Faà di Bruno, Giovanni Matteo [Horatio, Orazio] 83

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2. Works.

Many features of Franck’s style were established during the early years at Ste Clotilde; Grace (1948) confidently compared the themes of the Grande pièce symphonique (1863) and the Symphony (1886–8); there are also melodic resemblances between the B major Andante of the early Grande pièce and the slow movement of the String Quartet (1889). The basis of Franck’s thematic material is the symphonic phrase, a paradoxical compound of rhetorical and passive elements which is paralleled linguistically by Jean-Aubry’s (1916) description ‘serene anxiety’. Often Franck developed complex phrase structures using a kind of mosaic of variants of one or two germinal motifs, a technique which again underlines his indebtedness to Liszt; two late piano works, the Prélude, choral et fugue and the Prélude, aria et final illustrate this procedure in its most developed and refined state (ex.3).

If one admits d’Indy’s proposition of a major stylistic gap between Rédemption (1871–2) and Les Eolides (1875–6), one must concur with his biassed assumption that Franck’s later compositions are principally identifiable by their preoccupation with harmonic techniques deriving from Tristan und Isolde. A very rich strain of chromaticism is indeed a consistent feature of his mature works, and still more of the works of a number of his pupils, where it often appears as a complex undercurrent to a less involved surface, with relatively diatonic melodies harmonized in the style of Tristan. However, many non-harmonic features of Franck’s ‘late’ manner were present at an earlier date than that suggested by d’Indy, and, as previously noted, his earliest flirtations with Tristanesque harmony began at least with the fifth Béatitude, written some time before 1875. The bowdlerized version of the opening of the Tristan prelude found in Les Eolides was only a step towards the high chromaticism of the final works, which he had to some extent used even before his acquaintance with Wagner’s opera. The foundation of his chromatic procedures, like Wagner’s in Tristan, is the juxtaposition of tonally unrelated chords by means of logical part movement; in this they had a common source (ex.4), although Wagner was to explore the association of much more distantly related harmonies.

An outstanding feature of Franck’s harmonic language is his use of the ‘chord pair’ (as in bars 1 and 2 of Les Eolides) where the second chord carries with it the impression of a sforzando. A classical formulation of this device appears in the ninth bar of the first movement of the Violin Sonata, but it also occurs in much earlier pieces, as in the first symphonic interlude from Rédemption (quoted above). It is often associated with Franck’s characteristic iambic rhythm in the attendant melody (see ex.5), as in the Violin Sonata. He often applied his method of thematic development to a harmonic context; a chord pair, for instance, may be repeated with a slight alteration to the second chord, resulting in a stronger implied sforzando (Violin Sonata, third movement, bars 17–18). The technique may also be applied to whole phrases, with more than one element being subjected to variation: again, the Six pièces furnish a prototype (Fantaisie, bars 9–12). Franck was particularly fond of incorporating these motifs into a bar-form (AAB) phrase structure; a good example is the second subject of the first movement of the Quintet. Much of the slow movement of this work is organized on the same principle; thus, bars 1–4 may be analysed as Stollen (bar 1), Stollen (bar 2; chord on third beat varied) and Abgesang (bars 3 and 4; cadential figure derived from the preceding two bars). Franck’s early explorations in the juxtaposition of chords had repercussions in the music of a later generation, notably that of Debussy, for whom the concept of contrasting harmonic colours was fundamental: his Les sons et les parfums (1910) begins with the varied repetition of a chord pair.

