(b Chieti; fl early 17th century). Italian composer. He was a Celestine monk. He is known by Amorosi respiri musicali, for one to three voices and continuo (Venice, 1617; 1 song ed. in Goldschmidt, appx, 39f; 1 dialogue ed. in Racek, 244f). The 20 pieces it contains, over half of them monodies, cover a wide range of forms current at the time and include settings of some specially popular poems such as Guarini’s Tirsi morir volea, but the music is relentlessly undistinguished. According to Gerber he also published Melodiae ecclesiasticae (Venice, 1622), of which no copy survives.
H.Goldschmidt: Die italienische Gesangsmethode des XVII. Jahrhunderts und ihre Bedeutung für die Gegenwart (Breslau, 1890, 2/1892/R), 111, appx, 39–40
J.Racek: Stilprobleme der italienischen Monodie (Prague, 1965)
J.Whenham: Duet and Dialogue in the Age of Monteverdi (Ann Arbor, 1982)
(b Venice, c1753; d Venice, 26 Oct 1841). Italian woodwind instrument maker. In a petition dated 18 January 1792 he claimed to have made – besides instruments for the study of mathematics and physics and for navigation – all kind of woodwinds, including flutes and recorders in different sizes, shawms and ‘salmuò’ (Chalumeau). He also names the renowned oboists Pietro and Giuseppe Ferlendis as testifying to the quality of his work. Surviving instruments by Fornari are mainly oboes and english horns (respectively 20 and 27 listed in YoungHI). Most of his instruments are dated (1791–1832) and show accurate craftsmanship. The earlier oboes have an original vase-shaped top joint without a bulb. Those made after 1810 show the influence of the Dresden school. All the english horns are curved and covered with leather. The earlier instruments include precious materials such as ivory (even for the keys) and ebony; the later ones are less opulent (perhaps due to the economic crisis in Venice). Fornari also invented a sort of basset-oboe, now in the Museo Teatrale a Scala in Milan. His son Pietro (b 1793) played the clarinet and also made woodwind instruments. Some of the later instruments with the stamp FORNARI / A VENEZIA may have been made by him.
A.Bernardini: ‘Andrea Fornari (1753–1841) “fabricator de strumenti” a Venezia’, Flauto Dolce, nos.14–15 (1986), 31–6
S.Toffolo: ‘La costruzione degli strumenti musicali a Venezia dal XVI al XIX secolo’, Flauto Dolce, nos.14–15 (1986), 24–30
(b Lucca, c1655; d Rome, Nov 1722). Italian violinist. Corelli's favourite pupil and close friend, he was one of the greatest violin virtuosos active in Rome at the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th. From 1678 (when he played for the first time at S Luigi dei Francesi on the feast day of the church's patron saint) almost until Corelli's death, he rarely failed to appear alongside his teacher as second violinist. He must have begun his apprenticeship with Corelli before 1678, because his payment at S Luigi dei Francesi was higher than that of the other violinists except for Corelli himself, indicating that he was already a fully formed player. In 1678 also Fornari became a member of the Congregazione di S Cecilia, a necessary qualification for practising as a musician in Rome. From the beginning of the 1680s master and pupil became inseparable. They took up residence together in the Palazzo al Corso of their patron Cardinal Benedetto Pamphili, and together moved in 1690 to the Palazzo della Cancelleria of a rival patron, Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni. Wherever Corelli was asked to play – at meetings of the Arcadian Academy, at celebrations of the Accademia del Disegno di S Luca or at S Luigi dei Francesi and S Marcello – Fornari was almost always his second violin. When Corelli became too ill to play in public Fornari frequently stood in for him, and when his teacher died in 1713 he took his place at the head of Ottoboni's orchestra at the Cancelleria, directing it until 1720. It was, however, Giuseppe Valentini, an excellent violinist and successful composer, who inherited Corelli's post at S Luigi dei Francesi. Corelli left Fornari all his violins and manuscripts, as well as the responsibility for overseeing the publication of his Concerti grossi op.6, which appeared in 1714, dedicated to Fornari.
