(b Orvieto, 1733; d Bamberg, 9 Oct 1798). Italian violinist and composer, active in Germany. He studied under Tartini in Padua and under Ferrandini in Munich. In 1752, on Tartini’s recommendation, he became violinist at the court of Adam Friedrich von Seinsheim, later Prince-Bishop of both Bamberg and Würzburg. Fracassini established himself at both towns in the joint court chapel, marrying the principal court singer, Anna Catharina Bayer, in 1762. He became Konzertmeister in 1764, and on the death of Franz Georg Wassmuth in 1766 assumed responsibility for the orchestra and opera. With the accession of Franz Ludwig von Erthal (1779–95) the court musical establishment was divided, and Fracassini settled permanently in Bamberg. In 1792 he wrote a memorandum on the regeneration of the court music, which had declined under Franz Ludwig, and with the accession of Christian Franz von Buseck in 1795 he was able to restore the orchestra, as attested by the accounts of Nicolai, von Murr and Wackenroder.
Fracassini’s sacred and secular compositions were highly thought of by his contemporaries, but only a published set of Vesperlieder for two voices and continuo (Würzburg, 1779), three quartets (D-HR), seven sonatas for violin and continuo (US-BEm) and a motet, Sonate montes saltate fontes (D-TEGha), are now extant. Umstatt’s inventory of music composed for the Bamberg court (1762) lists two arias for soprano, one serenade and five symphonies by Fracassini; his azione teatraleIl natal di Giove was destroyed in 1945. Fracassini had a high reputation as a violinist and as the director of orchestral and operatic performances; along with J.L. Schmitt, another Tartini pupil, he was influential in establishing Tartini’s methods in Bamberg and Würzburg. His most important pupil was the Bamberg theatre conductor Anton Dittmaier, whom E.T.A. Hoffmann briefly and unsuccessfully replaced in 1808.
Obituary, Fränkischer Merkur, xv (1799), 453
J.H.Jäck: Leben und Werke der Künstler Bambergs, i (Erlangen, 1821)
E.von Marschalk: Die Bamberger Hofmusik unter den drei letzten Fürstbischöfen (Bamberg, 1885)
F.Leist: ‘Geschichte des Theaters in Bamberg’, Bericht des historischen Vereins Bamberg, lxxv (1895)
O.Kaul: Geschichte der Würzburger Hofmusik im 18. Jahrhundert (Würzburg, 1924)
O.Kaul: Musica herbipolensis: aus Würzburgs musikalischer Vergangenheit (Marktbreit, 1980)
(b Belgrade, 31 Dec 1919). Serbian composer of Czech descent. She was a pupil of Milojević and Slavenski at the Belgrade Music Academy; later she worked as music editor for the Avala film company and for Belgrade radio and television. A composer with a particular sensitivity towards timbre, she successfully assimilated elements of post-serial Klangmusik into her musical style, which is generally lyrical and intimate. Her vocal music, which is highly expressive and refined, is often inspired by folk music and rites, as exemplified by Pesme rastanka (‘Songs of Departure’, 1967) and Zvona (‘Bells’, 1981).
2 Preludes, hp, 1966; Pesme rastanka [Songs of Departure], chorus, 1967; Asteroids, elecs, 1968; Pesme noći [Nocturnal Songs], female chorus, chbr orch, 1970; Lullaby, S, toys, 1971; Silver Sounds, str qt, 1972; Eclogue, chbr orch, 1973; Tužbalica [Dirge], female chorus, 1973; Kres [Midsummer Night], 3 choral groups, 1975; Nocturno, elecs, 1976; Figure u pokretu [Moving Figures], elecs, 1978; Zvona [Bells], chorus, tape, 1981; Music for 13 Str, 1983
Directly struck drum (membranophone) with one or two heads stretched over a frame or hoop. SeeDrum, §I, 2(vi) and Tambourine.
Framery, Nicolas Etienne
(b Rouen, 25 March 1745; d Paris, 26 Nov 1810). French writer, theorist and composer. While still a student in Paris, he wrote a comedy, La nouvelle Eve (1763), to which the censor objected; he then revised it and, as Nanette et Lucas with ariettes by the Chevalier d’Herbain, it had some success at the Comédie-Italienne in 1764. In 1768 his La sorcière par hasard, an opéra comique to his own text, was privately performed; its favourable reception may have led to his appointment in the same year as superintendent of music to the Comte d’Artois. The work was later revived with some success at the Comédie-Italienne, and the score was published.
Framery was not encouraged to pursue a career as a composer, however, and devoted himself to criticism, theoretical works and to writing and adapting librettos. From 1764 to 1768 he collaborated on Mathon de la Cour’s Journal de musique. From 1770 to 1771 he edited the Journal de musique historique, théorique, et pratique; his ‘Quelques réflexions sur la musique moderne’, which appeared there in 1770, showed an unusual interest in German music, particularly that of Haydn, and attributed some of Philidor’s qualities to its influence. However, under the influence of the Encyclopedists, he espoused the cause of Italian music in France, opposing Gluck not as a piccinniste but as partisan of Sacchini. He adapted Sacchini’s L’isola d’amore for the French stage (La colonie, 1775), and subsequently tried to persuade the composer to come from London. His adaptation of L’olympiade was intended for the Opéra, but rejected through Gluckist opposition; with spoken verse dialogue, it was given with success at the Comédie-Italienne in 1777 and formed a rallying point for the Italian party before Piccinni’s first French opera (Roland, 1778). Framery adapted other Italian works for various theatres, and (according to Lajarte) assisted with the libretto of Sacchini’s first work for the Opéra, Renaud (1783). In 1784 he won a competition with a libretto, Médée, based on an English tragedy by Glover, which he intended for Sacchini. His own setting of it, after the latter’s death in 1786, was never completed.
