphony (no.3), the Quintet and the operas The Tempest, Hedy and Šárka, but the relationship of these works with the diary is often complex. Allusions to existing works sometimes illuminate their programmes, some pieces were written simultaneously with other non-diary works (e.g. Hedy), and some of the later pieces, despite the annotations for Schulzová's benefit, are transcriptions of earlier unpublished works. By late 1896, the pieces were becoming fewer and less clearly concerned with Schulzová. Though Fibich was not losing interest in her (he left his wife in 1897), he seemed more eager to throw his energies into large-scale works such as the Third Symphony and the later operas, with Schulzová as his librettist. By the time of his last opera, The Fall of Arkona, he was no longer adding to the diary nor does the opera contain references to it.
4. Vocal works.
In the last years of his life Fibich destroyed most of the church music written during his youth (all that remains is a published mass) and over half of his 200 songs. These surviving works show how strong was the influence of Schumann and Schubert in his early years. (His prolific songwriting had almost stopped by 1880.) Of the secular cantatas, only A Springtime Tale, to a poem of the same name by Vrchlický, proved popular and lasting.
Fibich's most important vocal music is concentrated in his operas and melodramas. The earliest extant operas, Bukovín (1870–71), which reveals his admiration for Weber with significant sections modelled on Der Freischütz, and Blaník (1874–7), dedicated to Smetana, were composed to quasi-historical texts by Smetana's librettists Karel Sabina and Eliška Krásnohorská respectively. But it was his next opera, Nevěsta messinská (‘The Bride of Messina’, 1882–3), to a libretto adapted from Schiller's tragedy by Hostinský, that has sometimes been praised as the finest Czech 19th-century tragic opera. Its dominant features of a severe declamatory style and a complex system of leitmotifs have led admirers to point to the influence of Gluck while critics have denounced it as an imitation of Wagner.
In Námluvy Pelopovy (‘The Courtship of Pelops’), Smír Tantalův (‘The Atonement of Tantalus’) and Smrt Hippodamie (‘Hippodamia's Death’), the trilogy of four-act works that make up the stage melodrama Hippodamia (1888–91), Fibich took both these features to their logical extreme and, in a further effort to balance words and music, assigned a speaking voice (with pitch and rhythm unspecified) to the continuous text against an accompaniment characterized by an intricate web of leitmotifs. Through careful control of texture and density in the orchestral writing he was able to avoid obscuring the simultaneously performed text, providing music that achieved a successful synthesis with the words.
In the Hippodamia trilogy, Fibich composed the most ambitious melodramas ever written. He knew Benda's Ariadne auf Naxos and Medea that had so impressed Mozart (from conducting them in 1875), as well as Schumann's declamatory ballads and his incidental music for Manfred with its numerous sections of melodrama. The Greek myths on which both Benda's melodramas and Fibich's Hippodamia are based contain an intense level of dramatic action to drive the works forward. But while Benda relied primarily on the alternation of text and music, Fibich presented text and music simultaneously for most of the work, a practice more closely related to Schumann's in the declamatory ballads. Fibich gained practical experience with this method of text setting in his concert melodramas on Czech and foreign ballads (in Czech translation). These works prepared the way for Hippodamia with its continuous instrumental component. Christmas Day (1875), written shortly after Toman and the Wood Nymph, represents a logical progression from narrative symphonic poem to narrative ballad set as melodrama. Like Pomsta květin (‘The Revenge of the Flowers’, 1877), Věčnost (‘Eternity’, 1878) and Královna Ema (‘Queen Emma’, 1883), it was written for piano and reciter (Fibich orchestrated Christmas Day in 1899). Christmas Day and The Water Goblin (1883, originally for orchestra and reciter), using well-known texts from Erben's collection of folktales Kytice, were by far the most popular of Fibich's concert melodramas. In both The Water Goblin and Hakon (1888) Fibich provides a continuous, symphonically developed companion for the text and in so doing leads directly to Hippodamia.
