Faà di Bruno, Giovanni Matteo [Horatio, Orazio] 83

Falasha, music of the. See Jewish music, §III, 9. Falcinelli, Rolande

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Falasha, music of the.

See Jewish music, §III, 9.

Falcinelli, Rolande

(b Paris, 18 Feb 1920). French organist and composer. She entered the Paris Conservatoire in 1932, studying the organ with Marcel Dupré and composition with Henri Büsser. She was appointed organist at the Sacré-Coeur in 1946 and in 1955 became organ professor at the Conservatoire, a post she held until 1986. She also gave many recitals in Europe and the USA. Through her teaching, writings and ideas on interpretation she has perpetuated the principles of her teacher Dupré, performing all his works and recording many of them. Falcinelli has composed extensively for her own instrument and written vocal, chamber and orchestral music. Since 1970 several of her works, including Mathnavi for organ (1973) and Azân for flute and organ (1977), have shown the influence of Iranian traditional music. Among her many distinguished pupils are Xavier Darasse, Naji Hakim, André Isoir, Philippe Lefebvre, Odile Pierre, Daniel Roth and Louis Thiry. A series of conversations with Stéphane Detournay, Souvenirs et regards, was published in 1985 in Tournai.


F. Levechin and others: ‘Rolande Falcinelli et la classe d’orgue du Conservatoire’, L’orgue, 11 (1981), 3–56 [incl. list of works and discography]


Falck, Georg

(b ?Rothenburg ob der Tauber, c1630; d Rothenburg ob der Tauber, 11 April 1689). German composer, organist and writer on music; he is sometimes described as ‘the Elder’ to distinguish him from his son of the same name (who was not a musician). He was apparently a native of the imperial city of Rothenburg ob der Tauber, where he spent his entire life. He studied the organ with Erasmus Widmann’s son Georg Friedrich, for whom he began in 1652 to substitute as organist of the Jakobskirche. He was appointed organist there in 1655, when he was also made a preceptor at the Gymnasium where the church choir was trained. He was responsible for church and school music in the city for the rest of his life. He is known principally for his Idea boni cantoris, a manual of basic instruction in singing and in playing musical instruments. According to Walther he also planned an Idea boni organoedi, a thoroughbass method, and an Idea boni melothetae, a method for learning composition, but he seems to have written neither. Idea boni cantoris is a significant 17th-century German source of information, especially about the art of vocal ornamentation and diminution. Falck’s detailed examination of ornaments such as accentus, tremulus, gruppo, tirata, trillo and passaggi, cadential figurations and methods of diminution is illustrated with particularly instructive examples, many drawn from the monodic antiphons (1648) of G.F. Sances. Briefer concluding sections concern basic instrumental techniques and provide an examination of various aspects of solmization.


Fugae musicales in unisono pro juventute scholastica rotenburgensi (Rothenburg, 1671), lost

Hymni in usum gymnasii rotenburgensis, 4vv, lost

Andacht-erweckende Seelen-Cymbeln, das ist, Geistreiche Gesänge Herrn Doct. Martini Lutheri und anderer geistreicher evangelischer Christen, 4vv (Rothenburg, 1672; enlarged 2/1701 as Uff eines Hoch-Edel … Rath … Rotenburg … verfertigter Anhang zu den Andacht, 4, 5vv)

Epicedia … Hertz- und Marck-ausfliessendes Seufftzen der Wittib über den … Hintritt ihres … Eh-Herrn Bürgermeisters, Ach, ach mein Herr ist todt, 4vv (n.p., n.d.)

theoretical works

Unterricht für die in der Singkunst anfahenden Schüler (n.p., 1658)

Idea boni cantoris, das ist Getreu und gründliche Anleitung (Nuremberg, 1688; Eng. trans. in Taylor)



E. Schmidt: Zur Geschichte des Gottesdienstes und der Kirchenmusik in Rothenburg ob der Tauber (Rothenburg, 1905)

E. Schmidt: Die Geschichte des evangelischen Gesangbuches der ehemaligen freien Reichsstadt Rothenburg ob der Tauber (Rothenburg, 1928)

R.M. Taylor: Georg Falck's ‘Idea boni cantoris’: Translation and Commentary (diss., Louisiana State U., 1971)