Franck’s formal procedures ranged from the simplistic dovetailing of ternary and sonata forms in the first movement of the Quartet to the complex synthesis of the Variations symphoniques. The architectural principle with which his name is linked, cyclic form, sprang originally from two distinct sources: Beethoven’s dramatic recall of previously heard themes, and the monothematic procedure whereby a number of movements employ variants or ‘transformations’ of the same material, as in Schubert’s Wanderer Fantasy and E major Quartet op.125. Both these models have been suggested as the inspiration behind Franck’s remarkable Trio in F minor, but a more likely blueprint is to be found in the early piano sonatas of Mendelssohn and the Scherzo of his early Piano Quartet in B minor, which is distinctly echoed in the corresponding movement of Franck’s Trio. It was Liszt’s achievement to have welded the two principles of thematic recall and monothematicism into a monumental formal process which could unify a multi-movement cycle or even, in Les préludes and the Piano Sonata, encompass them all in a continuous sonata first movement plan. Apart from the Trio, where the use of the cyclic technique savours of something of an intellectual exercise, Franck’s first important attempt at this kind of unification was the Grande pièce symphonique, which shows clearly his immeasurable debt to the music of Liszt’s Weimar years. Yet another large-scale single-movement composition is the Prélude, choral et fugue, whose chromatic generating motif (later becoming the fugue subject) further emphasizes his underlying relationship to Liszt, irrespective of the inroads the music of Wagner had made on his sensibilities. Despite its lack of conventional breaks between movements, the work basically conforms to the three-movement plan which Franck found most congenial. He had already experimented with the triptych form of Beethoven’s Les adieux sonata in some of his early piano works and later in a number of the Six pièces. Of the other instrumental music, only the Violin Sonata and the Quartet deviate from this tripartite layout, to which all the important instrumental works of his pupils also conform.

No appraisal of Franck’s total output can ignore the wide qualitative gulf separating the broad categories of vocal and instrumental music. Surprisingly for a skilled contrapuntist his choral writing too often suffers from unrelieved homophony; the discrepancy may be seen in a hybrid work like Psyché in which the choral sections simply disfigure the remainder. Except in one or two instances he was unable to make much of the contemporary mélodie (his grasp of prosody was notoriously weak), and the prevailing sentimental style of church music in mid-19th-century France was hardly fertile soil in which his gifts might flourish. Nevertheless, one or two of his sacred pieces, notably the festal offertory Quae est ista (1871), were distinguished additions to the liturgical repertory. Franck’s cardinal weaknesses included his lack of literary discernment and corresponding readiness to rely on the literary tastes of others, and the limited spectrum of experience he could convincingly express in music. The failure of the operas cannot be blamed entirely on their absurd and anachronistic librettos, and in spite of many magnificent pages, the choral works are unlikely to find admirers, fundamentally because Franck was unable to realize their essentially dramatic schemes. This stricture is particularly applicable to Rédemption where, as has often been remarked, he was lamentably unable to delineate the darker aspects of human nature described in the text, the characterization of Lucifer being utterly ineffectual. Les béatitudes, Franck’s magnum opus by which both he and his disciples set so much store, suffers initially from too rigid a formal plan: each of the eight sections begins with an exposition of a particular evil, proceeds to a celestial prophecy and concludes with the voice of Christ intoning words from the Sermon on the Mount. A certain pedestrianism in melody and rhythm is exposed by the obsessively chromatic harmony. Yet the monolithic design of the total work, in ‘tonal architectural’ terms implemented by an identification of psychological states with specific keys (as with Messiaen a kind of cosmic joy is attributed to F major), is very impressive and ought to preclude anything but a complete performance. Parts three and four and much of parts five and six represent his outstanding accomplishments on a large canvas.

Franck’s finest compositional achievement is represented by the symphonic, chamber and keyboard works, one of the most distinguished contributions to the field by any French musician – especially the last three chamber works, in which Franck found a balance between his inherent emotionalism and his preoccupation with counterpoint and Classical forms. They constitute his legacy to his disciples, and the intense interest in chamber music shown by Castillon, from the moment of his becoming a student of Franck, is perhaps symbolic of the importance of formalistic works for the Franckist school as a whole. There were few precedents in France for such an involvement; those that did exist, such as the genuinely neo-classical symphonies of Gounod and Bizet of 1855 and the early piano quintet and piano trio by the eclectic Saint-Saëns, were isolated attempts and give little hint of what was to follow. To his pupils, Franck communicated both the Beethovenian idealism inherent in the cultivation of the strict genres of symphony, quartet and sonata and the harmonic innovations of late Romanticism. This double allegiance to the Viennese tradition on the one hand, and to Liszt and Wagner on the other, was undoubtedly responsible for the self-indulgent massiveness which characterizes many Franckist works and which sometimes proved to be a source of stylistic confusion, as Cooper (1951) has observed about the Piano Trio by Lekeu. The finest products of the movement, however, such as the chamber music and the Symphony of Chausson, in whose Piano Trio may be observed the most direct workings of Franck’s influence, align this monumentality with a sweeping lyricism.