It was several years before Fibich returned to operatic stage works. Meanwhile his relationship with Schulzová had intensified and he had started the piano diary. Both changed the course of his later operas. From Hedy (1894–5) onwards all his operas were written to librettos by Schulzová and all focussed on women. Even in the preceding Tempest (1893–4), to Vrchlický's adaptation of Shakespeare), Fibich shifted the emphasis strongly towards Miranda and Ferdinand. Furthermore, Fibich's use of pieces from the diary, particularly in The Tempest and Hedy, shows that he was now frequently reworking existing music so that the principles on which he wrote The Bride of Messina no longer applied. Instead of the words dictating the course of the music, they are moulded into cooperation. While The Bride of Messina is set in a straightforward declamatory manner that leaves little room for set numbers and affords only the chorus an occasional ensemble, The Tempest and Hedy, in direct contrast, adopt operatic conventions that give voice to Fibich's superior melodic gifts in a collection of set numbers, arias, duets and, in Hedy, even a ballet that borrows heavily from the diary pieces. There is less of this ready-made music in Šárka (the main character may have been too stark a contrast to Schulzová), but it too was planned around set numbers, particularly the fine succession of pieces that depict the central incident of Čtirad and Šárka's mutual hatred turning to love. Šárka is Fibich's most straightforward and best-known opera in which he returned to a Czech subject at a time when he was being denounced as a Wagnerian (fig.2). The next opera, The Fall of Arkona, on the other hand, was based on the broader historical topic of early Christianity among the Baltic Slavs. Written in two parts, the one-act prologue Helga and the three-act Dargun, which takes place 20 years later, it experiments with a more conversational style (e.g. in the chamber-like prologue) that shows Fibich turning to new approaches, a trend cut short by his death a few weeks before the opera's première.
Edition: Souborné vydání děl Zdeňka Fibicha [Collected Edition of Works of Fibich], ed. L. Boháček, J. Burghauser, J. Hanuš, L. Láska, A. Pokorný and K. Šolc (Prague, 1950–67) [SV]
Printed works were published in Prague unless otherwise stated; op. no.55 was used twice, 58–9 not at all; MSS are mostly in the Fibich family archive, Prague, and in Cz-Pndh, Pnm, Bm, Muzeum české hudby, Prague, and other Czech archives.
unless otherwise stated, first performed at Prague, National Theatre
Bukovín (romantic op, 3, K. Sabina), 1870–71, Prague, Provisional, 16 April 1874
Blaník (op, 3, E. Krásnohorská), op.50, 1874–7, Prague, Provisional, 25 Nov 1881, vs (1897)
Nevěsta messinská [The Bride of Messina] (tragic op, 3, O. Hostinský, after F. von Schiller), op.18, 1882–3, 28 March 1884, vs (1884)
Hippodamie [Hippodamia] (stage melodrama trilogy, J. Vrchlický, after Sophocles, Euripides and Apollodorus): Námluvy Pelopovy [The Courtship of Pelops] (4), op.31, 1888–9, 21 Feb 1890, vs (1890); Smír Tantalův [The Atonement of Tantalus] (4), op.32, 1890, 2 June 1891, vs (1891); Smrt Hippodamie [Hippodamia’s Death] (4), op.33, 1891, 8 Nov 1891, vs (1891)
Bouře [The Tempest] (op, 3, J. Vrchlický, after W. Shakespeare), op.40, 1893–4, 1 March 1895, vs (1895)
Hedy (op, 4, A. Schulzová, after Byron: Don Juan), op.43, 1894–5, 12 Feb 1896, vs (1895)
Šárka (op, 3, Schulzová), op.51, 1896–7, 28 Dec 1897, vs (1897)
Pád Arkuna [The Fall of Arkona] (op, Schulzová): Helga (prol), op.55, 1898, vs (1899); Dargun (3), op.60, 1898–9, 9 Nov 1900, vs (1901)
