(b ?Exeter; flc1620). English composer. His family name was common in and around Exeter. He was probably the son or a relative of Anthony Facy (1558–1621). Hugh Facy was a chorister and secondary at Exeter Cathedral, and received his musical instruction from Edward Gibbons and Greenwood Randall. There is an entry in the Chapter Act Book for 1 March 1618 recording that he was to be allowed ‘sometimes’ to play the organ for services. Two further entries refer to him: the first, dated 6 November 1619, begins ‘Item they gave leave to Hugh Facye to be absent from the service of the Quire for one whole yeare next ensuing without prejudice unto him in regard of his Secondaries place in this Church and to receave his stipend due to that place in meane time’. In the second, dated 4 November 1620, the dean and chapter extended his leave of absence for another year. No further mention of him is found in the cathedral records.
Among his surviving works, all of which are in manuscript, are some lively divisions and solos for the bass viol. Richards attributes a number of anonymous pieces in the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge, the Dolmetsch collection at Haslemere, and the Manchester Public Library to Facy. Two of his Latin compositions have survived. In his setting of the Magnificat (the source is probably holograph) the markings ‘suaviter’ and ‘fortiter’ are found. These Latin works suggest Catholic sympathies (not unknown in Exeter at that time; seeLugge, John) and the italianate version of his name – Facio – suggests that he may have spent some time abroad.
Short service for meanes (TeD, Bs, Mag, Nunc), 4vv, US-NYp 505–8
Magnificat, 4vv, bc, GB-Lcm 1181
4 fancies a 3, str, inc., US-R
2 solos, b viol, GB-Mp 832.V.u.51
2 divisions, b viol, Ob Mus.Sch.C.71, US-NYp Drexel 3551
J.Mark: ‘The Orlando Gibbons Tercentenary (some Virginal Manuscripts in the Music Division)’, Bulletin of the New York Public Library, xxix (1925), 847–60
S.Jeans: ‘Musical Life at Exeter Cathedral (1600–1650)’, Quarterly Record of the Incorporated Association of Organists, xliii (1958), 103–13
J.M.Richards: A Study of Music for Bass Viol Written in England in the Seventeenth Century (diss., U. of Oxford, 1961)
C.D.Maxim: British Cantus firmus Settings for Keyboard from the Early Sixteenth Century to the Middle of the Seventeenth Century (diss., U. of Cardiff, 1995)
Portuguese vocal and dance genre. Fado has two distinct traditions: the most widely known is from Lisbon; a separate though related tradition, also named fado or canção de Coimbra (‘Coimbra song’), thrives in the central city of Coimbra.
1. Lisbon ‘fado’.
The origin of fado has been the focus of considerable debate. Most researchers agree that fado emerged in poor neighbourhoods of Lisbon during the second quarter of the 19th century. This was a period that immediately followed the transfer of the Portuguese court to Brazil (1808–22), an event that intensified cultural exchange between the two countries. Fado was probably the result of a synthesis of several musical genres and dances popular in Lisbon in the early 19th century, as well as new genres brought to Lisbon with the return of the Portuguese court from Brazil. These genres include the lundum, a Brazilian dance and vocal genre of African origin, the modinha, a genre of salon ‘art’ song that developed in Portugal and Brazil from the mid-18th century to the mid-19th, the fandango, a Portuguese dance of Spanish origin, the fado, a Brazilian dance that is still found in rural areas in the state of Rio de Janeiro, and the fofa, a dance found in Brazil and Portugal. It is also likely that fado was initially danced to the accompaniment of the then popular five-string guitar, an instrument that was replaced by the ‘Portuguese guitar’ or guitarra, which was popular in the bourgeois salons of Lisbon at the time and which has accompanied fado ever since.
