Faà di Bruno, Giovanni Matteo [Horatio, Orazio] 83

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(It.: ‘end’).

An indication of the point at which a piece finishes, used particularly in those forms (e.g. in da capo arias or minuet and trio movements) where the notation ends with the second section, but the performance ends with the repeat of the first.


Fine [Van Eynde, Von Ende], Arnoldus de

(b ?Antwerp; d Elsinore, 13 Nov 1586). Danish composer, organist and choirmaster of Flemish birth. He is said to have left his native country because of religious persecution under Philip II, but he may have been invited to Copenhagen by the Danish King Christian III, who had good connections in other European countries. He was first named as an organist in the Danish royal chapel in April 1556; he was replaced in 1560, remaining at the court as the queen's organist. In 1563 he was appointed to the king's chapel by Christian's successor Frederick II, who held him in high esteem and granted him several benefices including two at Roskilde Cathedral. When the royal chapel was reorganized after the Seven Years’ War with Sweden, Fine was appointed sangmester on 5 June 1571. His long and faithful service was rewarded with a canonry at Århus Cathedral in 1583. Although little is known about his musical activities, he was responsible for the education of the choirboys throughout his career, and he must have organized the music for Frederick II's wedding to Sophie of Mecklenburg in 1572.

Fine was highly regarded by his own and the next generation (see e.g. H.M. Ravn, Heptachordum danicum, 1646), but very little of his music has survived, all German sacred lieder for four voices. A well-written and effective setting in cantional style of Wann mein Stündlein vorhanden ist occurs in the Flensburg collection (D-FLs Mus.ms.4, ed. O. Kongsted, Liber cantionum, i, Copenhagen, 1993). A similarly shapely setting of Das alte Jahr vergangen ist must have been very popular at the end of the 16th century, as contemporary copies are found in a number of European libraries (e.g. D-Dl, Z). Ich hab mein Sach tzu Got gestelt was attributed to Fine in a transcription in the collection of Otto Kade (D-SWl 4757/25), but the original manuscript (in D-DL Mus. Pi Cod. III, no.7) was badly damaged during World War II and the attribution can no longer be seen. No compositions have survived in Danish sources.

Fine's descendants are very numerous in the Danish-Norwegian monarchy. One son, Petrus Arnoldi de Fine (d 1620) was a singer in the royal chapel; another, Arnoldus de Fine, was an instrumentalist in the chapel from 1603 to 1627.


A. Hammerich: Musiken ved Christian den Fjerdes Hof (Copenhagen, 1892)

L. Laursen, ed.: Kancelliets Brevbøger, 1561–1565 (Copenhagen, 1893–5), 1566–1570 (1897), 1571–1575 (1898), 1576–1579 (1900), 1580–1583 (1903), 1584–1588 (1906), 1588–1592 (1908), 1593–1596 (1910), 1596–1602 (1913), 1603–1608 (1915), 1609–1615 (1916), 1616–1620 (1919)

L.H.F. de Fine Olivarius: Stamtavler over Slœgterne Olivarius og de Fine med personalhistoriske Efterretninger om disse Slœgter (Copenhagen, 1894, 4/1983)

C. Thrane: Fra Hofviolonernes Tid: Skildringer af det kongelige Kapels Historie, 1648–1848 (Copenhagen, 1908)

E. Nystrøm: Biografiske Efterretninger om Peter Munthe Bruns og Ane Munchs Slœgt paa fœdrene og mødrene Side (Copenhagen, 1910)

G. Kraack: Die St-Nikolai-Bibliothek zu Flensburg: eine Büchersammlung aus dem Jahrhundert der Reformation (Flensburg, 1984)

O. Kongsted and others: Festmusik fra Renaissancen (Copenhagen, 1990) [exhibition catalogue]

O. Kongsted: Kronborg-Brunnen und Kronborg-Motetten: ein Notenfund des späten 16. Jahrhunderts aus Flensburg und seine Vorgeschichte (Copenhagen, Flensburg and Kiel, 1991)


Fine, Irving (Gifford)

(b Boston, 3 Dec 1914; d Boston, 23 Aug 1962). American composer, teacher and conductor. He studied composition with Hill and Piston at Harvard University (BA 1937, MA 1938), and later worked with Boulanger and studied conducting with Koussevitzky. He taught at Harvard (1939–50) and was then appointed to the faculty of Brandeis University; at the time of his death he was Walter W. Naumburg Professor of Music and chairman of the Brandeis School of Creative Arts. From 1946 to 1957 he also served on the composition staff of the Berkshire Music Center. His awards included two Guggenheim Fellowships, a Fulbright Research Fellowship, an award from the National Institute of Arts and Letters and several MacDowell Association grants. His commissions included those from the Ford Foundation, the Library of Congress, the Koussevitzky Foundation, the Juilliard School and the American League of Composers.

Copland included Fine in what he called the American ‘Stravinsky School’; indeed, some of Fine's early works were influenced by Stravinsky as well as by Hindemith. Although his style was essentially dissonant, he did not come to grips with serialism until the String Quartet (1952) in which he felt that he had combined his earlier, tonal approach with the then new technique; the Fantasia for string trio (1956) is similar in style. In later works Fine's strongest interest appeared to be in contrapuntal and rhythmic organization, but he continued to experiment with serialism. His turning to 12-note methodology may have been brought about by a reassessment of his own neo-classicism and a liking for more contemporary practices. He wrote articles and reviews for Modern Music, Notes, Musical America and the New York Times.


Orch: Toccata concertante, 1947; Serious Song: a Lament, str, 1955; Blue Towers, 1959; Diversions, 1959–60; Sym., 1962

Choral: 3 Choruses from Alice in Wonderland, 3–4vv, pf, 1942, arr, with orch, 1949; The Choral New Yorker, S, A, Bar, 3–4vv, pf, 1944; A Short Alleluia, SSA, 1945; In gratio jubilo, hymn, small orch, 1949; The Hour Glass (B. Jonson), song cycle, SATB, 1949; Old American Songs (trad.), 2–4vv, pf, 1952; An Old Song (Yehoash, trans. M. Syrkin), SATB, 1953; 3 Choruses from Alice in Wonderland (L. Carroll), 2nd ser., SSA, pf, 1953; McCord's Menagerie (McCord), TTB, 1957

Songs: Mutability (I. Orgel), cycle, Mez, pf, 1952; Childhood Fables for Grown-ups (G. Norman), Mez/Bar, pf/orch, 1954–5

Chbr and solo inst: Sonata, vn, pf, 1946; Music for Pf, 1947; Partita, wind qnt, 1948; Notturno, str, hp, 1950–51; Str Qt, 1952; Children's Pf Pieces, 1956; Fantasia, str trio, 1956; Hommage à Mozart, pf, 1956; Romanza, wind qt, 1958

MSS in US-Wc

Principal publisher: Boosey & Hawkes




V. Thomson: Review of Toccata, New York Herald Tribune (16 Jan 1949)

A. Berger: ‘Stravinsky and the Younger American Composers’, The Score, no.12 (1955), 38–46; repr. in The American Composer Speaks, ed. G. Chase (Baton Rouge, LA, 1966), 202–15

D. Epstein: ‘Irving Fine: Symphony (1962)’, PNM, iii/2 (1964–5), 160–4

L. Rickert: Selected American Song Cycles for Baritone Composed since 1945 (DMA diss., U. of Illinois, 1965)

H. Pollack: Harvard Composers: Walter Piston and his Students, from Elliott Carter to Frederic Rzewski (Metuchen, NJ, 1992)


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