Lost or destroyed: Medea (op, Fibich), frag., 1863; Kapellmeister in Venedig (comic op, Fibich), 1866, ?perf. Libáň, 6 Jan 1868; Loreley (romantic op, 3, E. Geibel), frag., 1866–7; Gutta von Guttenfels (serious operetta, 1, Fibich), ?1867; Litocha (op, J. Kaňka), frag., 1871; Frithjóf (op, P. Lohmann), frag., 1874
lost or destroyed except where noted; for orchestra unless otherwise stated
Pražský žid [The Jew of Prague] (J.J. Kolár), ov., 1871, chorus, 1877, MSS extant, ov. pubd
Arria a Messalina (Willbrandt), bacchanal music, 1876
Prolog k otevření Nového českého divadla [Prologue for the Opening of the New Czech Theatre], 1876, MS extant
Strakonický dudák [The Bagpiper from Strakonice] (J.K. Tyl), bagpipe song, fairy chorus, 1876, Prague, 11 Aug 1878
Veřejné tajemství [A Public Secret] (C. Gozzi), song, inst serenade, 1876, Prague, 7 Dec 1876, MS extant
Český dobrodruh a francouzská selka [The Czech Adventurer and the French Farmer’s Wife], song, 1877, Prague, 18 Aug 1877
Cesta Prahou v 18 dnech [A Journey through Prague in 18 Days], comic march, 1877, not perf. [banned by censor]
Dora (V. Sardou), melodrama interludes, 1877, Prague, 11 April 1877, MS extant
Od stolu a lože [From the Table and the Bed], song (H. Meilhac and L. Halévy), 1877
Stará panna [The Old Maid] (L. Stroupežnický), song, 1877, MS extant
Valdštýnův tábor [Wallenstein’s Camp] (F. von Schiller), march, 1877
Pan Měsíček, obchodník [Mr Moon, Salesman] (Stroupežnický), song, ?1877, Prague, ?3 June 1877
Velká hudební monografie stavby Národního divadla [Great Musical Monograph of the Building of the National Theatre], tableaux vivants, perf. [without tableaux] 15 May 1881, MS extant
12.VIII.1881–18.X.1883, pf, 1883, pubd in Dalibor (14 Nov 1883) [for reopening of National Theatre]
Hudba k živému obrazu při znovuotevření Národního divadla [Music for a Tableau Vivant for the Reopening of the National Theatre] (F. Kollár and J. Vrchlický), 1883, Prague, National, 18 Nov 1883 [arr. pf 4 hands in Zlatý věk, no.12 (1885)]
Hudba k živému obrazu při oslavě 300. narození J.A. Komenského [Music for Tableau Vivant for the Celebrations of 300th Anniversary of the Birth of Komenský], 1892, Prague, National, 27 March 1892, MS extant; see also orchestral (Ovs.)
Pietro Aretino (Vrchlický), 1892, Prague, National, 30 April 1892
Neklan (J. Zeyer), 1896, Prague, National, 30 March 1896
Fibich, Zdeněk: Works
sacred choral and cantatas
Meluzina (G. Kinkel: Die Windsbraut, trans. J. Srb-Debrnov), solo vv, SATB, orch, op.55, 1872–4, vs (1911)
Svatební scéna [Wedding Scene] (K.J. Erben, Cz. trad.), 7 solo vv, SATB, orch, 1872–4, vs (1875)
Jarní romance [A Springtime Tale] (J. Vrchlický), S, B, SATB, orch, op.23, 1880–81, full score and parts (1886), vs SV
Lost or destroyed: over 25 sacred works, mostly for mixed vv, incl. mass frag., 1873, requiem frag., 1874, 2 Kyries, 3 Ave Maria settings, motets, spiritual songs; Kantáta na pamět’ 500. vyročí úmrtí Karla IV [Cantata for 500th Anniversary of the Death of Charles IV], 2 male choruses, 1878
Fibich, Zdeněk: Works
choruses and partsongs
Male vv: Vytrvej! [Hold on!] (E. Krásnohorská, 1877, Dalibor, ii/2 (1880); Tichá noc [Silent Night] (G. Pfleger-Moravský), 1877, Dalibor, iv/2 (1882); 2 folksong arrs., Ó Velvary, Proč bychom veselí nebyli [Why should we not be merry], ed. J. Malát (Ratibor, 1886)
Mixed vv: U mohyly [At the Grave] (J. Jahn), SATB, pf 4 hands, 1872, vv only (n.d.); Ždání or Prosba [Request] (H. Heine), 1878 (n.d.)
Women’s vv: 2 folksong arrs., Nechod’ tam, pojd’ radš k nám [Don’t go there, come to us instead], Proč sem jdeš [Why are you coming here?], ed. J. Malát (Ratibor, 1886)
Partsongs: Osm dvojzpěvů [8 duets] (Heine, J. Eichendorff, A. von Chamisso, J.W. von Goethe, F. Rückert), 3 for SA, pf, 5 for 2vv, pf, 1871–2 (1876); Letní [A Summer Song] or Jarní [A Spring Song] or Společenská [A Sociable Song] (V. Sokolová), 2vv, hmn/pf, 1884 (n.d.)
