Faà di Bruno, Giovanni Matteo [Horatio, Orazio] 83



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(ii) 1500–1800.


Court inventories of the 16th century suggest that the flute was in high favour for playing the four-part consort repertory of that period. Henry VIII of England possessed 74 flutes, including examples in lacquered ivory and in glass (1547), Maria of Hungary had more than 50 (1555), Felipe II of Spain had 54 (1598) and the Stuttgart court (1589) no fewer than 220 transverse flutes, as opposed to 48 recorders, 113 cornetts and 39 viols. Multiple sets of a wide range of tuned instruments must have been necessary to play music in a wide range of modes. From the 1530s the flute emerged as a chamber instrument frequently played by amateur musicians of the aristocracy and the merchant class, a group that clearly included women (fig.9).

The earliest printed instructions for flute playing confirm that the flute was made in several sizes in the 16th century (see, for example, fig.10). Like all Renaissance woodwind instruments it was fingered according to Guidonian theory (see Hexachord), which resulted in three sizes of instrument pitched a 5th apart. The recorder consort consisted of a bass which followed the flat hexachord (beginning on F fa ut), two tenors in the natural hexachord (C fa ut), and a descant in the hard hexachord (G ut). But on the transverse flute the scale began one note higher, so that the bass had G (gamma ut) as its lowest written note, the tenor and contratenor D sol re, and the descant A la mi re. Meylan (1974) has suggested that these flutes played an octave higher than written, so that in a mixed consort a D tenor flute could have played a descant or contratenor part. While most Renaissance wind instruments – cornetts, crumhorns, recorders, pommers, bagpipes and shawms – had almost identical fingering, that of the flute was unique, differing considerably in its upper register.

Information on the flute and on playing technique appears in 16th-century treatises by Virdung (1511), Agricola (1529 and 1545) and Jambe de Fer (1556) (essays by Gorlier, 1558, and Lengenbrunner, 1559, are lost). Virdung illustrated only one size of flute, which he called ‘Zwerchpfeiff’. The first edition of Agricola’s treatise, which was written for children, gives a rather unlikely range of three octaves, and mentions that the flute should be played ‘with trembling breath’; other 16th-century sources reveal that vibrato was considered a characteristic feature of flute sound at this time (Hadden, forthcoming). Agricola’s revised edition of 1545 contains ‘transposed’ scales for sets of instruments in D, A and E and in C, G and D as well as ‘regular’ scales for instruments in G, D and A, all with a more realistic range of two octaves and a 2nd or two octaves and a 6th. Three sizes of flute played four parts, the range of the instrument in D being wide enough to cover both inner parts, tenor and contratenor. Jambe de Fer, whose instructions were directed at amateurs, described only two instruments, a G bass with a range of 15 notes, and a D tenor with a range of 15 or 16 good notes, or up to 19 including some forced ones at the top. He directed that the highest part be taken by an instrument of the same size as those playing the tenor and contratenor, so that his consort would have consisted of a G bass and three D flutes, using principally the higher part of their range.

Collections of printed music for instruments gave occasional precise indications as to the use of flutes. In Paris, Attaingnant (1533) published arrangements of chansons by Claudin de Sermisy, Janequin, Josquin Des Prez, Gombert, Heurteur, Passereau and others, and, in Nuremberg, Forster (1539) printed music by himself, Senfl, Wolff and others. Attaingnant’s Chansons musicales distinguished between pieces suitable for recorder consort and those for flute consort: they confirm the view expressed by Jambe de Fer, and later by Praetorius, that the flute of those times is best suited to playing in the flat modes, that is, scales with the natural notes of the gamut as well as B, not in the scale of D major as is often assumed today.

Surviving instruments from the 16th century are predominantly D flutes, a high proportion of these and of the basses, according to Puglisi (1988), pitched at a' = 410, with a smaller group at a' = 435. Among surviving instruments the best represented makers are probably members of the families of Bassano (Venice and London) and Rafi (Lyons; see fig.14a below); they were performers and composers as well as makers of wind instruments. To ensure correct ensemble tuning, flutes were made in sets, as is made clear in a contract of 1542 between the maker Mathurin de La Noue and a French merchant, for ‘ung jeu de flustes unyes, façon d’allement’. The term flûte d’Allemagne or ‘German flute’ remained common for the transverse flute until the late 18th century.

