SeeFlute. The term is normally applied to the transverse flute (flûte traversière, flûte allemande, flûte d’Allemange; the form flûte d’amour refers to the instrument in A, a minor 3rd below the concert flute, or occasionally to the alto flute in G, a 4th below (usually flûte alto or flûte contralto en sol); flûte à tierce or third flute is pitched a minor 3rd above the concert flute, and petite flûte signifies the piccolo (for further discussion of the various members of the flute family seeFlute, §ii, 1–3). This group is distinct from duct flutes, where French compounds often signify Recorder (flûte à bec, flûte à neuf trous, flûte d’Angleterre, flûte douce); a flûte du quatre is the recorder B, a 4th above the treble instrument. Other composite terms include flûte brehaigne, flûte d’oignon and flûte eunuque (see underEunuch-flute), flûteau d’un sou and flûte en fers blanc (seePennywhistle), flûte d’accord (seePitchpipe) and flûte à coulisse (seeSwanee whistle).
See underOrgan stop. (Flute; see also flûte à pavillon, flûte d’amour, flûte harmonique and flûte triangulaire; for flûte à cheminée see under Chimney Flute).
(Fr. trémolo avec la langue; Ger. Flatterzunge; It. vibrato linguale).
A type of Tonguing demanded by some 20th-century composers in which the instrumentalist rolls the letter ‘r’ on the tip of his tongue while playing. The technique is particularly effective on the flute, but it is also applied to various other wind instruments.
An international avant-garde art movement that emerged during the 1960s. Founded by George Maciunas, a Lithuanian artist and architect who organized and promoted its activities in Europe and the USA, Fluxus consisted of a loose affiliation of artists, writers and musicians. In medical terminology, ‘fluxus’ denotes a flowing or fluid discharge and Maciunas hoped that Fluxus would likewise purge the world of bourgeois intellectuals, commercialized culture and institutionalized art. The movement officially began on 9 June 1962 at the Galerie Parnass in Wuppertal, West Germany. The first official Fluxus concert was held in Wiesbaden during the same year. It was followed by several other concerts throughout Europe featuring works by Nam June Paik, James Tenney, La Monte Young, Allison Knowles, Yoko Ono and many others.
Fluxus composers rejoiced in the musical potential of unconventional sounds, such as the smashing of a violin in Nam June Paik’s One for Violin Solo. They pioneered a new genre of performance art called ‘short forms’ or ‘events’. Events consist of brief instructions, usually no more than a sentence or two, defining a limited activity of some sort to be carried out by a performer. La Monte Young’s Composition 1960 no.10, for example, instructs a performer to draw a straight line and follow it. Several other members of the Fluxus group, including Takehisa Kosugi, George Brecht, Dick Higgins and Yoko Ono, experimented with works in the same genre.
Members of the Fluxus movement believed that artists should not have a professional status in society and that their work should be accessible to everyone. A newspaper called Fluxus V Tre appeared sporadically from 1964 to 1979. It included announcements for Fluxus events and advertisements for its publications, as well as works by Fluxus artists, writers and musicians. In addition, a series of anthologies of Fluxus materials called ‘Fluxus Yearboxes’ were published. These contained scores for musical compositions and events, poetry, articles, records, photographs and ‘found objects’.
When Maciunas’s leadership faltered, Fluxus began to fall apart. A devastating blow came in 1965 during a demonstration at a performance of Stockhausen’s Originale. Organized by Maciunas in response to the composer’s alleged racist remarks about jazz, the demonstration failed miserably, probably because many of the performers in the concert were also members of Fluxus. Fluxus continued until the late 1970s; many agree it finally perished with Maciunas’s death in 1978. Despite its critique of institutionalized art, Fluxus works now appear in museum exhibitions around the world.
H. Sohm: Happenings and Fluxus: Materialen (Cologne, 1970)
(b Leningrad, 6 July 1931). Russian composer. He studied at the Moscow Conservatory under Shebalin and has occupied various managerial posts in the USSR and the RSFSR Union of Composers. He is a professor at the M.M. Ippolitov-Ivanov Pedagogical Institute of Music. His compositions range in scope from symphonic works to popular songs: choral music, operettas and musical comedies also occupy an important place in his output. As a composer who has arranged more than 100 Russian folksongs, there is a particularly Russian orientation to his style. The general style of his music and the variety of musical images he employs are striking and specific; he often uses musical programmes which are primarily of a heroic and patriotic content. He has been a frequent prizewinner at Soviet and Russian competitions and also at international composing competitions. He is a laureate of the A.V. Aleksandrov State Prize.
Stage: Dorogi dal'nïye [Distant Roads] (op, L. Derbenyov, Yu. Gulukin, I. Sharoyev), 1944; Otvazhnïy trubach [The Gallant Trumpeter] (op, V. Viktorov, after O. Gottsshe), 1963; Budet zavtra [There will be a Tomorrow] (operetta, N. Olev, A. Shaykevich), 1970; Yablochnaya lėdi [The Apple Lady] (operetta, A. Borisov, Ya. Khaletsky), 1979
Choral: Ave Maria (poem-cant., M. Tank), 1962; Pesni vïrvavshiyesya iz ada [Songs Broken Free from Hell] (poem-cant., African poets), 1965; Na grazhdanskoy na voyne [In the Civil War] (orat, A. Prokof'yev), 1972; Pesni Kulikova polya [Songs of Kulikovo Field] (orat, old texts), 1980; Aleksandr Matrosov (orat), 1983; I mir glyadel na nas [And the World Looked down on us] (orat, from military folklore)