(b Vorchdorf, Upper Austria, 22 Sept 1939). Austrian musicologist. While at the Vienna Academy, where he was a composition pupil of Schiske (1958–64), he studied at Vienna University with Erich Schenk and Walter Graf (1959–64); later he studied in Göttingen with Husmann (1966–8). He took the doctorate in 1965 with a dissertation on lute tablatures in Kremsmünster and in 1969 completed the Habilitation at Vienna University with a work on music at Notre Dame. In 1971 he succeeded Othmar Wessely as professor at Graz University; in 1999 he resigned. His main areas of research are medieval music (particularly early polyphony) and the music history of Austria. From 1992 until 1999 he was editor of Acta musicologica. He is a member of several academies and scientific societies.
Eine Quelle italienischer Frühmonodie in Österreich (Vienna, 1966)
Der Discantussatz im Magnus liber und seiner Nachfolge (Habilitationsschrift, U. of Vienna, 1969; Vienna, 1969)
‘Die barocke Doppelgerüst-Technik im Variationenschaffen Beethovens’, Beethoven-Studien (Vienna, 1970), 159–94
‘Und walzen umatum … zur Genealogie des Wiener Walzer’, ÖMz, xxx (1975), 505–15, 573–8
ed., with T.Antonicek and O.Wessely: De ratione in musica: Festschrift Erich Schenk (Kassel, 1975) [incl. ‘Vorstufen der musikalisch-rhetorischen Tradition im Notre-Dame-Repertoire?’, 1–9]
ed., with G.Gruber: Musikgeschichte Österreichs, i–ii (Graz, 1977–9, enlarged 2/1995)
‘Non-Mensural Sacred Polyphony (Discantus) in Medieval Austria’, Le polifonie primitive in Friuli e in Europa: Cividale del Friuli 1980, 43–61
‘Der Musikunterricht des Kornelije Stankovic in Wien um 1850’, Kornelije Stanković i njegovo doba: Belgrade 1981, 41–53 [summaries in Eng., Ger.]
‘Zu den Anfängen des slowenischen Musiktheaters’, Slovenska Opera v evropskem okviru: Ljubljana 1982, 20–42
‘Brahms als Briefschreiber’, Johannes Brahms und Anton Bruckner: Linz 1983, 95–114
‘“De Stephani roseo sanguine”: vom Quadruplum zur einstimmigen Motette’, Mf, xxxvii (1984), 177–91
‘Musik im Grazer Jesuitentheater’, Theater in Graz (Graz, 1984), 9–26
Fux-Studien (Graz, 1985)
‘Über den Bildungseffeckt und die “andere” Konservativität katholischer Kirchenmusik’, HJbMw, viii (1985), 143–55
‘Versuch einer Geschichte der Landmesse’, Anton Bruckner und die Kirchenmusik: Linz 1985, 59–72
‘Alessandro Orologio und seine Intraden (1597)’, DAM, xvii (1986), 53–64
‘Friedrich v. Hauseggers Begriff von Musikwissenschaft’, Gedenkschrift Guido Adler (Föhrenau, 1986), 15–46
ed.: F. von Hausegger: Frühe Schriften und Essays (Graz, 1986)
Geschichte der Musik in Österreich zum Lesen und Nachschlagen (Graz, 1988)
‘Zu Herkunft und Datierung der Gradualien Graz 807 und Wien 13314’, SMH, xxxi (1989), 57–80
‘Una voce: die Ausführung des Chorals und das Problem der frühen Ein- und Mehrstimmigkeit’, Musikkulturgeschichte: Festschrift für Constantin Floros, ed. P. Petersen (Wiesbaden, 1990), 439–48
Choralhandschriften österreichischer Provenienz in der Bodleian Library/Oxford (Vienna, 1991)
with E.Wellesz: Johann Joseph Fux: Musiker – Lehrer – Komponist für Kirche und Kaiser (Graz, 1991)
‘Die Paraphonista oder: Klangprinzip und Organum’, Max Lütolf zum 60. Geburtstag: Festschrift, ed. B. Hangartner and V. Fischer (Basel, 1994), 99–111
‘Paradigmen im Vorfeld einer abendländischen Musik’, Musik/Revolution: Festschrift für Georg Knepler zum 90. Geburtstag, ed. H.-W. Heister (Hamburg, 1997), 103–22
‘Petrus cantor e la musica’, Musica e storia, vi/2 (1998), 257–67
‘Bruckners Rolle in der Kulturgeschichte Österreichs’, Bruckner-Probleme: Berlin 1996, 9–24
Trienter Codices VII, DTÖ, cxx (1970)
Das Lautenbüchlein des Jakob Thurner, MAM, xxvii (1971)
W.Schmeltzl: Guter seltzamer und kunstreicher teutscher Gesang, DTÖ, cx/vii–cx/vlii (1990)
A term applied to various kinds of short preludial (occasionally postludial) pieces, originally improvised but later often written out.
