(b Florence, 24 Nov 1833; d Florence, 23 Dec 1887). Italian tenor. Of humble origins, he made his début in 1860 at La Scala, Milan as the Fisherman in Guillaume Tell. After engagements in Ancona, Rome and Trieste, he sang Vasco da Gama in Meyerbeer’s L’Africaine at La Scala (1866) and in the same year made his London début as Alfredo at Covent Garden, where he later sang Edgardo, Elvino, Ernesto, Raoul (Les Huguenots) and Tonio (La fille du régiment) among other roles. His most important appearance was as Radames in the first Italian performance of Aida, at La Scala in 1872. At La Scala he also sang Manrico, Don Carlos and Don Alvaro (La forza del destino). His robust, vibrant voice, with its true intonation and particularly strong upper register, was effective in many roles, but he lacked musical education and his acting ability was severely limited. (ES, R. Celletti)
(b Porto S Stefano, nr Orbetello, 29 May 1853; dNew York, 17 July 1915). American bandmaster and composer of Italian birth. He attended the conservatory in Florence, and became a leading theatre performer, touring Italy as a cornet virtuoso; he them returned to Florence as an opera conductor and composer. In 1876 went to the USA, settled in New York, and worked as a church organist and singing teacher; he also composed and arranged several works for the famous Gilmore Band. In the 1880s he conducted concerts of the Mozart Musical Union, an amateur orchestra association, and in the early 1890s toured New England as conductor of the Lillian Durell Opera Company. In 1892 he succeeded Sousa as leader of the US Marine Band in Washington, DC. His career there came to an abrupt end in 1897 when he refused an officer’s order to change the marches he had selected for a Memorial Day parade. The subsequent inquiry would have resulted in a dishonorable discharge had Theodore Roosevelt, then acting Secretary of the Navy, not interceded; nonetheless, Fanciulli’s contract as director of the US Marine Band was not renewed. He returned to New York, was named leader of the 71st Regiment Band of the New York National Guard, began a popular series of concerts in Central Park and appeared at the opening of the Pan American Exposition in Buffalo in 1901. Fanciulli’s compositions include five operas, band, orchestral, choral and chamber works, piano pieces and songs. His manuscripts are in the Americana Collection of the New York Public Library at Lincoln Center.
Obituaries: International Music and Drama, iii/5 (1915), 3; Musical America xxii/12 (1915); New York Times (18 July 1915)
J.C.Proctor: ‘Marine Band History and its Leaders’, Washington Star (8 May 1932), 6–7
F.Cipolla: ‘Francesco Fanciulli, Turn-of-the-Century American Bandmaster’, The Instrumentalist, xxx/7 (1979), 34
FRANK J. CIPOLLA
A couple-dance in triple metre and lively tempo, accompanied by a guitar and castanets or palmas (hand-clapping). It is considered the most widespread of Spain's traditional dances. The sung fandango is in two parts: an introduction (or variaciónes), which is instrumental, and a cante, consisting of four or five octosyllabic verses (coplas) or musical phrases (tercios), sometimes six if a verse (usually the first) is repeated. Its metre, associated with that of the bolero and seguidilla, was originally notated in 6/8, but later in 3/8 or 3/4.
Its origins are uncertain, but its etymology may lie in the Portuguese fado (from Lat. fatum: ‘destiny’); in early 16th-century Portugal the term esfandangado designated a popular song. The earliest fandango melody appears in the anonymous Libro de diferentes cifras de guitarra (E-Mn M.811; 1705), while its earliest (albeit brief) description is found in a letter dated 17 March 1712 by Martín Martí, a Spanish priest. The term's first appearance in a stage work is in Francisco de Leefadeal's entremés El novio de la aldeana (Seville, early 1720s). By the late 18th century it had become fashionable among the aristocracy as well as an important feature in tonadillas, zarzuelas, ballets and other stage works.
Various suggestions have been made about the fandango's origins, including that it is related to the soléa, jabera and petenera (Calderón); that the Andalusian malagueña, granadina, murciana and rondeña are in fact fandangos accompanied by guitar and castanets (Ocón); that its forebears include the canario and gitano (Foz); that it is derived from the jota aragonesa (Larramendi, Ribera), although Ribera also proposed an earlier Arabic origin; and that the Arabic fandûra (guitar) may be a possible etymological source (Pottier). Yet the two prevailing theories point to either a West Indian or Latin American origin (Diccionario de Autoridades), although Puyana strongly suggests that the fandango indianocame from Mexico; (see also Osorio); or a North African origin (Moreau de Saint-Méry).
One must distinguish between the varied provincial forms that the classical fandango assumed through multi-regional Spain during the 18th and early 19th centuries, and its role in Flamenco, in which it approaches cante jondo, with its florid and non-metric performance, in contrast to the fandanguillo of cante chico (seeCante hondo).
Numerous travel accounts of the 18th and 19th centuries were highly critical of the overtly sensual fandango wherever it was performed (see Etzion). A threatened ban by the church resulted in a trial during which the pope and cardinals witnessed a performance of a fandango and saw no reason to condemn it. This event, reported in a letter by P.A. Beaumarchais dated 24 December 1764, provided the subject for late 18th-century Spanish comedias, and much later for Saint-Léon's ballet Le procès du fandango (1858). The Spanish fandango, like the bolero and cachuca, enjoyed great popularity in Parisian theatres in the 19th century; Arthur Sullivan wrote a cachuca for the chorus ‘Dance a cachucha, fandango, bolero’ in the second act of The Gondoliers (1889).
From the 18th century fandangos have been incorporated by composers into both stage works and instrumental pieces. Notable examples include Rameau's ‘Les trois mains’ (Nouvelles suites de pièces de clavecin, c1729–30); Domenico Scarlatti's Fandango portugués (k492, 1756), ‘Fandango del SigRScarlate’ (attribution doubtful; see Puyana) and an unedited fandango (see Alvarez Martínez); part 2 no.19 of Gluck's Don Juan (1761); the third-act finale of Mozart's Le nozze di Figaro (1786); the finale of Boccherini's String Quartet op.40 no.2 (1798); Antonio Soler's Fandango for keyboard (late 18th-century; attribution doubtful); Adolphe Adam's opera Le toréador (1849); Gottschalk's Souvenirs d'Andalousie op.22 (1855); Rimsky-Korsakov's Spanish Capriccio (1887); Albéniz's Iberia (1906–9); Granados's ‘Fandango de Candil’, Goyescas no.3 (1911); Falla's El sombrero de tres picos (1919); Ernesto Lecuona's song Malagueña (1928); and Ernesto Halffter's ballet Sonating (1928). Ravel's original choice for the title of his Bolero (1928) was Fandango. Beethoven's sketchbook of 1810 also contains a fandango theme.
See alsoSpain, §II, 4.
MGG2 (M. Woitas)
Diccionario de la lengva castellana (Madrid, 1726–37/R1963 as Diccionario de autoridades) [pubn of the Real Academia Español]
P.Minguet e Irol: Breve tratado de los pasos de danzar a la española que hoy se estilan en seguidillas, fandangos y otros tañidos (Madrid, 1760, 2/1764)