M.Rinaldi: Arcangelo Corelli (Milan, 1953)
H.J.Marx: ‘Die Musik am Hofe Pietro Kardinal Ottobonis unter Arcangelo Corelli’, AnMc, no.5 (1968), 104–77
F.Piperno: ‘“Anfione in Campidoglio”: presenza corelliana alle feste per i concorsi dell'Accademia del Disegno di San Luca’, Nuovissimi studi corelliani: Fusignano 1980, 151–208
H.J.Marx: ‘Die Giustificazioni della Casa Pamphilj als musikgeschichtliche Quelle’, Studi musicali, xii (1983), 121–87
J.Lionnet: ‘La musique à Saint-Louis des Français de Rome au XVIIe siècle’, NA, new ser., iv (1986), suppl.
E.Careri: ‘Giuseppe Valentini (1681–1753): documenti inediti’, NA, new ser., v (1987), 95–6
(b Löbejün, 1610; d Wettin, 1678). German organ builder. He was the son of the master builder and mayor of Wettin, Lorenz (?Martin) Förner, and was taught by his brother-in-law, J.W. Stegmann (d 1637; probably identical with ‘Johannes N. von Wettin’, who was dismissed for his critical remarks on the occasion of the examination of the famous Gröningen organ). Förner was interested in mathematics and physics and attempted to use scientific knowledge in organ building, as he described in Vollkommener Bericht, wie eine Orgel aus wahrem Grunde der Natur in allen ihren Stücken nach Anweisung der mathematischen Wissenschaft soll gemacht, probieret und gebauet werden (1684). He invented the hydraulic wind pressure gauge.
Förner’s work included repairs to the organs built by David Beck at Schloss Gröningen (1592–6) and St Martini, Halberstadt, and to the instrument built by Esaias Compenius at St Martini, Croppenstedt, as well as four new organs: at Halle Cathedral (1665–7; the instrument Handel played as organist from 1702 to 1703); at Ulrichskirche, Halle (1673–5; built to Förner’s specifications and under his supervision by L. Compenius); at Schloss Neu-Augustusburg, Weissenfels (1673; frequently played by Bach, several of whose works take its peculiarities into acount); and at Fischbeck an der Weser. It is possible that Förner was the teacher of Bernhard Schmidt (1629–1708; later known in England as ‘Father Smith’). Förner, with his experimental approach to organ building, may be regarded as a clear model for the important central German organ builders Johann Tobias Gottfried (who was his pupil) and Tobias Heinrich Gottfried Trost.
NDB (H. Klotz)
J.Olearius: Das fröhliche Hallelujah aus dem 150. Psalm bey christlicher Einweihung des schönen neuerbauten Orgel-Wercks in der Fürstlichen S.M. Domkirche zu Halle den 18. Oct. Ao. 1667 [n.p., n.d.]
J.C.Trost: Ausführliche Beschreibung dess neuen Orgelwercks auf der Augustus-Burg zu Weissenfels, worinnen zugleich enthalten was zu der Orgelmacher Kunst gehöre (Nuremberg, 1677)
C.von Dreyhaupt: Diplomatisch-historische Beschreibung des zum Herzogthum Magdeburg gehörigen Saal-Kreyses (Halle, 1755; suppl. 1772–3)
F.Zamminer: Die Musik und die musikalischen Instrumente in ihrer Beziehung zu den Gesetzen der Musik (Giessen, 1855)
H.Mund: ‘Urkundliche Nachrichten über die Weissenfelser Schlossorgel’, ZI, xlvii (1926–7), 323
W.Serauky: Musikgeschichte der Stadt Halle (Halle and Berlin, 1935–43/R)
H.Klotz: ‘Bachs Orgeln und seine Orgelmusik’, Mf, iii (1950), 189–203
F.Friedrich: Der Orgelbauer Heinrich Gottfried Trost (Leipzig, 1989)