Lost or destroyed: Pange lingua, 1862; c10 choruses; c10 partsongs, 2–3vv
Fibich, Zdeněk: Works
Wünsch (Etwas wünschen und verlangen) (F. Rückert), 1865; König Wiswamitra (H. Heine), 1865; Ende (Sag, wo ist dein schönes Liebchen) (Heine), 1865; Zwei Gesänge (Heine), op.3 (Leipzig, 1866), in Cz. as Dvě zpěvů, op.3 (1901): Ich will meine Seele tauchen, 1865; Sommerabend (Dämmernd liegt der Sommerabend), 1866; Eisblumen (Viele holde, wilde Rosen) (M.G. Saphir), 1866; Dein Bild (Oft seh’ ich deinen süssen Blick) (Saphir), 1866; Ihr Lied (Hör’ ich das Liedchen) (Heine), 1866; Am Meer (Das Meer erglänzte) (Heine), 1866; Wandl’ ich in dem Wald (Heine), 1866
Verloren (Stille bei Nacht) (J. Eichendorff), 1867; Ihr Bildnis [Ihr Bild] (Ich stand in dunkeln Träumen) (Heine), 1867; Wasserfahrt (Mein Liebchen, wir sassen beisammen) (Heine), 1867; Mädchen mit dem roten Mündchen (Heine), 1868; Nachtlied (Vergangen ist der lichte Tag) (Eichendorff), 1868; An ein Mädchen (Nicht fliehen) (Anacreon), 1868; Bitte (N. Lenau), 1868; Oh wär ich ein See (M. Háfiz), 1868; Altes Lied (Es war einmal ein König) (J.W. von Goethe), 1869; Frage (Was soll ich sagen) (A. von Chamisso), 1869; An den Mond (Füllest wieder Busch und Thal) (Goethe), 1869
Fürbitte der Blumen (Am leuchtenden Sommermorgen) (Heine), 1869; Sturmnacht (Das ist ein Brausen) (Heine), 1869; Am Meeresstrande or Abend am Meere (Es war so schön) (Fibich), 1869; Dein Bild (Wenn ich auf dem Lager) (Heine), 1870; Erwartung (Morgens steh' ich auf) (Heine), 1870 [two extant settings]; cycle from Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre (Goethe), 1871: Heiss mich nicht reden, So lasst mich scheinen, Kennst du das Land, Nur wer die Sehnsucht kennt, An die Türen will ich schleichen, Wer nie sein Brot mit Tränen ass, Singet nicht in Trauertönen, Wer sich der Einsamkeit ergibt, Der Sänger (Was hör' ich draussen von dem Tor)
Hildenbrandlied (J.V. Scheffel), 1871; Patero písní z ‘Večerních písní’ [5 Songs from ‘Evening Songs’] (V. Hálek), op.5, 1871 (1871): Umlklo stromů šumění [The rustling of the trees has ceased], Na nebi plno hvězdiček [The heavens are full of stars], Ty dívko zvláště líbezná [Oh you most charming girl], Tvé oko, krásné jezero [Your eye, a beautiful lake], Přilétlo jaro zdaleka [Spring has arrived from afar]
Tři pisně: Róže [Rose] (from Dvůr Králové MS), Na nebi měsíc s hvězdami [The moon and stars in the sky] (Hálek), Tak často mi to připadá [So often it seems to me] (Hálek), 1871 (1875), also pubd with Tak mne kouzlem ondy jala [How she once charmed me] (F.L. Čelakovský), 1871, Kdyby všecky slzičky [If all the tears] (Čelakovský), 1872, as Patero zpěvů [5 Songs] (1903) [Čelakovský settings orig. pubd in Dalibor, iii (1875), suppls.]; 2 songs (from Dvůr Králové MS), 1871, Dalibor, i (1873), suppl. no.9: Skřivánek [The Lark], Opuščená [Deserted]
Der Asra (Heine), 1872; Es haben uns're Herzen (Heine), 1872; Die Sterbende (Chamisso), 1872; Neun Gedichte (Heine), 1872: Gekommen ist der Maie, Wie die Nelken duftig atmen, Es fällt ein Stern herunter, Deine weissen Lilienfinger, Das Meer erstrahlt, Ach ich sehne mich im Sonnenschein, Morgens send ich dir die Veilchen, Schattenküsse, Schattenlieben, Es hat die warme Frühlingsnacht; Drei Lieder, 1872: Tränen (Chamisso), Nach Sevilla (C. Brentano), Abendlich schon rauscht (Eichendorff); Erlkönigs Tochter (Herder), 1872
4 Balladen, op.7: (Leipzig, 1873), in Cz. as Čtyři balady (1896): Der Spielmann (Chamisso), 1872, Waldnacht (Wie uralt weht’s) (H. Lingg), 1873, Loreley (Ich weiss nicht was soll es bedeuten) (Heine), 1872, Tragödie (Heine), 1873 [orchd 1875]; Kytice [Bouquet] (from Dvůr Králové MS), 1875, Album Dalibora, iv [?v] (n.d.); Žežhulice [Cuckoo] (from Dvůr Králové MS), 1875, Album Dalibora, iv [?v] (n.d.); Jahody [Strawberries] (from Dvůr Králové MS), 1877, Album Dalibora, iii (n.d.)