Fado researchers have divided its development into several phases. The earliest system of periodization was proposed by Pinto de Carvalho in 1903. He proposed two phases: a ‘popular and spontaneous’ one (1830–68/9) characterized by the close association of fado with prostitution and marginality in the old neighbourhoods of Lisbon, and an ‘aristocratic and literary’ phase (1868/9–90) characterized by the social ascent of fado to the salons and beach resorts of Lisbon's bourgeoisie. Joaquim Pais de Brito (1983) pointed out that it was during Carvalho's second phase that fado became consolidated as a musical genre. He also proposed two further phases of development. A third phase (1890–1920) is characterized by a diversification in the social contexts of the production and transmission of fado, including the gradual incorporation of fado into Portuguese vaudeville (teatro de revista). A fourth phase, which began in 1930, is characterized by the professionalization and ‘folkloric liquidation’ of fado, its transformation into an ‘artistic expression’, the elimination of improvisation and the introduction of innovations in fado texts and compositional style. Much of this period coincided with the totalitarian regime of the estado novo (1926–74), which imposed censorship on texts, required performers to obtain a licence to exercise their profession (carteira profissional) and set up tourist restaurants (casa típica) for the performance of fado and folkloric representations of rural traditions. This period also coincided with the use of sound recordings, radio and film for the dissemination of fado. During this period, some of the most prominent fado figures had brilliant careers, including the singers Amália Rodrigues (1920–99) and Alfredo Marceneiro (1891–1992), the guitarra virtuoso and composer Armandinho (1891–1946) and the viola player Martinho d'Assunção (1914–92). Following the revolution of 25 April 1974, fado saw a period of diminished activities, after which there was a resurgence. A new generation of fado artists has since been active, introducing innovations while at the same time preserving its distinctive features.
(ii) Performance practice.
Fado performances involve a solo vocalist as central figure, instrumental accompanists and audiences in a communicative process using verbal, musical, facial and bodily expression. Live fado performances are complex events in which fado performers construct narratives, express ideas and emotions through the skilful interplay between words, melodies and their variation, vocal quality, gestures, facial expression and instrumental dialogue. Fado performances are also structured by social context, political conjuncture, performance setting, occasion, repertory, performers, audience and performance norms. Fado is sung solo by either a woman or a man, referred to as fadista or artista. The standard accompaniment is provided by a guitarra and a viola. A second guitarra and/or viola baixo are sometimes added.
Fado can be heard live and through the media, including radio, television and recordings (LPs, cassettes and CDs). In Lisbon, live performance settings include tourist restaurants (casas típicas), concerts in large auditoria, Portuguese vaudeville (teatro de revista) and neighbourhood associations, taverns and local restaurants regularly featuring amateur fado singers. Lisbon's fado can also be heard in similar settings in other Portuguese cities and even in the countryside, especially in the south.
In all performance settings, the fadista is the central figure. The instrumental accompaniment, especially that provided by the guitarra, is regarded by performers and audiences as an indispensable part of fado performance. Each fadista imprints the fado with his/her style through melodic improvisation, a process designated as estilar (‘styling’). Fadistas recognized for their creative melodic improvisation are referred to as estilistas. A few fadistas and guitarristas have also been distinguished as fado composers.
Using musical and poetic structure as their main criteria, fado practitioners classify their repertory into two basic categories: fado castiço and fado canção, roughly ‘authentic’ fado and song-fado. These two categories can be seen as two ends of a continuum ranging from a minimum of fixed elements in the case of fado castiço, and therefore maximum opportunity for creative performance, to a maximum fixity of most elements.
The fado castiço, also referred to by some of its practitioners as fado fado, fado clássico or fado tradicional, is considered the oldest and most ‘authentic’ fado. Within the fado castiço, another distinction is made between three anonymous fados often referred to as raízes do fado (‘roots of fado’), which are believed to be the oldest and most basic fados, and close to one hundred fados attributed to 19th- and 20th-century fado composers. The ‘basic’ fados are fado corrido, fado mouraria and fado menor. All three terms, and in some cases the respective accompaniment patterns, were documented in 19th- and early 20th-century publications.
All three fados have fixed rhythmic and harmonic schemes (I–V) and a fixed accompaniment pattern consisting of a melodic motif that is constantly repeated, at times with slight variation. Using these patterns as a basis, the melody is either composed or improvised. Texts are usually set to one of the most common poetic structures, such as the quatrain or five-, six- and ten-verse stanzas. The accompaniment pattern, the I–V harmonic scheme and the regular 4/4 metre are the identifying elements of these fados and are basically fixed. All other elements are variable. Fado corrido and mouraria, in the major mode, are usually performed in a fast tempo and have similar accompaniment patterns. Fado menor is in the minor mode and is often performed in a slow tempo.
In addition to these three fados, there are over one hundred fados that have a fixed harmonic scheme, fixed melodies and, in a few cases, a fixed accompaniment pattern. In most cases, the accompaniment is variable and is developed by the instrumentalists using the harmonic scheme as a base. Various texts are then adapted to this basic musical structure.
