(b Colinton, nr Edinburgh, 8 Oct 1710; d Edinburgh, April 1773). Scottish amateur composer. A physician by profession, he studied medicine at Leiden and Reims in the early 1730s and probably picked up some musical training on the Continent at the same time. He was a director of the Edinburgh Musical Society, 1739–40. He became a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh in 1737. His main compositions are his Six Solos for the Violin with a Bass for a Violoncello or Harpsichord, published as ‘composed by a Gentleman’ (Edinburgh, c1774; ed. M. Brown, Glasgow, 1986); they were probably written slowly over a long period, and are tuneful, with a skilfully written violin part. A Minuet and a March (both for violin and basso continuo), attributed to ‘Dr F’, appear in Neil Stewart’s Collection of Marches and Airs (Edinburgh, c1761).
Term for the unison- and octave-sounding ranks of pipes of the organ. The French term Fonds d’orgue is used more specifically to denote Principal and Flute ranks.
John Wesley’s first headquarters (1739–78), where the Methodist style of hymn-singing first developed. See London, §I, 7(i).
London charitable institution founded in 1739 by Thomas Coram. See London, §I, 5.
Fountain, Primous, III
(b St Petersburg, FL, 1 Aug 1949). American composer. A largely self-taught musician, he performed on the trumpet and double bass and arranged for jazz ensembles as a youth; he began to compose while attending high school in Chicago. He has won several awards, including the BMI Composition Award (1967), Guggenheim Fellowships (1974, 1977) and the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters Goddard Lieberson Fellowship (1984). For three years he enjoyed the patronage of the composer and producer Quincy Jones, who commissioned new work and provided financial support. Under the direction of Michael Tilson Thomas, the Buffalo PO gave the first performance of Fountain’s revised Ritual Dances of the Amaks in 1977 (with a new second movement commissioned by Thomas) and performed it on a tour that concluded at the Carnegie Hall. This work is characterized by atonality, the use of fragmented melodies, occasional lyrical passages and repeated rhythmic patterns that incorporate folk-jazz rhythms. As illustrated by Caprice (1978), his orchestral compositions often contain dramatic contrasts in register and colour. Some of his works share an affinity with dance: in 1995 he received a commission from the Frankfurt Ballet Company, and one of his best-known early works, Manifestation, was choreographed by Arthur Mitchell for the Dance Theatre of Harlem. In later years Fountain, who is African American, has explored the music and indigenous instruments of West Africa, alongside the earlier influences on his style, Stravinsky and Miles Davis. (SouthernB)
Orch: Mov for Orch, 1967; Manifestation, 1970; Huh, 1972; Ritual Dances of the Amaks, 1973, rev. 1977; Exiled, 1974; Osiris, 1975; Vc Conc., 1976; Caprice, 1978; Hp Conc., 1981; Sym. no.1, Epitome of the Oppressed, 1984
Chr: Duet, fl, bn, 1974; Ricia, vn, vc, pf, 1980; several other chbr works
Principal publisher: Hinshaw
DORIS EVANS McGINTY
(GB-Lbl Add.40011 B). SeeSources, MS, §IX, 3.
Fouque, (Pierre) Octave
(b Pau, 12 Nov 1844; d Pau, 22 April 1883). French musicologist and composer. After studying classics and harmony at Pau, he went to Paris, where he took organ lessons from Charles Chauvet and was admitted to Ambroise Thomas' composition class at the Conservatoire. In 1869 he competed unsuccessfully for the Prix de Rome, and in 1876 he became a librarian at the Conservatoire. His three operettas, choral works, songs, piano pieces and set of orchestral variations reveal skill and taste. He contributed to numerous periodicals including Avenir national, Echo universel, Le ménestrel, République des lettres and Revue et gazette musicale, and wrote several books of substantial historical value, particularly Michel Ivanovitch Glinka: d'après ses mémoires et sa correspondance (Paris, 1880); Histoire du théâtre Ventadour, 1829–79 (Paris, 1881); and Les révolutionnaires de la musique: Lesueur, Berlioz, Beethoven, Richard Wagner, la musique russe (Paris, 1882).
G.Chouquet: Obituary, Le ménestrel (29 April 1883)
Fouques Duparc, Henri.
Fourestier, Louis (Félix André)
(b Montpellier, 31 May 1892; d Boulogne-Billancourt, 30 Sept 1976). French conductor and composer. He studied at the Montpellier Conservatoire (cello and harmony) and then, from 1909, at the Paris Conservatoire with Dukas, d'Indy, Leroux and Gédalge. In 1925 he won the Prix de Rome for La mort d'Adonis. After making his conducting début in Marseilles and Bordeaux he was appointed conductor at the Opéra-Comique (1927–32), and in 1938 he moved to a similar post at the Paris Opéra, having founded in 1928 (with Ansermet and Cortot) the Paris SO, which he conducted until its demise. He also made tours throughout France and abroad, and in 1946–8 he conducted at the Metropolitan Opera. From 1945 to 1963 he was professor of conducting at the Paris Conservatoire, where he radically changed the teaching methods in conducting and trained a whole generation of French conductors. After retiring he taught at the international summer school in Nice. His compositions include a string quartet and orchestral works, some with solo voice.