By the late 16th century military instruments were sometimes differentiated from indoor flutes. Arbeau’s Orchésographie (Langres, 1588) noted that the military flute then used by the Germans and the Swiss had a narrow bore and a piercing sound, was played with a special hard articulation, and was used to improvise freely over a steady drum beat in marching. The distinction between flute and fife was mentioned again by Praetorius (2/1619) and Mersenne (1636–7), who gave different fingerings and a range of only a 12th for the fife. However, Puglisi (1988) points out that two surviving military flutes (from before 1674), contrary to Arbeau’s description, have a larger bore than usual for their length, producing a more powerful first octave and less facility in the third.

The first surviving solo pieces for transverse flute date from the end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th. Giovanni Bassano’s Ricercate, passaggi et cadentie (1585) is a collection of pieces exemplifying the Italian division style. Aurelio Virgiliano’s Il dolcimelo, ii (c1600) contains ricercate in a similar style for cornetto, violin, transverse flute [traversa] or other instruments. Book iii contains a fingering chart for a D flute with a range of two and a half octaves. However, Lodovico Zacconi’s Prattica di musica (1592) gives a range of only two octaves. The flute was a part of the peculiarly English mixed consort of treble viol, lute, flute, cittern, bandora and bass viol. Music for this combination by Thomas Morley (1599 and 1611), Philip Rosseter (1609) and others used a D flute on the tenor part, playing an octave higher than written.

The principal German source of the 17th century is Praetorius’s Syntagma musicum (2/1619). His D flute had a range of 19 notes (d'–a'''), including four overblown ones, while his A flute could play only two octaves, its highest note being the same as that of the D flute. Praetorius noted that flat modes were the best for the flute, and specified the pitches in use in different situations and locations: in some places there was a choir pitch (Chor Thon) a whole tone lower than chamber pitch (Cammer Thon); and in England and the Netherlands there was another pitch a minor 3rd lower than chamber pitch, at which harpsichords and flutes sounded better – but this pitch was not used for large ensembles. From the Stuttgart court inventory of 1589, it appears that curved cornetts there were at chamber pitch (about a' = 450), while mute cornetts and flutes were at choir pitch (a' = 410). Thus chamber-pitch flutes were probably exceptional, a conclusion borne out by the pitches of surviving 17th-century flutes. Praetorius also mentioned two sizes of military Schweizerpfeiff or Feldtpfeiff, in D and high G, each with a range of an octave and a half.

Mersenne’s Harmonie Universelle (1636–7) signalled a change in the design of the D flute, a prelude to the alterations that were to mark the emergence of the ‘Baroque’ flute. His two fingering charts, for G and D instruments, differed significantly from one another. Meylan has pointed out the similarities between Mersenne’s chart for the D flute and that of Hotteterre (1707), and argued that Mersenne’s flute must have had a conical bore if it functioned with the fingerings given, although unlike the true Baroque flute it was constructed in only one or perhaps two pieces and had no key. Mersenne mentioned that fifes were not used in consort, but that flutes, playing at choir pitch, were so employed, with the bass part taken by a sackbut, serpent or other bass instrument. As an example, he gave a 4-part air de cour for flute consort.

Although conical-bore instruments may have been made before the mid-17th century, cylindrical-bore transverse flutes continued in use. A two-piece flute by Lissieu with a cylindrical bore but proto-Baroque styling (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna) was probably made in Lyons in the third quarter of the 17th century, and an instrument with similar characteristics (Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg) may be from Augsburg or northern Italy. Jacob van Eyck’s Der Fluyten Lust-hof (1646–9) is a Dutch collection of pieces and divisions for C recorder or flute in high G, the latter with a range of g'–d''''.

The flute, like all the woodwind instruments, was transformed during the 17th century. The one-piece, keyless, cylindrical flute of the 16th century became a conical-bore instrument, divided into three sections, with a key for D/E. The new flute could produce hitherto difficult semitones more clearly, could play in more tonalities and in music which modulated, and had a more tractable and flexible tone, particularly useful for performing vocal music.

