German firm of music publishers. It was founded by Macarius (Franz de Paula) Falter (b Taiskirchen, 2 Jan 1762; d Munich, 24 Sept 1843), who first worked in Munich as a piano teacher. From 1788 he held a concession for the sale of manuscript music paper and printed music; the first piece of music under his imprint appeared in 1796. About 1813 Falter’s son Joseph (1782–1846) was taken into the firm; he had in the meantime been involved in instrument dealing and music lending. On 4 April 1827 the firm was sold to Sebastian Pacher and after his death on 13 March 1834 it was carried on by his widow Thekla Pacher (1805–79). From 1861 to 1874 the business was owned by Otto Halbreiter (1827–1910), who opened another music selling business which continued until 1933. Among later owners of Falter & Sohn were Ferdinand Neustätter, his wife Helene and Friedrich Schellhass (1885). On 22 June 1888 the name of Falter & Sohn was deleted from the register of firms; all the rights were transferred to the Munich music publisher Joseph Aibl.
Besides works by Haydn, Pleyel and other well-known masters, the firm published principally (later almost exclusively) Munich composers, including Cannabich, Peter Winter, Theobald Boehm, Ett, Stuntz, K.M. Kuntz and Perfall. The plate numbers reached 200 in about 1806, 500 in 1840–41 and 700 in 1848; numerous editions appeared without numbers, many of these on commission. A series of editions bore the stamp of Falter & Sohn in conjunction with B. Schott (Mainz and Paris) and A. Schott (Antwerp).
H.Schmid: ‘Falter & Sohn’, Mitteilungsblatt der Gesellschaft für bayerische Musikgeschichte, vi (1973), 108–16
H.Schmid: ‘Berichtigung’, Musik in Bayern, xiv (1977), 97 only
H.Schneider: Makarius Falter (1762–1843) und sein Münchner Musikverlag (1796–1888), i: Der Verlag im Besitz der Familie (1796–1827): Verlagsgeschichte und Bibliographie (Tutzing, 1993)
(b Danzig [now Gdańsk], 5 Jan 1835; d Helsinki, 1 June 1918). Finnish conductor, organist and composer of German birth. He began his musical education at the age of seven in his native city, studying the organ with Markull, and continued his studies in Dessau with Friedrich Schneider (1852–3) and, at the Leipzig Conservatory (1853–6 and 1861–2), with Moscheles, Ferdinand David and Hauptmann. In 1856 he moved to Viipuri, Finland (now Vyborg in Russia), where he organized chamber concerts, founded a choral society and an orchestra, and taught music at the Behm School. He settled in Helsinki in 1869 and conducted the orchestra of the New Theatre; in the following year he succeeded Pacius as Musikdirektor of Helsinki University. In 1871 he became organist of the church of St Nicholas, a post he held for more than four decades. From 1870 he began to conduct opera, and from 1873 to 1883 conducted the orchestra of the Finnish Opera. In 1882 he co-founded the Helsinki Music Institute, where he taught organ until 1910.
Faltin introduced many important works to Finnish audiences, including Haydn’s The Seasons (1872), Bach’s St Matthew Passion (1875), Schumann’s Das Paradies und die Peri (1878) and Brahms’s German Requiem (1881). He composed an orchestral overture, a string quartet, three books of chorales, choral and organ works, in addition to numerous songs (he also published a collection of Finnish folksongs); his work was distinguished by solid craftmanship, and he wrote especially well for the voice. His most significant contribution to the developing Finnish musical life, however, was his influence as a teacher and performer.
K.Flodin and O.Ehrström: Richard Faltin och hans samtid (Helsinki, 1934)
E.Salmenhaara, ed.: Suomalaisia säveltäjiä [Finnish composers] (Keuruu, 1994)
F.Dahlström and E.Salmenhaara: Ruotsin vallan ajasta romantiikkaan [From the time of Swedish rule to Romanticism], Suomen musiikin historia [A history of Finnish music], i (Borgå, 1995)
ROBERT LAYTON/ILKKA ORAMO
(b Trautenau [now Trutnov], Bohemia, 20 Feb 1890; d Vienna, 19 May 1937). German composer of Bohemian origin. She was educated at the Assomption convent in Paris, then studied at the Vienna Music Academy, where her teachers included Robert Fuchs and Mandyczewski; she also studied with Draeseke and Eduard Reus at the Dresden Hochschule für Musik, where she won a prize for her Phantastische Sinfonie (op.2a), and with Sophie Menter in Munich. She was the first woman to coach solo singers at Bayreuth (1914) and became the soloists’ répétiteur at the Nuremberg Stadttheater am Ring and the Darmstadt Hoftheater; from 1924 she worked for the Städtische Oper in Berlin. Her modest output of compositions includes the symphonic poem Hamlet (op.2b); a piano concerto (op.3); two string quartets (opp.13a, 15), a violin sonata (op.6) and other chamber works; choral works, including a Mass (op.13b); and about twenty songs (opp.7, 8, 10, 14, op. posth.). Many of her works were published by Ries & Erler.
E.Köhrer, ed.: Jb der Städtischen Oper Berlin (Berlin, 1925–6), 63, 74
B.Brand and others, eds.: ‘Faltis, Evelyn’, Komponistinnen in Berlin (Berlin, 1987), 259–64
(b Rome; fl 1683–4). Italian composer. He was a Minorite and a doctor of theology. In 1683–4 he was maestro di cappella of the church of the SS Apostoli, Rome. He published Responsoria Hebdomadis Sanctae, for four voices and organ, op.1 (Rome, 1684), and a motet for four voices and continuo appears in an anthology (RISM 16831).