The fado canção is characterized by an alternating stanza and refrain structure. The harmonic structures are more complex than those used in fado castiço. Melodies are fixed, but the accompaniment can be developed according to the instrumentalists' taste, provided that the basic harmonic pattern is respected. Vocal improvisation is more limited than in fado castiço.
The initial development of fado canção is closely related to this genre's incorporation into the teatro de revista, which took place beginning in the 1880s. By the 1920s and 30s, fado became one of the indispensable ingredients of the revista, and its structure was adapted to the requirements of the stage show. Another phase in the development of the fado canção was marked by the fados composed in the 1960s by Alan Oulman for Amália Rodrigues, which are characterized by the use of erudite poetry and complex harmonies.
Fado texts deal with a variety of themes, including the early contexts of fado performances such as houses of prostitution, Lisbon's old neighbourhoods, people connected to fado, specific events, feelings (e.g. nostalgia, longing, love, jealousy, revenge, hate), fado itself, the mother figure and political struggle (especially following the 1974 revolution).
2. ‘Canção de Coimbra’.
The fado or canção de Coimbra is a lyrical performance tradition integrated into the academic life of the medieval university of Coimbra, consisting of the vocal and instrumental genres: fado, balada and guitarrada. The performers are primarily male students, alumni and professors of Coimbra University.
The development of the fado of Coimbra can be traced back to the second half of the 19th century, when Lisbon's fado and guitarra were introduced to Coimbra by students from Lisbon. Since then, Coimbra has developed a distinct fado tradition, which is a synthesis of several elements, including traditional music brought by students from various parts of the country, the Italian bel canto style and, initially, Lisbon's fado. The guitarra (see illustration) and viola are central as accompanying instruments both for the fado and balada and for the performance of instrumental guitarradas.
The balada is characterized by the political engagement and literary quality of its texts, which are set to simple melodies emphasizing the words. The viola, often played by the singer himself, replaced the guitarra as the main accompanying instrument. This genre provided the springboard for the development of political song in Portugal during the 1960s and 70s (seePortugal, §IV, 1(i)). Guitarradas are solo compositions for the guitarra, accompanied by the viola, which are found in both the Lisbon and Coimbra traditions.
P.de Carvalho: História do fado (Lisbon, 1903, 2/1982)
A.Pimentel: A triste canção do sul: subsídios para a história do fado (Lisbon, 1904/R)
M.de S. Pinto: ‘O Lundum: o avô do fado’, Ilustração, vi (1931), 17–19
L.Moita: O fado: canção dos vencidos (Lisbon, 1936)
F.de Freitas: ‘Fado’, Enciclopédia luso-brasileira de cultura (Lisbon, 1969)
A.Osório: A mitologia fadista (Lisbon, 1974)
J.Pais de Brito: ‘O fado: um canto na cidade’, Ethnologia, l/1 (1983), 149–84
A.F.de Costa and M. das D.Guerreiro: O trágico e o contraste: o fado no bairro de Alfama (Lisbon, 1984)
V.Pavão dos Santos: Amália: uma biografia (Lisbon, 1987)
M.de Andrade: ‘Fado’, Dicionário musical brasileiro, ed. O. Alvarenga and F.C. Toni (Belo Horizonte, 1989)
A.Duarte: ‘Da balada de intervenção à música popular portuguesa e aos novos ritmos modernos’, Portugal contemporâneo, ed. A. Reis (Lisbon, 1989)
E.Sucena: Lisboa: o fado e os fadistas (Lisbon, 1992)
J.Pais de Brito, ed.: Fado: Voices and Shadows (Lisbon, 1994)
R.de Carvalho: As músicas do fado (Oporto, 1994)
S. El-S.Castelo-Branco: ‘The Dialogue between Voices and Guitars in Fado Performance Practice’, Fado: Voices and Shadows, ed. J. Pais de Brito (Lisbon, 1994), 125–40
J.R.Tinhorão: Fado: dança do Brasil, cantar de Lisboa: o fim de um mito (Lisbon, 1994)
P.Vernon: A History of the Portuguese Fado (Lisbon, 1998)
S.El-S.Castelo-Branco and J.S.de Carvalho: Sons de cidades: fado, samba, rap e outras músicas (Lisbon, forthcoming)