(bc1475–80; fl 1490–1540). English composer. A Richarde Frevylle is recorded as a chorister at St George's Chapel, Windsor, between Michaelmas 1489 and Michaelmas 1494, when he was the senior boy. A florid four-voice setting of the Nunc Dimittis, written probably in the second or third decade of the 16th century, is attributed to him in GB-Olc 124, f.222.
A.Wathey: ‘Newly Discovered Fifteenth-Century English Polyphony at Oxford’, ML, lxiv (1983), 58–66
(b Baden, canton of Aargau, 8 April 1889; d Zürich, 20 May 1946). Swiss pianist, brother of walter Frey (ii). He studied with Otto Barblan, Joseph Lauber and Willy Rehberg at the Geneva Conservatory, and with Diémer, Fauré and Widor at the Paris Conservatoire, where he won a premier prix for piano in 1906. Between 1912 and 1917 he held masterclasses in Moscow; from then until his death he taught in Zürich. As a pianist Frey toured successfully in Europe and South America. He also was a prolific composer, in a conservative style; his works include two symphonies, concertos, chamber works, piano music and studies.
MGG1 (H. Ehinger [incl. list of works])
W.Schuh and E.Refardt, eds.: Schweizer Musikbuch, ii (Zürich, 1939), 62
(b 1782; d 9 June 1838). French music publisher. He studied the violin at the Paris Conservatoire and from 1816 to 1838 played the viola in the Opéra orchestra. In August 1811 he purchased the engraved plates, manuscripts and business of Magasin de Musique (ii), establishing himself in their premises at 76 rue de Richelieu. Shortly afterwards (by November 1812) he moved to 8 place des Victoires, and in April 1838 to 22 boulevard Montmartre. On 17 November 1839 Richault announced that he had purchased ‘all the engraved plates constituting the music business of the late M. Frey’.
Frey's prime achievement was to publish orchestral scores of Mozart's seven major operas. Only two had previously appeared in France: Die Zauberflöte, published by Sieber père in a strange adaptation entitled Les mystères d'Isis, and Figaro, published by Magasin de Musique (ii); Frey engraved a correct edition of the former and reissued the latter as part of his series, which attracted more than 250 subscribers. He also reprinted 32 of Grétry's operas from the original plates, but this series had a mere 19 subscribers. He published full scores of operas by Rodolphe Kreutzer, Le Sueur and Méhul as well as instrumental and vocal music and a number of instrumental methods; the latter included two of his own authorship, for violin and for tambour de basque. All his publications were engraved.
C.Pierre: Le Magasin de musique à l'usage des fêtes nationales et du Conservatoire (Paris, 1895/R), 112–14
Frey, Walter (i).
Frey, Walter (ii)
(b Basle, 26 Jan 1898; d Zürich, 27 Aug 1985). Swiss pianist, brother of Emil Frey. He studied the piano with Friedrich Niggli (1906–13) and Willy Rehberg (1913–16). From 1917 he was active as a pianist and teacher in Zürich, where he held piano and chamber music classes at the conservatory. On his numerous concert tours he played mainly contemporary music and introduced works by, among others, Hindemith, Wellesz, Toch and many Swiss composers; in 1927 he gave the first performance, with Stefi Geyer, of Berg’s Chamber Concerto in Berlin (under Scherchen). He was co-founder and first president of Pro tunder Scherchen Musica (the Zürich branch of the ISCM) from 1934 to 1960, and edited 25 Jahre Pro Musica (Zollikerberg, Zürich, 1959). In later years his main concern was with the keyboard works of Bach, of which he gave complete performances in concert cycles.
MGG1 (‘Frey, Emil’; H. Ehinger); SML
W.Schuh and E.Refardt, eds.: Schweizer Musikbuch, ii (Zürich, 1939)
J.Willimann, ed.: Pro Musica: der neuen Musik zulieb (Zürich, 1988)
(b Berlin, 30 March 1934). German painter, theatre designer and opera director. He studied at the Akademie der Künste in Berlin and made his stage début, designing the sets and costumes for Ruth Berghaus’s production of Il barbiere di Siviglia, at the Berlin Staatsoper in 1967. He defected to the West in 1973 and made an immediate impression with his striking, painterly and abstract designs for Hans Neugebauer’s productions of Cardillac (1973) and Pelléas et Mélisande(1975) at the Cologne Opera. In 1979, he made his début as director as well as designer with Iphigénie en Tauride at the Bavarian State Opera. He staged Philip Glass’s Satyagraha (1981) and Akhnaten(1984, première) at the Stuttgart Opera. His ‘pop art’ style, evident in his productions of Die Zauberflöte for the Hamburg Staatsoper and, circus-style, for the 1997 Salzburg Festival, and Orfeo ed Euridice for the Deutsche Oper Berlin in 1982, aroused controversy.