Franck’s pupils were attracted to his teaching technique, his innate receptiveness to new ideas and his seriousness, a quality which stood in marked contrast to the superficiality of the Opéra-dominated establishment. After 1872 only a few, including Augusta Holmès and Lekeu, were taught privately; the majority, often at the instigation of Coquard, attended the organ class where most of Franck’s composition teaching took place. Although he would naturally assess individual compositions by members of his closest circle, his main medium of communication seems to have been the improvisation sessions which took up most of the class’s time; through these he reached a wider audience, including such peripheral members of the school as Fumet and Lazzari. He was not primarily concerned with keyboard technique, as Vierne and Tournemire found to their dismay when later confronted with Widor. His sphere of influence was wide: in addition to those pupils already mentioned, Charles Bordes, Guy Ropartz, Dukas, Bréville, Pierné, Guilmant and Magnard passed at some stage through his hands. Few other teachers can be credited with such an achievement.

Franck, César


all published and first performed in Paris, unless otherwise stated; autograph MSS of unpublished works in F-Pc and Pn. Opus numbers in italics refer to Franck’s first series, those in roman to his second series and Messe à 3 voix; no works composed after 1863 bear opus numbers. Thematic catalogue of published works in Mohr [M].


all printed works in vocal score, unless otherwise stated



Title, genre

Acts, libretto




Stradella, op

3, E. Deschamps



First performances; remarks :

vs only

Le valet de ferme, oc

3, A. Royer and G. Vaëz



First performances; remarks :


Hulda, op

4, epilogue, C. Grandmougin, after Bjørnson




First performances; remarks :

Monte Carlo, 8 March 1894; vs arr. Franck (to p.285) and S. Rousseau (from p.285 to end); 2nd edn (?1894) abridged


Ghiselle, drame lyrique

4, G.-A. Thierry




First performances; remarks :

Monte Carlo, 6 April 1896. Act 1 orchd Franck; Act 2 P. de Bréville, V. d’Indy, E. Chausson; Act 3 S. Rousseau; Act 4 A. Coquard

large sacred

all printed works in vocal score, unless otherwise stated



Title, genre






Notre-Dame des orages, cant.

?1 v, pf

Comte de Pastoret



First performances; remarks :

Erard’s piano salon, c10 Jan 1839, mentioned in Le ménestrel, 13 Jan 1839; lost


Ruth, églogue biblique

Solo vv, chorus, orch

Bible, with addns by A. Guillemin

1843–6; rev. 1871



First performances; remarks :

Conservatoire, 4 Jan 1846

Plainte des israélites, cant.

Chorus, orch



First performances; remarks :

La tour de Babel, cant.

Solo vv, chorus, orch



First performances; remarks :


Rédemption, poème-symphonie

S, female vv, speaker, orch

E. Blau




First version






First performances; remarks :

Concert National (Colonne), 10 April 1873


Final version, with new chorus and symphonic interlude






First performances; remarks :

Conservatoire, 15 March 1875


Les béatitudes, orat

Solo vv, chorus, orch

Bible: Matthew v, adapted by Mme J. Colomb




First performances; remarks :

Franck’s apartment, 20 Feb 1879 (pf acc.); Dijon, 15 June 1891 (orch acc.); earlier performances of individual movts, Paris, 1878–90


Rébecca, scène biblique

Solo vv, chorus, orch

P. Collin




First performances; remarks :

Société Chorale d’Amateurs Guillot de Sainbris, 15 March 1881 (pf acc.); Salle Gaveau, 16 May 1911





Title, genre




Variations brilliantes sur un thème original



First performance :


Variations brillantes sur l’air du Pré aux clercs



First performance :


Remarks :

also arr. solo pf


Variations brillantes sur la ronde favorite de Gustave III, with solo pf



First performance :


Deuxième grand concerto, g, with solo pf



First performance :


Première grande symphonie, G



First performance :

Société d’Orléans, 16 Feb 1841



Ce qu’on entend sur la montagne, sym. poem



First performance :


Remarks :

after V. Hugo


Les Eolides, sym. poem


1893; arr. 2 pf, 1892


First performance :

Société Nationale, 13 May 1877


Remarks :

after Leconte de Lisle


Le chasseur maudit, sym. poem


1884; arr. pf 4 hands, 1884


First performance :

