Opera company founded in 1933, based in Milwaukee.
Florentius de Faxolis [Fiorenzo de’ Fasoli]
(d 18 March 1496). Italian theorist. He entered the service of Cardinal Ascanio Maria Sforza in about 1480 and was a canon at S Florenzio in Fiorenzuola d’Arda from 1482. Some time between 1484 and 1492 he wrote a theoretical work of 95 folios entitled Liber musices (I-Mt 2146). This treatise, commissioned by the cardinal for personal use, is notable for its finely executed miniatures by Attavante degli Attavanti or a member of his school. Gilded notes on blue staves are used for the music examples. The work is divided into three books; it begins with an extended treatment of the value, uses and effects of music and continues more summarily with the elements of music, plainsong, counterpoint, composition and rules of mensural notation. As authorities Florentius cited many ancient Greek, Roman and medieval writers, but did not name any contemporary theorists or composers of renown. He described briefly such musical practices of his time as fauxbourdon, imitation and canon. The treatise contains short polyphonic pieces for discant and tenor to illustrate the five genera of proportions. To conclude the work a Latin poem by Francesco Tranchedino praises the treatise as a valuable guide to musical understanding.
MGG1 suppl. (K.-J. Sachs)
E.Motta: ‘Dell’autore probabile di un prezioso codice musicale della Trivulziana’, Bollettino storico della Svizzera italiana, xxi (1899), 76–7
A.Seay: ‘The “Liber Musices” of Florentius de Faxolis’, Musik und Geschichte: Leo Schrade zum sechzigsten Geburtstag (Cologne, 1963), 71–95
E.E.Lowinsky: ‘Ascanio Sforza’s Life: a Key to Josquin’s Biography and an Aid to the Chronology of his Works’, Josquin des Prez: New York 1971, 32–75, esp. 47–9
CLEMENT A. MILLER/BONNIE J. BLACKBURN
(b Asnières, 19 Dec 1947). French composer. Before completing university courses in natural science, literary Arabic and ethnomusicology, he entered the Paris Conservatoire, where he studied with Messiaen and Schaeffer, receiving additional instruction from Duhamel. He won the Lili Boulanger composition prize in 1978, which was followed, from 1980 onwards, by further prizes from the SACEM and the Institut de France. During the 1970s he undertook 14 field trips to Africa, and between residencies at the Villa Medici, Rome (1979–81), and at the Casa Velasquez in Madrid and Palma de Mallorca (1983–5), he was a visiting lecturer at Kenyatta University College, Nairobi (1981–2). Appointed to a professorship in ethnomusicology at the Lyons Conservatoire in 1985, he subsequently extended his studies of oral traditions to the West Indies, Polynesia, Egypt and Israel. He was elected to the Académie des Beaux-Arts in 1995.
Florentz's music shows the influence of a variety of non-Western traditions, both secular and liturgical. His Marian triptych Le livre du pacte de miséricorde (which comprises Magnificat-Antiphone pour la visitation op.3, Laudes op.5 and Requiem de la vierge op.7) grafts onto the ancient Greek apocryphal text extracts from the Qur'an and texts from the Ethiopian orthodox liturgy, while the rhythmic and polyphonic character of the instrumental writing at times resembles the ensemble music of Central Africa. His enthusiasm for birdsong, which is often quoted, and his development of a personal modal system suggest parallels with Messiaen. But though comparable in its richness of instrumental colour, Florentz's music differs strikingly from his teacher's in its approach to form and texture, favouring continuous narrative structures whose preoccupation with the superimposition, interpenetration and constant transformation of layers and events the composer has attributed to the influence of African story telling traditions.
Magnificat-Antiphone pour la visitation, op.3, T, mixed chorus, orch, 1979–80; Laudes, op.5, org, 1983–5; Chant de Nyandarua, op.6, 4 vc, 1985; Requiem de la vierge (Lat., Gk., Arab and Ethiopian texts), op.7, S, T, Bar, mixed chorus, children's chorus, orch, 1986–8; Debout sur le soleil, op.8, org, 1990; Asmarâ (Ps viii, Ethiopian liturgy), op.9, mixed chorus, 1991–2; Le songe de Lluc Alcari, op.10, vc, orch, 1992–4; Second chant de Nyandarua, op.11, 8/12 vc, 1994–5; L'ange du Tamaris, op.12, vc, 1995; Les jardins d'Amènta, conte symphonique, op.13, orch, 1995–7
Principal publishers: Leduc, Ricordi
SeeIndonesia, §VII, 3(i).
Flores [Flores Dalcaraz], Alfonso [Alonso]
(b ?Alcaraz; fl Nîmes, late 16th century). ?Spanish composer, active in France. Winterfeld surmised, on the evidence of his name and his psalm settings, that he was a Spanish Calvinist. His extensive five-part settings of Psalms 23, 28 and 97, published in Heidelberg (RISM 15976), are cantus firmus settings of the Geneva melodies in the style of Claude Le Jeune, in which the cantus firmus is set afresh in each pars and moves from voice to voice. According to the preface of the psalm collection, he intended to set the whole psalter in this style. Flores also wrote three four-part secular pieces to French texts in a predominantly chordal style; all survive in manuscript parts held in Aberdeen (GB-A). Belle admirablement is a chanson, the other two, Rien ne dement jamais and Les lieux vont rechangeant, are sonnets in praise of Nîmes, probably dating (on the evidence of their texts) from after the massacre and expulsions of Catholics in 1569.
C.von Winterfeld: ‘Das Verhältnis des Orlandus Lassus zu den Psalm-Melodieen der französischen Calvinisten, und diese Singweisen selbst als Aufgaben für gleichzeitige und spätere Tonsetzer’, Zur Geschichte heiliger Tonkunst: eine Reihe einzelner Abhandlungen, ii (Leipzig, 1852/R), 54–76, esp. 63, 72
E.Bohn: Bibliographie der Musik-Druckwerke bis 1700, welche … zu Breslau aufbewahrt werden (Berlin, 1883/R), 240
B.Cooper: ‘A New Source (ca.1600) of Chansons and Keyboard Music’, RMFC, xx (1981), 6–18