In stage music the term usually refers to a call of the fanfare type, generally for trumpets with or without drums but sometimes for other instruments. Elizabethan dramatists frequently used the word in stage directions in this sense (e.g. Shakespeare, Antony and Cleopatra, Act 2 scene vii, ‘Sound a Flourish with drummes’). The flourish and the sennet were not identical, as a direction in Thomas Dekker's Satiromastix (1601) shows: ‘Trumpets sound a florish and then a Sennate’.
In a more specialized sense the term was used in England from the Restoration period to the 18th century to denote a short improvised prelude consisting largely of scales and arpeggios decorating a common chord. Its function was to acquaint the audience with the key of the following piece and, as in the toccata and other preludial forms, to allow the performer to test the tuning and functioning of his instrument and briefly to exercise his fingers in a passage of increasing brilliance in preparation for the performance. Roger North described a flourish as ‘sounding the proper accord-notes of an assumed key successively, and then breaking or mixing those notes as may best be done, dividendo, consonando, or arpeggiando, with what elegance and variation the fancy suggests or capacity admitts’. He went on to say that before a piece of ensemble music ‘the like may be performed in severall manners by any number of instruments, with perpetuall variety of fancy in each, and no one much regard what another doth; and in all that disorder upon the key the sound will be rich and amazing’.
Although the best performers improvised flourishes, many were printed for the less adept. Select Lessons for the Violin (London, 1702) contains A Florish or Prelude in Every Key designed to preface pieces in keys from C to F minor on the flat side and to A on the sharp side. The Florish in C fa ut Natural arpeggiates the common chord and then makes division on it in precisely the manner described by North (ex.1). That flourishes for several instruments were used for dramatic effect is apparent from Act 2 of Purcell's Dioclesian (1690), where the unaccompanied chorus ‘Sound all your instruments’ is followed by the direction ‘Flourish with all the instruments in C fa ut-Key’. Whether this practice was generally much employed in ensemble music outside the theatre is very doubtful.
With only a little elaboration the flourish becomes a prelude with formed thematic elements developed in rudimentary fashion. Some of the pieces in Select Preludes or Volentarys for the Violin (London, 1704), described on the title-page as ‘Florishes’, fall into this category. That by Purcell (Purcell Society Edition, xxxi, 93) is highly chromatic at the outset, so its main function as a true flourish, to impress the tonic chord on the listener, is no longer so evident.
Military flourishes were decorative trumpet calls or fanfares, more elaborate than the ‘duty’ and ‘routine calls’ and unlike them in not necessarily having any stereotyped features or promptly recognizable melodic outlines. Until the 18th century, British Army flourishes were ‘without any set rule’; later a fixed notation developed for those intended as salutes for royalty and general officers (seeSignal).
In the prefatory note to the ‘Table of Graces proper to the Viol or Violin’ in his Introduction to the Skill of Musick (1660), John Playford used the word as synonymous with ‘graces’ or ornaments, at any rate with the more elaborate shaken graces. Eventually it came to be applied to almost any florid instrumental passage.
The Rudiments of War (London, 1777)
J.S.Manifold: The Music in English Drama from Shakespeare to Purcell (London, 1956)
J.Wilson, ed.: Roger North on Music (London, 1959), 142ff
P.Downey: The Trumpet and its Role in Music of the Renaissance and Early Baroque (diss., Queen's U., Belfast, 1983)