Neue Lieder: Sprecht ihr mitternächtgen Sterne (Lingg), 1875, Ob rauh der Herbst (E. Geibel), 1876, Die Sennin (Lenau), 1875, Wasserfahrt (Heine), 1876, pubd in Cz. as Jízda po vodě in Česká moderní píseň (1925), Wie bist du meine Königin (G.F. Daumer, after Háfiz), 1874, Die Jungfrau schläft (Heine), 1876, Im Frühling (J. Sturm), 1876, Fensterschau (Heine), 1877, Das Marienbild in der Waldkapelle (Boritsch), 1877
Šestero písní [6 Songs], op.12 (1881): Má dívenka jak růže [My love is like a red, red rose] (R. Burns), 1872, Kohoutek (Teprv já můj milý) [The Cock (Only now my love)] (Čelakovský), 1876, Holubička z dubu (The dove [flew] from the oaktree) (Čelakovský), 1877, Pomoc pro náramnou lásku (Ach, Haničko) [Help for great love] (Čelakovský), 1877, V lese [In the Forest] (L. Quis), 1878, Jarní [Spring Song] (K. Groth), 1876
Tys mi blízko [You are near to me] (Vrchlický), 1893, facs. in Zlatá Praha, x (1893), 147 only; Když k vám vesel chodím [When merrily I walk to you] (J. Neruda), 1893 (1893); Lass’ mich von deinem Aug', 1894 [another MS to Cz. words, Mne z oka tvého nech, 1878]; Poupata [Buds], op.45, 1895 (1896): Před spaním [Before going to sleep] (J.V. Sládek), Pěnkava a sedmihlásek [The Finch and the Warbler] (V. Sokolová), Okáč [Big Eyes] (Sládek), Lesní zvonky [Woodland Bells] (Sládek), Zahrajem si na vojáky [Let’s play soldiers] (Sládek); Drahý zpěvák [Dear Singer] (Čelakovský), 1895, in Ohlas písní českých (1896)
Lost or destroyed: c95 songs
Fibich, Zdeněk: Works
Syms.: ‘no.1’, E, str qt score [?2 movts orchd by A. Hnilička], 1865, lost; ‘no.2’, g, 1866, lost except for Scherzo, arr. pf 4 hands; no.1, F, op.17, 1877–83, arr. pf 4 hands (?1883), fs, SV; no.2, E, op.38, 1892–3, arr. pf 4 hands (1893), fs (1911), SV; G, frag., 1893; no.3, e, op.53, 1898, arr. pf 4 hands (?1898), fs, SV; A, frag., 1899
Sym. poems: Othello, after Shakespeare, op.6, 1873, fs (1873), SV; Záboj, Slavoj a Luděk [Záboj, Slavoj and Luděk] (from Dvůr Králové MS), op.37, 1873, arr. pf 4 hands (1893), fs, SV; Toman a lesní panna [Toman and the Wood Nymph], after F.L. Čelakovský, op.49, 1874–5, arr. pf 4 hands, 1875, arr. pf 4 hands by A. Schulzová (1897), fs, SV; Bouře [The Tempest], after Shakespeare, op.46, 1880, arr. pf 4 hands by A. Schulzová (1896), fs, SV; Vesna [Spring], op.13, 1881, arr. pf 4 hands (1882), fs, SV; V podvečer [At Twilight], op.39, 1893, arr. pf 4 hands (n.d.), fs (Prague, 1896), SV; Potopený zvon [The Submerged Bell], after G. Hauptmann, frag., 1900
Ovs.: Veseloherní ouvertura [Comedy Ov.], op.35 [orig. op.19], 1873, arr. pf 4 hands by J. Koráb (n.d.) [used in incid music for Midasovy uši, 1890]; Noc na Karlštejně [A Night at Karlštejn (Castle)], after J. Vrchlický, op.26, 1886, arr. pf 4 hands (1886), fs (1886), SV; Komenský, festival ov., op.34, 1892, arr. pf 4 hands (1892), fs, SV; Oldřich a Božena [Oldřich and Božena], op.52, 1898, arr. pf 4 hands (1898); see also incidental and occasional music above
Other works: Romeo a Julie, ov. and closing music, 1865, lost; Orchestrální fantasie ve formě ouvertury, 1871–2; Valčík [Waltz], introduction, 5 movts, coda, C, 1881, destroyed, arr. pf 2 hands (n.d.);  Vigiliae, op.20, 1883, pf 4 hands (n.d.), orchd 1885; Dojmy z venkova [Impressions from the Country], suite, op.54, 1897–8, arr. pf 4 hands by F. Heyduk (n.d.), fs, SV [4th movt pf solo from Dolce far niente, 1897]
Romance, B, vn, pf, op.10, 1879, Dalibor, ii (1880), suppl.
