English 18th-century music printer and publisher. See underFougt, Henric.
(b Olmütz [now Olomouc], 2 Feb 1873; d Vienna, 16 Sept 1925). Austrian composer. His father, Moritz Fall (1848–1922), was a military bandmaster and composer who from 1882 served in Lemberg (now L'viv), before settling in Berlin, where he founded a café ensemble. Leo received violin lessons from his father and, after schooling in Lemberg, entered the Vienna Conservatory where he studied the violin and piano, as well as harmony and counterpoint with the brothers J.N. and Robert Fuchs. He was briefly a member of the band of the 50th Austrian Infantry Regiment under Franz Lehár senior, playing the violin alongside the young Franz Lehár. Then he moved to Berlin, where he played in his father’s orchestra, acted as piano accompanist in cabaret and played the violin in the orchestra of the Reichshallentheater. In 1895 he became an operetta conductor in Hamburg, where he wrote music for various stage pieces. After a further engagement in Cologne he returned to Berlin, composing and conducting at the Zentral-Theater and Metropoltheater, the city’s leading revue theatres, and composing songs for the cabaret ‘Die bösen Buben’. Two attempts at opera composition were unsuccessful, as was his first operetta Der Rebell (1905). He gave up conducting in 1906 and settled in Vienna to concentrate on operetta composition. Der fidele Bauer (1907), Die Dollarprinzessin (1907) and Die geschiedene Frau (1908) swiftly established him alongside Lehár and Oscar Straus in the forefront of the new generation of operetta composers and brought him international fame. He visited London several times for productions of his works and composed The Eternal Waltz (1911) for the Hippodrome. After a run of lesser successes, he regained popularity with Die Kaiserin (1915), Die Rose von Stambul (1916) and Madame Pompadour (1922). Since 1945 Madame Pompadour has entered the repertory of European opera companies, notably the Vienna Volksoper.
Though never achieving the lasting success of Lehár, Fall composed some of the most captivating operetta music of the 20th century. He seemingly pandered much less to popular taste than to his own, combining a talent for glowing melody with a particular ability for setting rhythmically irregular, conversational texts. Like Lehár, he was unusual in operetta of the time in orchestrating his own works, and could draw from the orchestra a translucent sound, texturally more like chamber music. Of his two brothers, Siegfried (b Olmütz [now Olomouc], 30 Nov 1877) was also a composer and Richard (b Gewitsch [now Jevíčko], 3 April 1882; d Auschwitz, 1943/4) a composer of operettas, revues and popular songs.
operettas unless otherwise stated, in order of first performance, mostly published in vocal score in Berlin or Vienna at time of original production; for more detailed list see GroveO
Paroli [Frau Denise] (op), Hamburg, 1902; Irrlicht (op), Mannheim, 1905; Der Rebell, Vienna, 1905, rev. as Der liebe Augustin, Berlin, 1912; Der fidele Bauer, Mannheim, 1907; Die Dollarprinzessin, Vienna, 1907; Die geschiedene Frau, Vienna, 1908; Brüderlein fein, Vienna, 1909; Der Schrei nach der Ohrfeige, Vienna, 1909; Das Puppenmädel, Vienna, 1910; Die schöne Risette, Vienna, 1910; Die Sirene, Vienna, 1911; The Eternal Waltz, London, 1911; Die Studentengräfin, Berlin, 1913; Der Nachtschnellzug, Vienna, 1913
Die Frau Ministerpräsident [Jung-England], Berlin, 1914; Der künstliche Mensch, Berlin, 1915; Die Kaiserin [Fürstenliebe], Berlin, 1915; Die Rose von Stambul, Vienna, 1916; Der goldene Vogel, Dresden, 1920; Die spanische Nachtigall, Berlin, 1920; Der heilige Ambrosius, Berlin, 1921; Die Strassensängerin, Vienna, 1922; Madame Pompadour, Berlin, 1922; Der süsse Kavalier, Berlin, 1923; Jugend im Mai, Dresden, 1926; Rosen aus Florida, Vienna, 1929, arr. E.W. Korngold
Songs, waltzes, other pieces
F.Lehár, L.Kartousch and H.Marischka: ‘Zum Tode Leo Falls’, Die Stunde [Vienna] (1925)
W.Zimmerli: ‘Leo Fall und sein kompositorisches Werk’, Schweizer Musiker-Revue (1949); repr. as Leo Fall (Zürich, 1957)
N.Lincke: ‘Singspiel – Operette – Musical: die heitere Muse in Böhmen, Mähren, Schlesien’, Die Musikalischen Wechselbezeihungen Schleisen-Osterreich (Dülmen, 1977), 77–105
M.Lichtfuss: Operette im Ausverkauf: Studien zum libretto des musikalischen Unterhaltungstheaters im Östereicher de Zwischenkriegszeit (Vienna, 1989)
English punk rock group. Its principal member, Mark E(dward) Smith (b Manchester, 5 March 1957), formed the group in Manchester in 1977 with guitarist Martin Bramah. Their first recording, Bingo Master's Breakout (Step Forward, 1978), an eerie piece which mixed fragments of local popular culture with punk rock influences from New York and London, formed the matrix of Smith's later work. Over the next two decades the Fall released almost 30 albums, of which Live at the Witch Trials (Step Forward, 1979), and This Nation's Saving Grace (Beggars Banquet, 1985) and Disintegration (1989) were among the most outstanding. Built around Smith's fractured lyrics and ranting vocal style, the Fall has remained unaffected by trends in pop music and maintained the oppositional spirit of the early English punk movement, although the musical frame has shifted slightly since 1977, moving from indie guitar-based rock towards 1990s dance rhythms. Among Smith's musical collaborators in the group have been Brix E. Smith and Marc Riley (guitars), Gavin Friday (vocals), Nigel Kennedy (violin) and Julia Nagle (keyboards). Smith wrote a play Hey! Luciani which was staged in London in 1986, and composed the music for Michael Clarke's ballet, I am Kurious, Oranj (1988).