Société Nationale, 31 March 1883


Remarks :

after G. Bürger


Les Djinns, sym. poem with solo pf


1893; arr. 2 pf 1892


First performance :

Société Nationale, 15 March 1885


Remarks :

after Hugo


Variations symphoniques, with solo pf


1893; arr. 2 pf, 1892


First performance :

Société Nationale, 1 May 1886


Psyché, sym. poem with chorus


1903; arr pf 4 hands, 1893


First performance :

Société Nationale, 10 March 1888


Remarks :

text by S. Sicard and de Foucard


Symphonie, d


1896; arr. pf 4 hands, 1890


First performance :

Concerts du Conservatoire, 17 Feb 1889


Remarks :

also arr. solo pf

other sacred






Ave Maria, ?chorus, 1845

Sub tuum, 2 vv, 1849

O gloriosa, 3 vv, ?c1850

O salutaris, chorus, org, 1835; ReM, iv/2 (1922), suppl.

Justus ut palma florebit, B, chorus, org, ?c1850

Gratias super gratiam, chorus, org, ?c1850

Tunc oblati sunt, chorus, org, ?c1850

Sinite parvulos, 1v, org, ?c1850

Laudate pueri, chorus, org, ?c1850


O salutaris, S, T/Mez, org, 1858 (c1858)


Trois motets, O salutaris, S, chorus, org; Ave Maria, S, B, org; Tantum ergo, B, chorus, org (1865)


Messe solennelle: O salutaris, B, org, 1858 (1858)

Tendre Marie, canticle, ?c1858; cited by Vallas (1950)

Les sept paroles du Christ, solo vv, chorus, orch, 1859


Le garde d’honneur, canticle, 1v, female vv, org, 1859 (1859); text by Mme ***

Cantique de Moïse: Cantemus Domino, chorus, orch, pf, c1860; ?2nd chorus of Plainte des israélites, chorus, orch/pf, 1860, see Vallas (1951)

La tour de Babel, orch/pf, 1865



Messe à 3 voix, STB, orch (later reduced to org, harp, vc, db), 1860 (1872); Ste Clotilde, 2 April 1861

Panis angelicus, T, org, hp, vc, db, 1872 (1872); interpolated in the Messe à 3 voix


Ave Maria, STB, org, 1863 (c1863)


Trois offertoires, 1861 (c1871): Quae est ista, solo vv, chorus, org, hp, db, orch; for the Feast of the Assumption; Domine Deus in simplicitate, STB, org, db; for the 1st Sunday in the month; Dextera Domini, solo vv, STB, org, db, orch; for Easter Sunday;


Domine non secundum, off, STB, org, 1865 (c1865); for a time of penitence


Quare fremuerunt gentes, off, STB, org, db, orch, 1865 (c1865); for the Feast of St Clotilde


Veni creator, T, B, org, 1872 (c1876)


Psaume, cl, chorus, org, orch, 1883 (Leipzig, 1896)

secular vocal


L’Entrée en loge, 1v, pf (J.-F. Gail), c1840


La Vendetta, 2vv, pf (A. de Pastout), c1840


Orphée dans les bois, 1v, orch (H. Benton), c1840


Agnès Sozel, 1v, pf (P.-A. Vieilland), 1840


Fernand, 3vv, orch (Pastout), 1841


Loyse de Montfort, 3vv, orch (E. Deschamps and E. Pacini), 1841


Hymne à la patrie, 1v, orch, 1848; orch inc.


Marlborough, chorus, org, pf, vc, db, 4 obbl mirlitons, 1869



Paris, patriotic ode, T, orch (‘B. de L.’), 1870 (1917); arr. pf (1917)


Patria, patriotic ode, 1v, orch (V. Hugo), 1871 (1917); arr. pf (?c1917)


Le philistin mordra la poussière, chorus, pf, 1875; cited by Vallas (1951)



La procession, 1v, orch (A. Brizeux), 1888 (c1893); Société Nationale, 27 April 1889; arr. pf (c1893)



Six duos, SA, pf, 1888 (1893): L’ange gardien (?Franck); Aux petits enfants (A. Daudet); La Vierge à la crèche (Daudet); Les danses de Lormont (L. Desbordes-Valmore); Soleil (G. Ropartz); La chanson du vannier (A. Theuriet)