When and where these changes were first united in one instrument is uncertain. Most modern writers have assumed that the woodwinds were transformed at the French court, but the musical life of this period in the Netherlands, north Germany, southern France, Italy and England remains little studied by comparison. Probably the earliest surviving instruments with the new features are an anonymous D flute at a' = 395 (Biblioteca Comunale, Assisi) and a C flute at a' = 410 by Richard Haka (fl 1645/6–1705) (Ehrenfeld Collection, Utrecht). The musical connections between Italy and the Netherlands were strong in this period, and the city of Amsterdam, where Haka worked, reached its apex as a cultural centre at this time. The woodwind instrument makers of Amsterdam, themselves high in social status, supplied an extensive market of prosperous merchant amateurs. The flute held a favoured position in the domestic music-making that marked the lifestyle of the rising middle class, while the most favoured music and musical styles came from Italy.

Nevertheless the first famous performers on the new transverse flute were those who emerged at the French court in the late 17th century. In France as elsewhere transverse flutes had been considered warlike instruments, but they were also thought suitable for soft and charming music of a more touching nature, especially that in which love was a theme. It was in the latter character that the flute playing of Philbert Rebillé (1639–1717) came to notice, not only in court music but in private concerts held in the apartments of the king and his principal courtiers. On such occasions the repertory probably consisted of simple brunettes, noëls and airs, in which flute and voice were accompanied by the lute and sometimes other instruments. R.P. Descoteaux (c1645–1728) was another famous player; he was known as a fine singer, and had an excellent tone on the flute, on which he was reported to have played ‘scarcely anything but delicate airs’. Jacques Hotteterre’s Airs et Brunettes (1721) is a rare printed collection of such music. A ritornello in G minor for two flutes and continuo appeared in Lully’s Le triomphe de l’amour (1681), and the flute was used in Charpentier’s Médée (1693) and Destouches’ Isée (1697). The first French instrumental work to call specifically for the new flute may be the Sonate of about 1686 attributed to Charpentier, while the title-page of Marin Marais’ Pièces en trio (1692; fig.11) depicts flutes of the new style.

According to Michel de La Barre (c1730), the transformation of the flute in France took place some time after that of the other woodwinds; it is not known whether the earliest surviving French new flutes were made earlier or later than the Dutch/Italian models. In Paris the woodwind instrument making workshops of Pierre Naust (c1660–1709) and J.-J. Rippert (c1668–1724) were active towards the end of the century, while at court members of the Hotteterre and Philidor families made flutes as well as playing them. Two original Hotteterre flutes survive (Landesmuseum Joanneum, Graz, and Musée de la Musique, Paris); they are probably the work of Martin Hotteterre (c1665–1712) or his son Jacques (ii) (1673–1763). Other examples in Berlin and St Petersburg previously thought to have been by Hotteterre are 19th-century copies of a lost original (Powell, 1996). Of the surviving flutes with Naust’s stamp, one is at the same unusual pitch as the Haka instrument while three others are D flutes pitched at around a' = 395. P(eter) Bressan (1663–1731), active in London, was noted in the 1690s as a flute maker, but only one three-joint flute by him survives, at the higher London pitch of a' = 408.

During the first half of the 18th century in northern Europe male amateurs from merchants to princes adopted the flute as their favourite instrument. Professional players of the Baroque flute were principally oboists. In London they included foreigners such as Peter La Tour (c1705), and later Jean Baptiste Loeillet (1680–1730) and C.F. Weideman. London had excellent flute makers in Bressan, Thomas Stanesby (ii) (1692–1754) and, after his arrival from Germany about 1726, J.J. Schuchart (c1695–1758). Music for flute began to be published there at the beginning of the century; the first to appear was an aria for ‘Flute D. Almagne’ (1701) from John Eccles’s The Judgment of Paris. Englishmen such as Thomas Roseingrave and M.C. Festing (whose father Michael and brother John were flautists) also published music in London, and Handel’s sonatas op.1 were printed there about 1730. The first solo music for the new flute was published in Paris; Michel de La Barre’s Pièces pour la flûte traversière avec la basse-continue appeared there in 1702. In his preface the composer, one of the most eminent French flautists of the period, observed that the music was of a quite different character from the sighing tender airs of Philbert and Descoteaux hitherto considered suitable for the flute. Instead he modelled its dance-like movements on the viol pieces of Marais. Jacques Hotteterre (ii) published the first tutor for the Baroque flute, Principes de la flûte traversière, in 1707 (fig.13); he also published Italian-influenced solos and trios for flute and continuo.