Framery reviewed performances at the Opéra, Théâtre Feydeau and Concert Spirituel for the Mercure de France, and there published an accusation of plagiarism against Gluck (September 1776) and a eulogy of Sacchini (October 1786). He edited the Calendrier musical universel (1788–9) and translated poems of Ariosto and Tasso, and Azopardi’s Il musico prattico. Framery was appointed editor instead of Suard of the musical part of the Encyclopédie méthodique (i, 1791). He enlisted the help of Ginguené and the Abbé Feytou, but must be held responsible for its erratic quality. His own contributions include a further attack on Gluck and commentaries on reprinted articles of Rousseau (Dictionnaire) and D'Alembert (Encyclopédie), but his work on theory of composition is of limited value. In 1802 he won a prize for his Discours on music and declamation, in which his ideas on prosody receive their fullest expression. Framery’s admiration for Italian music led him to a dogmatic attitude on vocal melody, for which he demanded strict periodicity; hence he criticized Gluck’s arias but allowed merit to his instrumental compositions.
An early advocate of a conservatory for Paris, Framery was involved in the organization of the Conservatoire in 1795. In his last years he was correspondent of the Institut, working on the Dictionnaire des Beaux-arts edited by A.-L. Millin; he also established and controlled an agency for the protection of authors’ rights. He left at his death several unpublished musical essays, including a notice on the violinist Gaviniès. A number of airs by him, mostly in instrumental arrangements, were published in contemporary anthologies, and one appeared as a supplement to the Journal de musique (1770).
Original libs: La nouvelle Eve (Nanette et Lucas ou La paysanne curieuse) (comédie, 1), Comédie-Italienne, 14 June 1764, d’Herbain; La sorcière par hasard (oc, 3), private perf. for Duchess of Villeroy, 1768, also Comédie-Italienne, 3 Sept 1783, Framery; L’indienne (comédie, 1), Comédie-Italienne, 31 Oct 1770, Cifolelli; Médée, 1784–7, Framery (unfinished, cited FétisB); Alcine (op, 3), perf. at court 1785, Lacépède [doubtful, ?by Sedaine]; La tour-tourelle ou Les enfants dans les bois (comédie lyrique, 3), Théâtre Louvois, 1796, Gresnich
Parodies, translations, adaptations: Le trompeur trompé (Blaise), 1767; Nicaise (Bambini), 1767; La colonie (Sacchini: L’isola d’amore), 1775; L’olympiade ou Le triomphe de l’amitié (Sacchini), 1777; Les deux comtesses (Paisiello), 1778; Le jaloux à l’épreuve (Anfossi), 1779; L’infante de Zamora (Paisiello: La Frascatana), 1779; ?collab. Le Boeuf, Renaud (Sacchini: L’Armida), 1783; Le barbier de Séville (Paisiello), 1784; Tarare (Salieri), 1795 [rev. of Beaumarchais lib]
Brenner also lists L’illusion, ou Le diable amoureux, oc, 1, 1773; Le projet, comédie, 2, 1772
only those relating to music included
with C.Mathon de la Cour: Journal de musique (1764–8)
Journal de musique historique, théorique, et pratique, sur la musique ancienne et moderne, les musiciens et les instrumens de tous les temps et de tous les peuples, 5 vols. (Paris, 1770–71) [incl. ‘Quelques réflexions sur la musique moderne’]
Mémoire sur le conservatoire de musique (Paris, ?1784)
Le musicien pratique, 2 vols. (Paris, ?1786; rev. A. Choron (Paris, 1816, 2/1824)) [trans. of F. Azopardi: Il musico prattico, MS, M-V Libr.328]
ed.: Calendrier musical universel, contenant l’indication des cérémonies d’église en musique, des découvertes et les anecdotes de l’année, la notice des pièces en musique représentées à Paris, Versailles, Saint-Cloud, sur différentes théâtres de l’Europe (1788–9/R)
De l’organization des spectacles de Paris, ou Essai sur leur forme actuelle, sur les moyens de l’améliorer, par rapport au public et aux acteurs (Paris, 1790)
ed., with P.L.Ginguené: Encyclopédie méthodique: Musique, i (Paris, 1791/R)
Avis aux poètes lyriques, ou De la nécessité du rhythme et de la césure dans les hymnes ou odes destinés à la musique (Paris, 1796)
Notice sur le musicien Della-Maria, mort depuis peu, et membre de la Société philotechnique (Paris, 1800)
Discours qui a remporté le prix de musique et déclamation proposé par la classe de littérature et beaux-arts de l’Institut nationale de France … sur cette question: Analyser les rapports qui existent entre la musique et la déclamation, déterminer les moyens d’appliquer la déclamation à la musique, sans nuire à la mélodie (Paris, 1802)
Notice sur Joseph Haydn … contenant quelques particularités de sa vie privée relatives à sa personne ou à ses ouvrages (Paris, 1810)
Several notices on musicians, incl. Gaviniès, MS, cited in FétisB
Obituary, Moniteur universel (30 Nov 1810)
T.de Lajarte: Bibliothèque musicale du Théâtre de l’Opéra: catalogue historique, chronologique, anecdotique (Paris, 1878/R), i, 333