Premier sourire de mai, 4 female vv, pf (V. Wilder), 1888 (c1904)



Hymne, 4 male vv, pf (J. Racine), 1888 (c1902); Tournai, c1890


Cantique, chorus, obbl hn, 1888



Blond Phébus, 1835; unsigned, authorship doubtful



Souvenance (Chateaubriand), 1842–3 (1862)



Ninon (A. de Musset), 1851 (1862)



L’émir de Bengador (J. Méry), 1842–3 (1862)



Le sylphe (A. Dumas père), 1842–3 (1862); with vc obbl



Robin Gray (J.-P. de Florian), 1842–3 (1862)



L’ange et l’enfant (J. Reboul), 1846 (1872)


A cette terre, où l’on ploie sa tente (Hugo), 1847 (1985)



Aimer (Méry), 1849 (1862)



Les trois exilés (Chant national) (B. Delfosse), 1848 (1848/?9)



S’il est un charmant gazon (Hugo); ReM, iv/2 (1922), suppl.; 2 different settings: 1 c1855; 2 1857



Paris, see secular vocal



Le mariage des roses (E. David), 1871 (c1873)



Roses et papillons (Hugo), c1860 (c1873)



Passez, passez toujours (Hugo), 1860 (1862)



Lied (L. Paté), 1873 (1874)



Le vase brisé (R.-F.-A. Sully-Prudhomme), 1879 (1900)



Nocturne (L. de Fourcaud), 1884 (1900)



Pour les victimes 1887 (1912)



Les cloches du soir (M. Desbordes-Valmore), 1888 (1889)



Grand trio, pf, vn, vc, 1834



3 trios concertants, f, B (Trio de salon), b; pf, vn, vc, 1839–42 (Paris, Hamburg and Leipzig, 1843)



Quatrième trio concertant, b, vn, vc, pf, 1842 (Hamburg and Leipzig, 1843); orig. finale to Trio op.1 no.3



Andantino quietoso, vn, pf, 1843 (1844)



1er duo, pf, vn, 1844 (1844); on motifs from Dalayrac’s Gulistan

pf solo, acc. str qnt, c1844 (1991)


Quintette, f, pf, 2 vn, va, vc, 1879 (1881); Société Nationale, 17 Jan 1880


Sonate, A, pf, vn, 1886 (1886); Société Nationale, 31 Dec 1887


Quatuor, D, 2 vn, va, vc, 1889 (c1889); Société Nationale, 19 April 1890


Mélancolie, vn, pf (1911); transcr. of a solfège lesson

organ and harmonium

Pièce, E, 1846 (1973)


L’organiste, vol.ii, org/hmn, 1858–63 (1905); 30 pieces

Pièce, A, 1854 (1990)


Andantino, g, org, ?1856 (1857)


Cinq pièces, hmn, c1858 (?1865); 2 offs, 2 vcles, 1 communion


Trois antiennes, org, 1859 (1859)



Six pièces, org, 1856–64 (1868): Fantaisie, C; Grande pièce symphonique, f; Prélude, fugue et variation, b, also transcr. 2 pf/pf, hmn, 1873 (?c1873); Pastorale, E; Prière, c; Final, B



Quasi marcia, hmn, c1862 (1868)

Offertoire sur un air breton, hmn, c1865 (1867)


Trois pièces, org, 1878 (1883): Fantaisie, A; Cantabile, B; Pièce héroïque, b


Trois chorals, E, b, a, org, 1890 (1892)


L’organiste, org/hmn, 1889–90: 55 pieces pubd (1896); 4 further pieces ed. J. Bonfils and G. Litaize, as Suite (M42), harmonium (1956)

Pièces posthumes (1905)



Grand rondo, 1834


Variations brillantes sur l’air du Pré aux clercs, see under Orchestral


Variations brillantes sur la ronde favorite de Gustave III, see under Orchestral


Première grande sonate, 1836


Première grande fantaisie, before 1836


Deuxième fantaisie, before 1836


Deux mélodies, before 1837


Deuxième sonate, before 1838


Troisième grande fantaisie, before 1838

Polka, before 1848



Eglogue (Hirtengedicht), 1842



1er duo sur le God Save the King, pf 4 hands, 1842 (c1845)