Hotteterre’s tutor described the flute as ‘one of the most pleasant and one of the most fashionable’ of instruments. The fingering chart gave different fingerings for flat and sharp versions of the same enharmonic note, although as Hotteterre observed, ‘a number of people do not make this distinction at all’. His brief discussion of tonguing was limited to the two syllables ‘tu’ and ‘ru’, but he gave extensive instructions for playing the graces – trills, ports-de-voix, accents, flattements and battements – so integral to the successful performance of French music of this period. The first Dutch version of Hotteterre’s flute tutor was published in 1729, and an English translation the following year – Hotteterre’s prototype was also closely imitated by the only known Spanish Baroque flute tutor, Pablo Minguet y Yrol’s Reglas y avertencias generales (Madrid, 1754).

The new flute became known in Germany around the second decade of the 18th century. In Hamburg, Reinhard Keiser scored for the flute in his opera Heraclius (1712), while the orchestra in Dresden employed the virtuosos P.-G. Buffardin (c1690–1768), his pupil J.J. Quantz (1697–1773), and J.M. Blockwitz (fl 1720–30). But according to Quantz, solo music for flute was rare at this time and flautists had to adapt pieces for violin or oboe. Three works by Keiser survive (1720) and a manuscript collection of 54 pieces (Brussels Conservatory) contains early solos by Blockwitz, Christoph Förster, J.H. Freytag, Handel, J.S. Weiss and Quantz. Pieces by Telemann and J.S. Bach are among the earliest German flute music to survive. Telemann’s Six Trio (1718) includes a piece for violin, ‘Flûte traverse’ and basso continuo, and several manuscript trios, some from Dresden, dating from 1720 or before, contain parts for one or two flutes. Mattheson’s Der brauchbare Virtuoso (1720) contained the first flute solos printed in Germany. Much of this music was in a ‘violinistic’ style characterized by constant semiquaver or quaver motion and arpeggiated passage-work, evidently influenced by the Italian style. The influence of Italian violin music and the Vivaldian concerto style is also apparent in Bach’s solo sonata (Partita) in A minor, bwv1013, which is reminiscent of unaccompanied flute pieces originating in Dresden around 1720, and in his Sonata in E minor bwv1034, a ‘sonata in the style of a concerto’ written, according to Marshall (1989), about 1724.

Flutes of the first two decades of the 18th century were usually made of boxwood, ebony or ivory; they were constructed in three sections, with an essentially conical bore and a single key for D/E. However the instrument was by no means standardized: each maker developed an individual concept of tone and intonation, and devised original technical means to achieve it. Among the few surviving examples from this period, by Bressan, Chevalier, Jacob Denner, Hotteterre, J.N. Leclerc, Naust, Panon and Rippert (fig.14b), pitches range from a' = 395 to a' = 408, the bore taper (the difference between the largest and smallest points in the bore) can be as much as 6·5 mm or as little as 4 mm, and maximum bore diameters differ by up to 1·5 mm. Hence there are great differences in timbre, intonation, range and flexibility of tone. Around 1720 there was a brief vogue for flutes with an extension to low C, but although these were made by Bressan, Denner, Schuchart and Stanesby (ii), the idea did not become widespread.

About 1720 flutes began to be made in four sections instead of three, dividing the body between the two hands (fig.15). Experimentation with the bore may have made the division expedient, but Quantz (1752) gave two further reasons: portability, and the prospect of supplying upper body sections of different lengths to adjust the pitch of the flute. Of the earliest four-joint flutes, by J.H. Eichentopf (1678–1769) (Musikinstrumenten-Museum, University of Leipzig), Scherer (Museum Vleechuis, Antwerp) and J.H. Rottenburgh (1672–1756) (Brussels Conservatory and Museo Clemente Rospigliosi, Pistoia), the flute in Pistoia has corps de rechange for a' = 392 and a' = 415. The first written mention of corps de rechange appears in a document of 30 December 1721 from the Naust workshop in Paris (Giannini). Flutes of different sizes, such as the flûte d’amour in B or A, the piccolo and the tierce flute in F (the same pitch as the treble recorder), were also made, but their repertory, possibly including flute band and military music, remains largely unexplored. In 1726 Quantz added a separate key for D to his flute to supplement the one for E; although this made the precise tuning of intervals easier and was retained by some later flautists, the idea never gained general acceptance.

