Faà di Bruno, Giovanni Matteo [Horatio, Orazio] 83


Fitzthumb, Ignaz. See Vitzthumb, Ignaz. Fitzwilliam Museum



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Fitzthumb, Ignaz.


See Vitzthumb, Ignaz.

Fitzwilliam Museum.


Museum founded in Cambridge by Richard, Viscount Fitzwilliam. See also Libraries, §II.

Fitzwilliam Virginal Book


(GB-Cfm 32.g.29). See Sources of keyboard music to 1660, §2(vi).

Fiume, Orazio


(b Monopoli, 16 Jan 1908; d Trieste, 21 Dec 1976). Italian composer. After studying composition in Naples and the piano in Palermo, he took postgraduate courses in composition with Pizzetti and conducting with Molinari at the Accademia di S Cecilia in Rome. He established himself as a composer by winning various prizes, including the Premio Marzotto and the Premio Martucci in 1956, and the Grand Prix Reine Elisabeth de Belgique in 1957. Having taught composition at the conservatories of Parma (1941–51) and Milan (1951–9), he became director at Pesaro (1959) and then Trieste (after 1960). He was a member of the Accademia di S Cecilia in Rome.

Fiume’s output is principally orchestral. Works like the Sinfonia in tre tempi and the two Concertos for Orchestra (which are among his most important pieces) use an essentially tonal language, occasionally enriched by chromatic collections and isolated serial elements. His only opera, Il tamburo di panno, displays a conventional dramatic and musical approach. (DEUMM, R. Zanetti; ES, A.M. Bonisconti; GroveO, R. Pozzi)


WORKS


(selective list)

Stage: Il tamburo di panno (op, 1, after a 14th-century Jap. nō play), Rome, Opera, 12 April 1962; In una notte di bufera (ballet), c1963

Orch: Fantasia eroica, vc, orch, 1936; 3 pezzi, 1937; Divertimento, 1937; Introduzione ad una tragicommedia, 1938; Conc. for Orch no.1, 1945; Sinfonia in tre tempi, 1956; Conc. for Orch no.2, 1956; Suite, 1957; Ouverture, 1959; Sinfonia, str, timp, 1966

Vocal: 3 liriche, S, orch, 1938; Canto funebre per la morte d’un eroe, unacc. choir, 1939; Aiace (V. Cardarelli), choir, orch, 1970

Pf: Piccola suite, 1937

VIRGILIO BERNARDONI

Five, the [Moguchaya kuchka; Mighty Handful].


A group of 19th-century Russian composers led by Balakirev, the other members being Borodin, Cui, Musorgsky and Rimsky-Korsakov. Their aim was to follow in Glinka's footsteps and create a distinctly Russian school of music. Formed in St Petersburg before the foundation of the Conservatory of Music by Anton Rubinstein in 1862, they were consequently all self-taught. It was in a review of a concert on 12/24 May 1867 that Vladimir Stasov praised the conducting of Balakirev and the music of his group, ending the review: ‘May God grant that [the audience retains] for ever a memory of how much poetry, feeling, talent and ability is possessed by the small but already mighty handful [moguchaya kuchka] of Russian musicians’. The term moguchaya kuchka, literally ‘mighty little heap’, stuck, and included, as well as The Five, would-be composers associated with Balakirev such as Gussakovsky and Lodïzhensky. The first reference to ‘five’ occurs in a letter from Balakirev to Tchaikovsky (in Moscow) written on 16/28 March 1870 in which Balakirev congratulated the younger man on the D major second subject (love theme) in his overture Romeo and Juliet; Balakirev's group were fascinated by it, ‘not excluding V. Stasov, who says “there used to be five of you, now there are six”’. But, although in the early 1870s some of Tchaikovsky's music was influenced by The Five in general and Balakirev in particular (he dedicated his Romeo and Juliet overture and, much later, his Manfred symphony to Balakirev), he never closely associated himself with the circle; he did not wish to give way to the ‘dogmatically expressed’ views of Balakirev, and was thankful that he lived in Moscow and they in St Petersburg.

The Five had all been opposed to the Conservatory, but after Rimsky-Korsakov joined the staff in 1871, with Balakirev's support, their disapproval evaporated, though conservative and ‘routine’ techniques were always eschewed. Rubinstein himself, having resigned from the Conservatory in 1867 to resume his career as a concert pianist and composer, was to embrace some of the ‘nationalist’ ideals in, for example, his musical character-picture Ivan IV the Terrible (1869), first conducted by Balakirev, and in Scene 3 of his opera The Demon (1871, première 1875), the latter in its turn influencing parts of Borodin's unfinished opera Prince Igor.

Musorgsky died in 1881 and Borodin in 1887, Cui's music had turned out to be less characterful than that of the others, and by the late 1880s Rimsky-Korsakov was going his own way, allying himself and his followers with the millionaire tycoon Belyayev to the disapproval of Balakirev. The group, never as tightly knit as has often been supposed, had by then ceased to exist. Meanwhile, the continuing polemical articles of Stasov were creating a mythology about them which, until recently, remained largely unchallenged.

BIBLIOGRAPHY


E. Frid and others, eds.: Miliy Alekseyevich Balakirev; vospominaniya i pis'ma [Reminiscences and letters] (Leningrad, 1962)

E. Garden: Balakirev: a Critical Study of his Life and Music (London and New York, 1967)

V.V. Stasov: Stat'i o muzïke [Articles on music], ii (Moscow, 1976), 110–12; Eng. trans. (Cambridge, 1994), 183–6

S. Neef, ed.: Die Russischen Fuenf: Balakirev, Borodin, Cui, Mussorgski, Rimski-Korsakow; Monographien, Dokumente, Briefe, Programme, Werke (Berlin, 1992)

EDWARD GARDEN




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