Falckenhagen [Falkenhagen], Adam

(b Grossdalzig, nr Leipzig, 26 April 1697; d Bayreuth, 6 Oct 1754). German lutenist. He was the son of Johann Christian Falckenhagen, a schoolmaster. When he was ten he went to live for eight years with his uncle Johann Gottlob Erlmann, a pastor in Knauthain near Leipzig. There he underwent training ‘in literis et musicis’, particularly the harpsichord and, later, the lute. He then perfected his lute playing with Johann Jacob Graf in Merseburg, where in 1715 he is mentioned as a footman and musician in the service of the young Count Carl Heinrich von Dieskau. In the winter term of 1719 he entered Leipzig University; a year later he went to Weissenfels, where he remained for seven years as a lute teacher. From about 1724 he was also employed as a chamber musician and lutenist at the court of Duke Christian, where his presence is documented for 1726, together with that of his wife, the singer Johanna Aemilia. During this time he undertook various tours and enjoyed several months’ instruction from the famous lutenist Silvius Leopold Weiss in Dresden. After two years in Jena, he was in the service of Duke Ernst August of Saxony-Weimar from May 1729 to 15 August 1732. By 1734 he was employed at the Bayreuth court. In 1736 Margrave Friedrich appointed him ‘Virtuosissimo on the Lute and Chamber Musician Second to the Kapellmeister Johann Pfeiffer’. About 1746 he referred to himself as ‘Cammer-Secretarius Registrator’ of Brandenburg-Culmbach.

Falckenhagen was one of the last important lute composers. Although some of his works are rooted in the Baroque tradition like those of his teacher, Weiss, they show a progressive tendency towards the galant style. His keyboard-influenced lute writing is freely contrapuntal and usually limited to two voices. His output ranges from modest pieces suitable for amateurs to others (e.g. the Sonata op.1 no.5 and the concertos) of much greater difficulty, exploiting virtuoso techniques. His Preludio nel quale sono contenuti tutti i tuoni musicali, lasting over 20 minutes in performance, contains labelled sections in the 24 major and minor keys. There may be a more direct connection with J.S. Bach in the strong possibility that the tablature version of the G minor Suite bwv995 (D-LEm III.II.3) was arranged by Falckenhagen himself (see Schulze, 1983). The ornament signs and other technical signs are the same as those used exclusively by Falckenhagen in his printed works and found in a manuscript table of signs associated with his Bayreuth period (D-Ngm M274).


Edition:Adam Falckenhagen: Gesamtausgabe (Hamburg, 1981–5)

[6] Sonate, lute, op.1 (Nuremberg, c1740)

6 partite, lute, op.2 (Nuremberg, c1742) [earlier edn, ?1739, lost]

6 concerti, lute, fl, ob/vn, vc, opera nuova [op.3] (Nuremberg, c1743)

Erstes 12 erbauungsvoller geistlicher Gesänge mit Variationen, lute (Nuremberg, c1746)

6 sonatine da camera, lute, op.5, pubd Nuremberg, lost

12 minuets, lute, pubd Nuremberg, lost

Conc., g, lute, 2 vn, va, b, B-Br; Conc. à 5, F, lute, 2 vn, va, vc, D–As; Duetto, F, 2 lutes, As; Preludio nel quale sono contenuti tutti i tuoni musicali, lute, As; Fuga, A, lute, As; Conc., B, lute, hpd, LEm (lute part only); 7 pieces, lute, Mbs; 4 pieces, lute, Ngm

Conc. à 3, lute, vn, b; Concertino, lute, kbd; Partita, lute, 1756: all formerly in RUS-KAu 3026, ?lost

Lost, cited in Brietkopf catalogues, 1761–70: 18 partitas, lute; 2 sonatas, 2 lutes; 3 duets, lute, hpd; 28 trios, lute, insts; 16 concs.




NDB (K. Dorfmüller)


H.-J. Schulze: ‘Wer intavolierte Johann Sebastian Bachs Lauten-kompositionen?’, Mf, xix (1966), 36–48

H. Küffner: ‘Eine Augsburger Sammelhandschrift als Quelle zur Geschichte der Bayreuther Hofmusik’, Archiv für Geschichte von Oberfranken, xlix (Bayreuth, 1969), 103–96

J. Doming: ‘Der Lautenist Adam Falckenhagen’, Laute und Guitarre, v (1983), 322–8

H.-J.Schulze: ‘“Monsieur Schouster” – ein vergessener Zeitgenosse Johann Sebastian Bachs’, Bachiana et alia musicologica: Festschrift Alfred Dürr, ed. W. Rehm (Kassel, 1983), 243–50


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