Selanka [Idyll], cl/vn, pf, op.16, 1879 (1883 or 1884)
Tema con variazioni, B, 2 vn, va, vc, 1883, parts (1910) [rev. and enlarged transcr. of Variations, pf, 1877]
Quintet, D, pf, cl, hn, vn, vc, op.42, 1893 (1895), arr. pf 4 hands by A. Schulzová (1896)
Other works: c20 works lost or destroyed, incl. Balada, vc, pf, 1874, Vánoční [Christmas], sonata, ?1878, several canons for various combinations; Allegro grazioso, vc, pf, 1876, used in syms. in G and e; Pf Trio, E, 1876, used in Sym. no.2, op.38; several works transcr. for pf in Nálady, dojmy a upomínky, 1892–9
Fibich, Zdeněk: Works
for piano solo unless otherwise stated
Le printemps, op.1, 1865 (1865)
 Albumblätter, op.2, 1865–6 (Leipzig, ?1866), as Lístky do památníku (1901)
Scherzo, e, op.4, 1866 (Leipzig, ?1866); with Scherzo, E, 1871, ed. K. Šolc (1953)
Zlatý věk [The Golden Age], 12 miniatures, 4 hands, op.22, 1869–85 (1885) [incl. transcr. of 2 movts of Suite, g, pf, 1877, Pověz, ó pověz, dívčino krásná [Tell me, O tell me, my beautiful girl], lost song, 1871, Skřivánek [The Lark], song, 1871, Hudba k živému obrazu při znovuotevření Národního divadla, occasional music, 1883]
Kolo vil [Fairies’ Round-Dance], 4 hands, 1885, pubd as op.24 [with Fugato, 1868] (1886)
Dolce far niente, 1897, Neue musikalische Presse, no.46 (1897), suppl. [used in 4th movt of Dojmy z venkova, orch]
 Nálady, dojmy a upomínky [Moods, Impressions and Reminiscences], 1892–9, op.41 (1894), op.44 (1895), op.47 (1896), op.57 (1902)
 Malířské studie [Studies of Paintings], op.56, 1898–9 (1902), ed. V. Holzknecht (1951) [longer cycle projected]
Lost or destroyed: over 100 pieces and arrs. for pf solo, incl. 3 sonatas (?, 1865; d, 1871; d, 1874), 25 pieces and arrs. for 4 hands, 5 pieces, org/hmn incl. Sonata, B, 1878; many early works incl. in Velká teoreticko-praktická škola, Nálady, dojmy a upomínky and other inst works
with J. Malát: Velká teoreticko-praktická škola hry na klavír [Grand Theoretical and Practical School of Piano Playing], 1883–7 (1883–91, 1899) [incl. many earlier pf pieces, otherwise lost, and many specially written and separately pubd pieces for teaching, e.g. Polka, A, 1882 (n.d.), Sonatina, d, 1885, ed. R. Kurzová (1931)]
documents and memoirs
ČSHS [incl. systematic bibliography and list of works]
A.Schulzová: ‘Zdenko Fibich: hrstka upomínek a intimních rysů’ [A handful of reminiscences and intimate traits], Květy, xxiv (1902), bk 68, no.6, pp.768–83, bk 69, no.1, pp.67–84; ed. L. Boháček (Prague, 1950); also in A. Rektorys (1951–2), ii, pp.141–99
J.Boleška: ‘O Zdeňku Fibichovi: několik vzpomínek na poslední desetiletí jeho života’ [Fibich: some recollections on the last decade of his life], Dalibor, xxv (1903), 281–2, 289–90, 302–5, 314–15
J.Jeřábek: ‘Zdeněk Fibich jako učitel a člověk’ [Fibich as teacher and man], Divadelní listy [Prague], iv (1903), 120–22, 140–42, 174–7
O.Hostinský: Vzpomínky na Fibicha [Reminiscences of Fibich] (Prague, 1909)
