(b Buenos Aires, 29 Aug 1955). Argentine mezzo-soprano of Slovenian parentage. She studied at the Arts Institute of the Teatro Colón, and in 1985 won Argentina's New Lyric Voices prize. Moving to Europe, she sang with leading orchestras and conductors, specializing in the music of the Baroque and earlier periods. As well as returning to the Colón, she appeared with immediate success in opera in Geneva and Prague, followed by a début at Salzburg as Dorabella in Così fan tutte. She has also become a noted recitalist, with concerts at Carnegie Hall in New York, the Wigmore Hall, London, the Sydney Opera House, Tokyo, Paris and Vienna. Fink's voice, rich and pure in quality, has character in it and takes well to recording. Fine examples of her art can be heard in recordings of several Monteverdi and Handel operas conducted by René Jacobs, while a bold but tasteful performance of Wolf's Die Zigeunerin shows her aptitude in a quite different repertory.
Fink, Gottfried Wilhelm
(b Sulza, Thuringia, 7 March 1783; d Leipzig, 27 Aug 1846). German critic, editor, theologian and composer. The son of a Reformed pastor, Gottfried was a chorister at Naumburg. In Leipzig he studied music and theology (1804–9) and served as a Reformed pastor (1810–16), establishing and directing a theological seminary (1814–27). He also composed many songs and in 1808 began writing for the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung, of which he succeeded Gottfried Christoph Härtel as editor (1827–41). He taught at the Leipzig Conservatory (1838–43) and was briefly its director in 1842.
Fink was initially neutral in the controversy between Classicism and Romanticism, and was friendly with Weber, who gave his Sechs Lieder (1812) a warm review in the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung and printed one song, Die Liebenden, in full. However, Fink later took up a stubborn stand against the younger Romantics. He published only half of Schumann's enthusiastic review (7 December 1831) of Chopin's ‘Là ci darem’ Variations, with its famous exclamation ‘Hats off, gentlemen, a genius!’, and showed his doubts about this fictional presentation of criticism and what was the first appearance of the characters of the later-named Davidsbund. He then proceeded to refuse all further articles by Schumann and to suppress all mention of him, to oppose Chopin, and to make a celebrated attack on A.B. Marx for his new method of teaching composition (1842). Schumann's foundation of the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik in 1834 was partly an act of defiance against Fink and all he represented.
Fink was a prolific contributor to the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung as well as the dictionaries of Ersch and Gruber, Brockhaus and Gustav Schilling. He compiled two lieder collections: Musikalischer Hausschatz der Deutschen (1843) and Die deutsche Liedertafel (1845). He wrote a history of opera, an extensive history of music (unpublished) and numerous essays and books on music theory, pedagogy and composition (Der neumusikalische Lehrjammer, Leipzig, 1842). His compositions include works for piano and violin, songs (many of which are settings of his own poems) and Häusliche Andachten (terzets and quartets for male voices). His daughter Charlotte (d 1 Oct 1843) was a pianist who appeared in Leipzig, Dessau and Dresden from 1835.