1er grand caprice, 1843 (?c1845)



Souvenir d’Aix-la-Chapelle, 1843 (Hamburg and Leipzig, c1845)

Deux mélodies; à Félicité, c1847



4 mélodies de François Schubert, 1844 (1844); arrs. of Die junge Nonne, Die Forelle, Des Mädchens Klage, Das Zügenglöcklein


Ballade, 1844



1re grande fantaisie: sur des motifs de Gulistan de Dalayrac, 1844 (1844)



2e fantaisie: sur l’air et le virelay ‘Le pont du jour’ de Gulistan de Dalayrac, 1844 (1844)


Fantaisie, ?1844, lost



Fantaisie sur deux airs polonais, 1845 (c1845)


Trois petits riens: Duettino, Valse, Le songe, 1846



2e duo: sur le quatuor de Lucile de Grétry, pf 4 hands, 1845 (1846)


Les plaintes d’une poupée, 1865 (1904)


Prélude, choral et fugue, 1884 (1885); Société Nationale, 24 Jan 1885


Danse lente, 1885 (1888)


Prélude, aria et final, 1887 (1888); Société Nationale, 12 May 1888

transcriptions and arrangements







4 mélodies de François Schubert, see under piano



Accompagnements d’orgue et arrangements pour les voix, des offices en chant grégorien restauré par le R.P. Lambillotte, 1858 (c1858)


Lénore, sym. poem by H. Duparc, arr. pf 4 hands, c1875 (1875)



Ernelinde, op by F.A. Danican-Philidor, vs (1883)



Tom Jones, op by F.A. Danican-Philidor, vs (c1883)



Le bûcheron, op by F.A. Danican-Philidor, vs (c1883)



Préludes et prières, org, 1889 (1889); arrs. of pf pieces by C.V. Alkan



Hymnes (Creator alme siderum, Sanctorum meritis, Iste confessor), harmonizations, 3vv, org (1914)

Franck, César


general literature


C. Benoit: ‘César Franck’, Revue bleue, xlvi/20 (1890), 632–3

A. Coquard: César Franck (Paris, 1890); repr. in Monde musical (1904)

J.G. Ropartz: Notations artistiques (Paris, 1891)

H. Imbert: Portraits et études (Paris, 1894)

E. Destranges: L’oeuvre lyrique de César Franck (Paris, 1896)

G. Derepas: César Franck: étude sur sa vie, son enseignement, son oeuvre (Paris, 1897, 2/1904)

A. Meyer: Les critiques de César Franck (Orleans, 1898)

V. Debay: ‘César Franck’, Courrier musical (15 Nov and 1 Dec 1900)

P.L. Garnier: L’héroïsme de César Franck: psychologie musicale (Paris, 1900)

F. Baldensperger: ‘César Franck: l’artiste et son oeuvre’, Courrier musical (15 May 1901), suppl.

V. d’Indy: ‘César Franck, le premier des symphonistes français’, Weekly Critical Review (5 March 1903)

Courrier musical (1 Nov 1904) [special Franck issue]

Monde musical (30 Oct 1904) [special Franck issue]

P. Dukas: ‘César Franck’, Chronique des arts, no.33 (1904), 273–4

J. Tiersot: ‘César Franck’, Le ménestrel (23 Oct 1904)

R. Canudo: ‘Cesar Franck e la giovane scuola musicale francese’, Nuova antologia, cxvi (1905), 479–88

E.F. Guilbert: ‘César Franck’, L’enseignement chrétien (1905), suppl.

C. Debussy: Monsieur Croche, antidilettante (Paris, 1921, 2/1926; Eng. trans., 1927/R), chap. ‘César Franck’

M. Boucher: ‘L’esthétique de César Franck’, ReM, iii/3–5 (1921–2), 29–41

W. Roberts: ‘César Franck’, ML, iii (1922), 317–28

J. Tiersot: ‘Le génie et la pensée de César Franck’, Revue de France, vi (1922), 761–89

H. Duparc: ‘César Franck pendant le siège de Paris’, ReM, iv/1–3 (1922–3), 139–41

A. Schaeffner: ‘Sur quelques caractères de l’influence franckiste’, ReM, iv/1–3 (1922–3), 142–54

V. d’Indy: ‘La première manière de César Franck’, RdM, iv/5 (1923), 2–7

R.V. Dawson: ‘Beethoven and César Franck’, ML, xi (1930), 110–23

C. Oulmont: Musique de l’amour, i: Ernest Chausson et la ‘bande à Franck’ (Paris, 1935/R)

H. Haag: César Franck als Orgelkomponist (Kassel, 1936)

G. Kreutzer: Die sinfonische Form César Francks (Düsseldorf, 1938)

ZfM, ix (1940) [special Franck issue]