N.Ely and S.Jaeger, eds.: Regie heute: Musiktheater in unserer Zeit (Berlin, 1984), 19–46
(b Mulda, nr Dresden, 15 Dec 1803; d Pilica, nr Warsaw, 28 May 1883). Polish organist, composer and teacher of German birth. He studied in Leipzig with Friedrich Schneider and Christian Pohlenz, and arrived in Warsaw in 1827. In the following year he entered the Warsaw Conservatory, where he studied figured bass and the organ with Lenz and took lessons in composition with Elsner. In 1831 he became the double bass player at the Wielki Theatre in Warsaw, but after three years had to resign because of illness. On 1 January 1837 he succeeded K.F. Einert as organist at the Lutheran church in Warsaw, where he remained for over 40 years. He rebuilt the organ and made the church one of Warsaw’s most important musical centres. He founded a large choir there, performing oratorios and other vocal and instrumental works. He also organized a singing school at the church and directed amateur and professional choirs in performances of a wide range of music, including his own compositions. He gave frequent concerts in Warsaw and Kraków, in the major German cities (1834) and in Paris (1857); his performances were admired by some of the most prominent artists of the day, particularly Adolf Hesse, Mendelssohn, Spohr and Glinka, and he was considered the most distinguished organist in Europe.
From 1831 Freyer directed a free school of organ playing and taught composition and singing. He taught many well-known Polish musicians, including Moniuszko. From 1861 he worked at the Music Institute in Warsaw, where he became teacher of organ, harmony and counterpoint (until 1866). He wrote several textbooks, from which many Polish musicians were educated. He was also partly responsible for the founding of the Warsaw Music Society.
As an organist and teacher Freyer was important to Polish culture in the reawakening of interest in the declining art of the organ. His compositions, almost entirely for organ, can be divided into three groups: virtuoso pieces, preludes for his pupils, and accompaniments to sacred choral works. It is the flamboyant virtuoso works which have the greatest artistic value; they are distinguished by varied figuration, a resourceful use of register and a well-judged balance between polyphony and homophony. To this group belong the fantasias and variations: they were the earliest virtuoso organ works in 19th-century Polish music, and remain in the repertory.
Sacred: Choralbuch für die evangelische Gemeinde (Warsaw, 1845); Anthems, op.6 (Warsaw, n.d.); Veni Creator, 4 male vv, org, op.10 (Warsaw, 1861); Anthems, op.12 (Warsaw, n.d.); Salve Regina, 4 male vv, op.13 (Warsaw, 1862); Anthems, op.16 (Warsaw, n.d.); Mass ‘Na stopniach Twego upadamy tronu’ [We Fall at the Steps of Thy Throne], 4vv, org, op.19 (Warsaw, c1867); other short choral pieces, all lost
Org: Concert fantasy, f, op.1, before 1857 (Leipzig, n.d.); Concert variations on a Russian song by A. L'vov, op.2, before 1857 (Berlin, n.d.); Concert variations on a church chant by Bortnyansky, op.3 (Leipzig, n.d.); 12 Easy Pieces, op.4 (Leipzig, 1857); 8 Pieces, op.5 (Leipzig, 1857); 12 Preludes, op.7 (Leipzig, 1858); 6 Preludes and 2 Postludes, op.8 (Leipzig, 1858); 8 Preludes, op.9 (Warsaw, 1861); 8 Preludes, op.11 (Warsaw, 1861); 26 Short and Easy Preludes, op.14 (Leipzig, 1865); 26 Short and Easy Preludes (Leipzig, 1865); 12 Preludes, op.17 (Warsaw, n.d.); 10 Preludes, op.18 (Warsaw, n.d.); 104 Ausgeführte Chorale, 1857–8, PL-Wtm