C.M.von Weber: Review of G.W. Fink's 6 Lieder (1812), AMZ, xiv (1812), 427–32
M.Bigenwald: Die Anfänge der Leipziger AMZ (diss., U. of Freiburg, 1934)
K.G.Fellerer: ‘Adolf Bernhard Marx und Gottfried Wilhelm Fink’, Festschrift Alfred Orel zum 70. Geburtstag, ed. H. Federhofer (Vienna and Wiesbaden, 1960), 59–65
K.-E.Eicke: Der Streit zwischen Adolf Bernhard Marx und Gottfried Wilhelm Fink um die Kompositionslehre (Regensburg, 1966)
C.H.Porter: The Rhine as Musical Metaphor: Cultural Identity in German Romantic Music (Boston, 1996)
JOHN WARRACK/CECELIA H. PORTER
Finke, Fidelio F(riedrich)
(b Josefstal [now Josefův Důl, nr Jablonec], Bohemia, 22 Oct 1891; d Dresden, 12 June 1968). German composer and teacher. He received his first music lessons from his father, a music teacher, composer and conductor of an amateur orchestra, and also from his uncle, Romeo Finke, the first director of the German Academy of Music, Prague, and a distinguished piano teacher. From 1908 to 1911 he studied in Novák's composition master classes at the Prague Conservatory, where he was appointed teacher of theory and piano in 1915 and professor in 1926. He directed the composition master classes at the German Academy (1927–45) and he was national inspector of German music schools (1920–38) and president of the German Society of Music Teachers in Czechoslovakia from 1924, among other administrative posts. During his first 15 years in Prague he was also active as a conductor, pianist, organist and writer and he edited Der Auftakt. After the war he moved to Dresden as director of the Akademie für Musik und Theater (1946–51), where he took a master class in composition. He was professor of composition at the Leipzig Musikhochschule (1951–9) and was elected to membership of the German Academy of Arts, Berlin, in 1956. From 1959 he lived in Dresden. Awards made to him include the national prizes of Czechoslovakia (1928 and 1937) and the DDR (1956), and the Order of Merit of the DDR (1961).
Finke’s creative work is marked by his connections with Germany and with Czechoslovakia, his craftsmanship and his openness to folk music and to new expressive means. The music of his first period, approximately up to World War I, was influenced by late 19th-century music. The ingenious Reiterburleske, a symphonic poem for piano, is typical: it is close to Strauss, but there is individuality in its Bohemian traits and its melancholy humour. In 1914 Finke completed his First Quartet, dedicated to Schoenberg, who had a great influence on him and with whom he came into personal contact. The première of the work, by the Amar Quartet at the 1921 Donaueschingen Festival, brought Finke sudden fame. He remained a figure of the avant garde, as the Expressionist Violin Sonata (1924) demonstrates. Nevertheless, during these years and later he was making efforts to shape his own style from tradition and innovation, from new ideas and folk music. In about 1930 he moved into a new period characterized by frugal neo-classical writing. Then after his move to East Germany his music became clearer and more popular in appeal. His chamber pieces are the best and most widely known.
Eine Schauspiel-Ouvertüre, 1908; Suite no.1, str, 1911; Pan, sym., 1919; Pf Conc., 1930; Conc. for Orch, 1931; 8 Bagatellen, 1939; Ciacona [after Vitali], 1944; Suites nos.2–3, 1948, 1949; Capriccio on a Polish Folksong, pf, orch, 1953; Suite no.4, 16 wind, perc, 1953; Suite no.5, wind, 1955; Suites nos.6–7, 1956, 1961; Suite no.8, 5 wind, 2 pf, str, 1961; Divertimento, chbr orch, 1964; Festliche Musik, 1965