A. Colling: César Franck ou le concert spirituel (Paris, 1951)

C. Taube: César Franck – und wir (Berlin, 1951)

N. Dufourcq: Autour de Coquard, César Frank et Vincent d’Indy (Paris, 1952)

J. Matter: ‘De quelques sources beethovéniennes de César Franck’, SMz, xcix (1959), 231–4

P. Hamburger: ‘Den “sande” César Franck’, DMt, xxxv (1960), 4–9

E.M. Fanning: The 19th-Century French Organ of Cavaillé-Coll and the Organ Works of César Franck (diss., Boston U., 1964)

R. Pearsall: ‘The “Serene Anxiety” of César Franck’, MR, xxvii (1966), 98–101

R. Berthelot: ‘A propos de César Franck’, L’orgue, no.121 (1967), 17–18 [incl. photograph from 1843]

P. Libert: ‘Het geboortehuis van César Franck’, Mens en melodie, xxiii (1968), 34–7

L. Davies: César Franck and his Circle (London, 1970/R)

J. Maegaard: ‘Romantikkens harmonik?’, DMt, xlvi (1971), 11–14 [Franck’s harmonic style]

B. Wegener: César Francks Harmonik (Regensburg, 1976)

A. Seipt: César Francks symphonische Dichtungen (Regensburg, 1981)

J.-L. Beauvois: Prélude, aria et final avec César Franck: cinquante ans de musique française (1830–1880) (Grenoble, 1990)

literature on specific works

P. Dukas: ‘Les béatitudes’, Revue hebdomadaire, xi (1893), 302–10

C. Franck: Notice analytique et thématique (Paris, 1896) [analysis of the Symphonie]

M.-D. Calvocoressi: ‘César Franck et “Les béatitudes”, Musica (1903) [incl. several photographs]

C. Bordes: ‘Le sentiment religieux dans la musique d’église de Franck’, Courrier musical (1 Nov 1904)

C. van den Borren: L’oeuvre dramatique de César Franck: ‘Hulda’ et ‘Ghiselle’ (Brussels, 1907)

J. Tiersot: ‘Les oeuvres inédites de César Franck’, ReM, iv/1–3 (1922–3), 97–138

A. Cortot: ‘L’oeuvre pianistique de César Franck’, ReM, vii (1925–26), nos.1–2, pp.1–24; nos.3–5, pp.22–38, 131–43 [repr. in Cortot (1930)]

R. Jardillier: La musique de chambre de César Franck (Paris, 1929)

H. Grace: The Organ Works of César Franck (London, 1948)

G. Sievers: ‘Analyse von César Francks Prélude, choral et fugue pour piano’, Musik im Unterricht, xlix (1958), 210–13

H. Hollander: ‘Die tonpoetische Idee in der Sinfonie César Francks’, SMz, xcix (1959), 425–7

R. Stephan: ‘Ein seltsam notierter Takt in César Francks Quintett’, NZM, Jg.123 (1962), 218–19

M. Monnikendam: ‘De symfonie van César Franck’, Leren histeren, xiii (1963)

W. Pruitt: ‘Charles Tournemire and the Style of Franck’s Major Organ Works’, The Diapason, lxiii (1969–70), 17 only

P. Gülke: ‘Wider die Übermacht des Thematischen: zum Verständnis César Francks anhand seiner d-Moll Sinfonie’, BMw, xiii (1971), 261–5

A. Hedinger: “Les Béatitudes” von César Franck’, SMz, cxi (1971), 353–4

F. Peeters: ‘Franck’s orgeloeuvre’, Praestant, xx (1971), 25

F. Peeters: ’César Franck’s Organ Music’, MT, cxiii (1972), 395–7, 499–500

A. Landgraf: Musica sacra zwischen Symphonie und Improvisation: César Franck und seine Musik für den Gottesdienst (Tutzing, 1975)