In the second quarter of the 18th century, French composers for the flute turned from the French suite to the Italianate sonata, and the number of publications increased. Works by J.-C. Naudot, Michel Blavet and J.-M. Leclair may have been played by their composers in public concerts (the last as a violinist), in spaces much larger than those for the soft music of private performances at court. Such performers no longer relied on court appointments for their living, but were employed in the musical establishments of aristocrats and the bourgeoisie and gave lessons to wealthy amateurs. Buffardin returned to Paris occasionally to perform at the Concert Spirituel; Quantz visited Paris in 1726 (and became friends with Blavet). Composers such as J.B. de Boismortier and Michel Corrette supplied the growing demand for flute music and tutors, while the workshops of Charles Bizey, Louis Cornet (c1678–1745), Leclerc, Naust and Rippert made flutes available to anyone who could afford them.

In the Netherlands the flute was evidently already flourishing before 1730. Abraham van Aardenberg (1672–1717), J.B. Beuker (b 1691), Willem Beukers (1666–1750), Thomas Boekhout (1666–1715), Philip Borkens (1693–c1765), Frank Eerens (1694–1750), J.J. van Heerde (1638–91) and Engelbert Terton (1676–1752) were all established early as flute makers and made instruments that have survived. Italian composers such as Lotti, T.G. Albinoni, Vivaldi, Geminiani, Porpora, Tessarini, Leonardo Vinci, P.A. Locatelli and Sammartini published flute solos in Amsterdam and London beginning in the 1720s.

Flutes of the 1730s and 40s were just as diverse as earlier types. The workshop of Thomas Lot, successor to Naust, supplied large numbers of flutes to a widespread market and in 1744 August Grenser established a woodwind workshop in Dresden which went on to become one of the most famous in Europe. Ivory flutes from the Scherer workshop in Butzbach became popular with wealthy amateurs.

Telemann’s Sonate metodiche (1728), Continuation des sonates méthodiques (1732) and XII solos (1734) added 36 superb solos to the repertory, while pieces composed by J.S. Bach include the sonatas in B minor bwv1030 and A major bwv1032 (c1736), as well as the Trio Sonata in G major bwv1039 (c1736–41) and probably the sonatas in C major bwv1033 and E major bwv1031 (which Swack (1995) suggests was modelled on a piece by Quantz). In 1733 W.F. Bach, then organist in Dresden, became friends with Buffardin; between 1733 and 1746 W.F. Bach composed six challenging flute duets.

Frederick the Great became King of Prussia in 1740, appointing C.P.E. Bach as his keyboard player and his flute teacher Quantz as Music Director; C.P.E. Bach composed six flute sonatas, h552–6 and h548, in 1738–40, and three more, h560–62, in 1746–7. J.S. Bach’s Sonata in E major bwv1035 may have been composed for Frederick’s flute-playing valet, M.G. Fredersdorf, in 1741 or 1747, and the difficult trio sonata in the Musical Offering bwv1079 is a flattering comment on the king’s own abilities as a flautist. Quantz supplied the king with flutes and with 300 concertos to play on them; his Versuch einer Anweisung die Flöte traversiere zu spielen (1752) codified the musical practices of the Prussian court and remained influential for at least 40 years. Quantz’s flutes had keys for both D and E, a head-joint tuning-slide, and a set of corps de rechange, of which only the lowest, pitched at about a' = 392, received much use.

Quantz’s Versuch is less a tutor for the flute than a compendium covering musical taste and execution on all sorts of instruments. Because of its broad scope it became and has remained one of the most widely known instrumental method books of the 18th century. Its instructions on how to play the flute itself are tantalisingly brief. Although the tutor was written for the two-key flute that Quantz favoured, using separate fingerings for sharps and flats, he gave only brief hints on how to use these keys. His instructions on tonguing were by far the most sophisticated to date, using ‘ti’, ‘di’ and ‘ri’ for single tonguing, and ‘did’ll’ for double tonguing, a technique which he was the first to mention (see Tonguing).

In London by the mid-18th century music shops supplied a growing middle class with flutes, tutors and music. Economic and artistic opportunities there attracted good players, such as P.G. Florio (before 1740–95) and Joseph Tacet, while makers included Thomas Cahusac (i) (1714–98), Benjamin Hallet the elder (b 1713), Charles Schuchart (1719/20–65), Caleb Gedney (successor to Stanesby (ii)) (1729–69), and Richard Potter (1726–1806). Most of the music was by foreign composers, but Englishmen such as John Stanley (1712–86) were also represented. Sophisticated tutors like Granom’s Plain and Easy Instructions (London, 4/1766) and Luke Heron’s A Treatise on the German Flute (1771), and, later, Gunn’s Art of Playing the German-Flute (c1793), were for sale alongside cheap anonymous method books.