Pf: Intermezzo, 1909; 4 Klavierstücke, 1911; Notturno, duet, 1911; Eine Reiterburleske, 1913; Romantische Suite, 1916; Gesichte, 1920; 19 kleine Stücke, 1921; Marionettenmusik, 1922; Suite no.2, 1926; 10 Kinderstücke, 1927; Conc., 2 pf, 1931; 10 Stücke, duet, 1938; Egerländer Sträusslein, 1939; 3 deutsche Tänze, duet, 1940; Siciliano, duet, 1945; Sonatina, 1945; Neue Bagatellen, duet, 1946; 8 Stücke, duet, 1946; 2 Variationen über ein Adventslied, 1946; Polca grotesca, 1947; Ruth, die Ährenleserin, 1947; 12 Klavierstücke nach slawischen Volksliedern, 1952; 2 Bagatellen, 1953; 3 Sätze nach deutschen Volksliedern, 1954; 3 Sätze nach deutschen Volksliedern, 1960
Org: 7 Choralvorspiele, 1928; Fantasie, Variationen und Doppelfuge über ‘Aus tiefer Not’, 1928; Toccata und Fuge, 1930; Suite, 1930
stage and vocal
Die versunkene Glocke (op, 4, G. Hauptmann), 1915–18; Die Jacobsfahrt (op, 3, Dietzenschmidt [A. Schmidt]), Prague, 17 Oct 1936; Lied der Zeit (Tanzpantomime), 1946; Der schlagfertige Liebhaber (comic op, 3, K. Zuchardt), 1950–54; Der Zauberfisch (Märchen ballade, 2, W. Hübner, after J.L. and W.C. Grimm), Dresden, 3 June 1960
Vocal orchestral: Frühling, S, T, orch, 1916; Abschied (F. Werfel), S, T, orch, 1917; 2 Gesänge, A, orch, 1937; Deutsche Kantate, S, B, chorus, boys’ chorus, orch, org, 1940; 9 sudetendeutsche Volkslieder, 1v, small orch, 1940; Schein und Sein (W. Busch), A/B, pf/orch, 1950; Eros, cant., S, T, orch, 1966
Choral: Eine Weihnachtskantilene, boys'/female vv, insts ad lib, 1933; 6 Kanons (Busch), 1936; Chor der Toten (C.F. Meyer), 1938; Deutsche Volkslieder, 1940; Die Glocke, 1944; Russische Volkslieder, 1946; 3 Schulchöre, 1948; Das Göttliche (J.W. von Goethe), 1949; 7 Chöre (Des Knaben Wunderhorn), 1952; Der Maiensonne heller Stern, 1952; Freiheit und Frieden (cant., B. Brecht, P.N.R. Neruda), 1952; Seine Meinung, 1952; Wer leben will in dieser Zeit, 1952; Glaubensbekenntnis (cant., K. Boteff), 1959, arr. chorus, orch, 1962
Lieder: Gefunden, 1908; 3 frühe Lieder, 1909; Frühling, 1912; 3 Lieder (C. Bayer), 1918; 3 Lieder (R.M. Rilke), 1930; 8 sudetendeutsche Volkslieder, 1938; Auf, auf, ihr Hirten, 1939; Ich bin ein Haus (E. Merker), 1940; Lob des Sommers (Merker, Rilke), 1940; 8 deutsche Volkslieder, 1940; Beginn des Endes, 1945; 10 russische Volkslieder, 1945; Der Apfelbaum am Wegrand (M. Beniuc, G. Maurer), 1965; Kantate piccola (Busch), 1966; Der Rauch (Brecht), 1966; Epilog aus ‘Der aufhaltsame Aufstieg des Arturo Ui’ (Brecht), 1966; Das Atom (J.R. Becher), 1966
L. van Beethoven: Septet, pf duet; A. Schoenberg: String Quartet no.2, S, pf duet; C.D. von Dittersdorf: Harpsichord Concerto, hp, str qt
Principal publishers: Beilage zur Deutschen Arbeit, Breitkopf & Härtel, Dresdner Verlag, Heinrichshofen, Hoffmann, Hug, Internationale Musikbibliothek, Litolff, Neue Musik, Peters, Universal
G.Schmiedel: ‘Fidelio F. Finke’, Aus dem Leben und Schaffen unserer Komponisten (Berlin, 1960–61)
G.Berge: ‘Das Klavierwerk Fidelio F. Finkes’, MG, xv (1965), 369–79
D.Härtwig: ‘Fidelio F. Finke: Entwicklung seines Schaffens’, Sammelbände zur Musikgeschichte der Deutschen Demoskratischen Republik, ed. H.A. Brockhaus and K. Niemann, i (Berlin, 1969), 237–62
D.Härtwig: ‘Eigenes in unverbrauchten Klängen’, MG, xxi (1971), 621–4
V.Benetková: ‘Ke stému výročí neznámého skladatele: Fidelio F. Finke’ [For the 100th anniversary of a little-known composer], HRo, xlv (1992), 40–44
P.Brömse and W.Hübner, eds.: ‘Einzeitgemäss Unzeitgemässen: Erinnerungen an Fidelio Fritz Finke’, Aktuelle lexicographische Fragen: Bericht (Regensburg, 1994), 107–29
Das Atom (J.R. Becher), 1966; Der Rauch (Brecht), 1966; Epilog aus ‘Der aufhaltsame Aufstieg des Arturo Ui’ (Brecht), 1966; Kantate piccola (Busch), 1966