(b Asola; fl 1549–88). Italian composer. He entered a Benedictine monastery in Brescia in 1549 and, according to the title-pages of his published works, was later a monk at the abbey of Monte Cassino. The dedication of his Psalmodia vespertina stated that, together with Costanzo Antegnati and Giacomo Pallavicino, Falconio had music type from Venice introduced into Brescia. The Sacra responsoria, composed for equal voices, also contains directions for performance with mixed voices, thus showing a concern with accessibility that is characteristic of many of his published collections. The Voces Christi and Turbarum voces of 1580, both containing simple settings for Holy Week that could have been performed by modest provincial church choirs, are similar in style; much use is made of the most unadorned homophony, particularly in setting the frequent dialogue sections. A similar approach characterized the Responsoria hebdomadae sanctae, another consequence of Falconio’s deep interest in musical exposition of the events of the Passion. His Introitus et Alleluia is a very early example of a collection published together with a part for basso continuo. These works are more contrapuntal in manner; published rather grandly, in choirbook format, they are dedicated to Giulio Feltre della Rovere, Cardinal of Urbino. Martini selected one of the introits from this collection as an example of skilful counterpoint.
published in Brescia unless otherwise stated
Introitus et Alleluia per omnes festivitates totius anni, 5vv (Venice, 1575)
Psalmodia vespertina … tum plena tum pari voce, 4vv (1579), inc.
Magnificat octo tonorum, 4vv (Venice, 1580), lost, cited in FétisB
Passio Hebdomadae Sanctae, 5vv (Venice, 1580), lost, cited in FétisB
Sacra responsoria Hebdomadae Sanctae … tum plena tum pari voce, 4vv (1580)
Threni Hieremiae prophetae, una cum psalmis, Benedictus et Miserere … tum plena, tum pari voce, 4vv (1580)
Turbarum voces … tum plena, tum pari voce, 4vv (1580)
Voces Christi, 3vv (1580)
Magnificat octo tonorum, primi versus … cum quatuor paribus vocibus (Venice, 1588)
G.B.Martini: Esemplare o sia Saggio fondamentale pratico di contrappunto sopra il canto fermo, i (Bologna, 1774/R), 57
Falguera, José [José de Montserrate]
(b Tarrasa, Barcelona, 1778; d Belmonte, Cuenca, ?1824). Spanish organist and composer. From 1789 to 1794 he was a choirboy at the famous ‘escolania’ of the Benedictine monastery of Nuestra Señora de Montserrat, where he studied the organ with Narciso Casanovas and the violin with Anselm Viola (1739–98). He later became organist of the royal monastery of S Lorenzo de El Escorial. He entered the Hieronymite order on 18 November 1794 and took the vows on 22 November 1795. Among his manuscripts surviving at the monastery (E-E) are the Maitines de Apóstoles for chorus and orchestra, performed on the festival of St Simon and St Jude (27 October 1821) in the presence of Fernando VII. Also at El Escorial are a Salve regina for four voices, violins, trumpet and continuo, Letanía a Nuestra Señora for eight voices and two organs, Veni Creator for six voices and two organs, and several masses. Other works are in Madrid (E-Mp) and at the monastery of Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe (E-GU).
B.Saldoni: Reseña histórica de la escolanía ó colegio de música de la Virgen de Montserrat en Cataluña desde 1456 hasta hoy día (Madrid, 1856)
F.Pedrell: Diccionario biográfico y bibliográfico de músicos y escritores de música españoles (Barcelona, 1894–7)
E.J.Zarco-Bacas y Cuevas: Los Jerónimos de San Lorenzo el Real de El Escorial (El Escorial, 1930)
A. de LarreaPalacín: ‘Catálogo de monjes músicos en El Escorial’, Revista de archivos, bibliotecas y museos, lxxi (1963), 371–40, esp. 399
S.Rubio: Catálogo del Archivo de música del monasterio de San Lorenzo el Real de El Escorial (Cuenca, 1976)
(b Odessa, 30 July 1936). Russian composer, cellist and teacher. At the age of nine he entered the Stolyarovskiy Music School in Odessa, where he studied the cello and composition. He began to compose when he was 11, producing a string quartet and some orchestral pieces. In 1955 he entered the Leningrad Conservatory to study the cello with Strimmer, made his début in 1958 and later pursued postgraduate work under Rostropovich. In the late 1950s and early 1960s he performed with success in Moscow and other cities of the USSR, and he won the gold medal in the cello competition at the Eighth World Festival of Youth and Students in Helsinki in 1962. Since then, however, he has given his attention more to composition than to performing. He was accepted into the composition department of the Leningrad Conservatory in 1959, and he graduated from Arapov's class in 1964. For some years he directed the chamber orchestra of the conservatory, where he taught the cello and orchestration. He has been a board member of the Leningrad branch of the Composers' Union. Falik runs a composition class at the conservatory, becoming a senior lecturer in 1980 and professor in 1988. He was nominated Honoured Representative of the Arts of the RSFSR in 1981.
The distinctive features of Falik's compositions are clear and logical thinking, high artistry and economy of means; the influences which formed his style include those of Stravinsky, Hindemith, Webern, Lutosławski, Prokofiev and Shostakovich. He has used serial technique and traditional modality, both freely treated and frequently in the same work. Though several of his works are concerned with ethical or emotional matters, elements of the picturesque are no less important.
Stage: Oresteya (ballet, G. Aleksidze, after Aeschylus), Moscow and Leningrad, 1976; Plutni Skapena [Les Fourberies de Scapin] (op-buffo, Falik, after Molière), Leningrad and Moscow, 1987