Flutes with between three and seven corps de rechange were common by this period (fig.14d), and two devices were introduced to regularize the instrument’s tuning, which varied with the length of the joint. These were the screw-cork, to make fine adjustments to the cork stopper in the head joint, and the index or ‘register’ foot joint, which had a telescoping tube to make it longer or shorter. Not many makers supplied these gadgets: flutes from the Grenser workshop are among the few from this period with registers, while in England Potter first used the device during experiments with a graduated head-joint tuning-slide in the 1780s. The most important mid-century development in England was the addition of keys for B, G and F, with an extension of the range down to c'. The earliest surviving example of such a six-key flute was made about 1755 by J.J. Schuchart (Powell, 1996). The new keys facilitated the penetrating and even tone that was becoming fashionable, particularly in the lowest octave, among players developing a new bravura style. The Seven Years War in Europe made life more difficult than in England, thus the transmission of keyed flutes to the Continent occurred slowly.

In France, the flute was in decline in the mid-18th century while musical life focussed on opera. However a tutor by Charles de Lusse (Delusse) (c1761) showed the increasing virtuosity of flute playing by including brilliant studies and a piece using quarter-tones. In 1764 Buffardin wrote to the Mercure de France to say that Lusse’s prescriptions for quarter tones were less advanced than his own. Later the Count of Guines commissioned Mozart, while in Paris, to write the Concerto for flute and harp (k299/297c); that the flute part includes a low C probably indicates that the count had acquired an English flute during his earlier sojourn in London.

In Mannheim and Vienna Mozart wrote concertos in G major (k313/285c) and D major (k314/285d; an adaptation of an oboe concerto in C), and three quartets for flute and strings. Mozart’s friend J.B. Wendling (1723–97), principal flute in Mannheim, may have played in Mozart’s symphonies, perhaps on a flute by Parisian maker Thomas Lot. Other concertos and chamber works for flute include those by J.C. Bach, François Devienne (1759–1803), Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf, Michael Haydn and the Mannheim composers. The largest output, consisting mostly of printed solos, duets, quartets and concertos, was that of the Viennese composer and publisher F.A. Hoffmeister (1754–1812).

The most famous players of the late 18th century were travelling virtuosos. Those who performed in England, still a richly attractive destination for musical travel, included F.L. Dülon, Andrew Ashe and Tebaldo Monzani. Concepts of tone and performance style varied greatly between one virtuoso and another, and the varied acoustics, materials and key configurations of contemporary flutes tended to promote this diversity. In 1785 Richard Potter added to the numerous types of flute on the market a ‘new-invented Patent German Flute’, the first to be manufactured under patent protection; it had pewter instead of leather seals for the keys, a foot-register and a metal-lined head-joint with a tuning slide. The new flute was mass-produced and the pewter seals were soon imitated by other makers.

When the Paris Conservatoire was established in 1795 Devienne became professor of the flute. He encouraged his students to use flutes with only four keys (i.e. without the C-foot), a type institutionalized by the first official tutor written for the Conservatoire, by Antoine Hugot and J.-G. Wunderlich (1804). The Conservatoire’s military-style regime introduced a new and more disciplined method of teaching, in which students were drilled in technical exercises.

The Leipzig virtuoso J.G. Tromlitz published his Ausführlicher und gründlicher Unterricht die Flöte zu spielen in 1791. Although he said less about musical style and ensemble playing than Quantz, he provided far more detailed instructions for playing the flute, including two chapters on single and double tonguing. As a performer Tromlitz was famous for his powerful tone and excellent intonation, qualities due in part to the flutes he made and played on. In 1785 he announced the invention of an instrument with seven keys (C for the left thumb, B, G, an F for each hand, D and E). In 1796 he improved it by duplicating the B key, and in 1800 he published a tutor with detailed instructions for playing it. Tromlitz’s design of 1785 was the first important synthesis of existing elements, prefiguring developments of the following century. He combined his own thumb C key and the second F key invented by Dülon’s father in 1783 with the basic English configuration of 30 years before, retaining on the foot joint Quantz’s D/E combination rather than extending the range down to C. His flute was the first on which every semitone was supplied with its own tone hole.



Flute, §II, 4: The Western transverse flute: History


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