R. Smith: Toward an Authentic Interpretation of the Organ Works of César Franck (New York, 1983)

D.R. Cranford: Harmonic and Contrapuntal Techniques in the Late Keyboard Works of César Franck (diss., U. of North Texas, 1992)

contextual literature

G. Servières: La musique française moderne (Paris, 1897)

A. Bruneau: La musique française (Paris, 1901)

D.G. Mason: From Greig to Brahms (New York, 1902, 3/1927/R)

A. Hervey: French Music in the Nineteenth Century (London, 1903)

A. Elson: Modern Composers of Europe (Boston, MA, 1905)

R. Rolland: Musiciens d’aujourd’hui (Paris, 1908, 6/1914; Eng. trans., 1914, 4/1919)

O. Séré [J. Poueigh]: Musiciens français d’aujourd’hui (Paris, 1911, 8/1921)

G. Jean-Aubry: La musique française d’aujourd’hui (Paris, 1916; Eng. trans., 1919/R)

M. Boucher: L’école de César Franck (Paris, 1917)

J. Tiersot: Un demi-siècle de musique française (Paris, 1918, 2/1924)

A. Cortot: La musique Française de piano, i (Paris, 1930/R; Eng. trans., 1932/R)

N. Cardus: Ten Composers (London, 1945, rev. 2/1958 as A Composer’s Eleven)

D. Brook: ‘César Franck’, Five Great French Composers (London, 1946)

M. Cooper: French Music from the Death of Berlioz to the Death of Fauré (London, 1951)

F. Noske: La mélodie française de Berlioz à Duparc (Amsterdam, 1954; Eng. trans., rev., 1970/R by R. Benton and F. Noske)

R.S. Grover: The Influence of Franck, Wagner and Debussy on Representative Works of Ernest Chausson (diss., U. of North Carolina, 1966)

F. Douglas: Cavaillé-Coll and the Musicians (Raleigh, NC, 1980)

R. Bayer: Die musikalische Darstellung der Person Christi in verschiedenen Stilepochen (MA diss., Hochschule für Musik, Vienna, 1982)

F. Reinisch: Das französische Oratorium von 1840 bis 1870 (Regensburg, 1982)

M. Stockhem: Eugène Ysayë et la musique de chambre (Liège, 1990)

monographs and collections of articles

V. d’Indy: César Franck (Paris, 1906; Eng. trans., 1910/R) [incl. catalogue of works]

M. de Rudder: César Franck (Turnhout, 1920)

P. de Wailly: La vie et l’âme de César Franck (Amiens, 1922)

E. Closson: César Franck (Charleroi, 1923)

M. Emmanuel: César Franck (Paris, 1930)

C. Tournemire: César Franck (Paris, 1931)

W. Mohr: César Franck (Stuttgart, 1942, 2/1969) [2nd edn incl. thematic catalogue of pubd works]

A. Ysaye: César Franck et son époque (Brussels, 1942)

R. Zimmerman: César Franck (Aachen, 1942)

M. Kunel: La vie de César Franck: l’homme et l’oeuvre (Paris, 1947)

J. Horton: César Franck (London, 1948)

H. Andriessen: César Franck (Amsterdam, n.d.; Eng. trans., 1949)

N. Demuth: César Franck (London, 1949)

N. Dufourcq: César Franck (Paris, 1949)

M. Monnikendam: César Franck (Amsterdam, 1949, 2/1966)

L. Vallas: César Franck (London, 1951/R; Fr. orig., Paris, 1955, as La véritable histoire de César Franck)

M. Kunel: César Franck inconnu (Brussels, 1958)

J. Gallois: César Franck (Paris, 1966)

E. Buenzod: César Franck (Paris, 1967)

N. Rogožina: César Franck (Moscow, 1969)

L. Davies: Franck (London, 1973)

A. Bassi: César Franck (Bordenove, 1988)

César Franck et son temps: Liège 1990 [RBM, xlv (1991)]

L’orgue: cahiers et mémoires, no.44 (1990) [César Franck issue]

Revue européenne d’études musicales (1991) [César Franck issue]

J.-M. Fauquet: César Franck (Paris, 1999)

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