A.Rektorys, ed.: ‘Památník Fibichův’, Dalibor/Hudební listy, xxxii (1910) [incl. documentary material and articles by E. Axman, B. Čapek, R. Fibich, J.B. Foerster, V. Helfert, O. Hostinský, Z. Nejedlý, J. Pešek, K. Pippich, A. Rektorys, F.A. Šubert and O. Zich; some sections repr. in Rektorys (1951–2)]
A.Rektorys, ed.: Zdeněk Fibich: sborník dokumentů a studií o jeho životě a díle [Fibich: collection of documents and studies about his life and work] (Prague, 1951–2) [incl. systematic and chronological lists of works, and pubns, discography, Fibich’s reviews and letters, contemporary reminiscences and reviews]
V.J.Novotný: [Hippodamie:]‘Námluvy Pelopovy’ [The Courtship of Pelops], Zlatá Praha, vii (1890), 142, 150–51, 162–3; ‘Tantalův smír’ [The Atonement of Tantalus], viii (1891), 102–3, 114–15, 130, 138–9; ‘Smrt Hippodamie’ [Hippodamia's Death], viii (1891), 571–3, 594–5, 606–7, 619–20
F.A.Šubert, ed.: České národní divadlo na první mezinárodní hudební a divadelní výstavě ve Vídni r. 1892 [The Czech National Theatre in the First International Musical and Theatre Exhibition in Vienna 1892] (Prague, 1892)
Z.Nejedlý: Zdeňka Fibicha milostný deník: Nálady, dojmy a upomínky [Fibich’s erotic diary: Moods, Impressions and Reminiscences] (Prague, 1925, 2/1948; Eng. summary in G. Abraham: ‘An Erotic Diary for Piano’, Slavonic and Romantic Music (London, 1968), 70–82) [see also V. Helfert’s detailed review in Hudební rozhledy, ii (1925–6), 99–101, 117–18; repr. in V. Helfert: Vybrané studie, i: O hudební tvořivosti, ed. F. Hrabal (Prague, 1970), 73–83]
J.Plavec: Zdeněk Fibich, mistr české balady [Fibich, master of the Czech ballad] (Prague, 1940)
V.Hudec: ‘Zum Stil von Z. Fibichs kammermusikalischen Schaffen’, Musica cameralis: Brno VI 1971, 171–6
Hudební rozhledy, ii/3–4 (1925–6) [incl. articles by V. Helfert: ‘O Zdenka Fibicha’ [About Fibich], 37–40; J. Tomášek: ‘Písňová tvorba Zd. Fibicha’ [Fibich’s songs], 41–3; J. Hutter: ‘K Fibichovu cyklu v Národním divadle v Praze’ [On Fibich's cycle at the National Theatre in Prague], 43–5]
Z.Studeníková: Fibichova–Malátova klavírní škola [Fibich and Malát’s piano school] (diss., U. of Prague, 1954; extracts in MMC, ii, 1957)
V.Nejedlý: Počátky moderní české harmoniky [The beginnings of modern Czech harmony], ed. V. Felix (Prague, 1960), 92–122
V.Hudec: Fibichovo skladatelské mládí: doba příprav [Fibich’s youth as a composer: a time of preparation] (Prague, 1966)
P.Pražák: Malá preludia: dětství a mládí slavných skladatelů [A short prelude: childhood and youth of great composers] (Prague, 1969), 201–16
J.Jiránek: ‘Die Beziehung von Musik und Wort im Schaffen Zdeněk Fibichs’, Music and Word: Brno IV 1969, 159–69
J.Jiránek: ‘Die Semantik des Melodrams: ein Sonderfall der musiko-literarischen Gattungen, demonstriert am Werk Zdeněk Fibichs’, Die Semantik der musiko-literarischen Gattungen: Methodik und Analyze: eine Festgabe für Ulrich Weisstein zum 65. Geburtstag, ed. W. Bernhart (Tübingen, 1994), 153–73