In the bow used for string instruments, the device which secures the hair and holds it away from the bowstick at the lower end (where the player grasps the bow). The term ‘heel’ or ‘nut’ has been used in England for this device. Hence the term ‘at the heel’ (Fr. au talon) or ‘at the nut’ is a direction to use that part of the hair closest to the frog.
DAVID B. BOYDEN
Austrian family of musicians. Anna (b Vienna, 19 Nov 1793; d Vienna, 11 March 1880), a soprano andpianist, studied the piano with Hummel and singing with Giuseppe Siboni, whom she followed to Copenhagen. Josefine [Pepi] (b Vienna, 12 Dec 1803; d Vienna, 7 May 1878), a soprano, studied with her sister Anna at the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde (1819–21); she made her début as an opera singer in Vienna in Die Entführung aus dem Serail and Winter’s Das unterbrochene Opferfest (1821), then performed in Scandinavia and was appointed private singer to the King of Denmark. After operatic appearances in Prague (1826) and Milan (1830) she returned to Vienna to teach singing privately.
Anna, Josefine and their sisters Barbara Franziska (b Vienna, 30 Aug 1797; d Vienna, 30 June 1879), a contralto, and Katharina (b Vienna, 10 June 1800; d Vienna, 3 March 1879), a pianist and close friend of Grillparzer, made a valuable contribution to Viennese musical life. Their house was one of the best-known centres of musical activity and comparable in importance with Sonnleithner’s or Kiesewetter’s. Schubert often accompanied in readings of his songs or improvised at the piano at their musical evenings, and Grillparzer and other members of Viennese society heard Schubert’s music there for the first time and came to know the composer. At Anna Fröhlich’s instigation he wrote some works for her, for her pupils and for Josefine Fröhlich, including a setting of Psalm xxiii d706 (1820, first performed publicly in Vienna, 1821, under Anna Fröhlich’s direction), Gott in der Natur d757 and Des Tages Weihe d763 (both 1822). Grillparzer wrote the texts for two major Schubert works whose solo parts were composed for Josefine: Zögernd leise d921 (1827), the second version of the famous serenade Das Ständchen (written for the birthday of one of Josefine’s pupils), and the cantata Mirjams Siegesgesang d942 (1828).
A.Sauer: ‘Briefe von Katharina Fröhlich an ihren Schwestern’, Jb der Grillparzer-Gesellschaft, iv (1894), 81–118
A.Sauer: ‘Grillparzer und Katharina Fröhlich’, Jb der Grillparzer-Gesellschaft, v (1895), 219–92
A.Tibal: Etudes sur Grillparzer (Paris, 1914)
A.Sauer: ‘Zur Biographie der Schwestern Fröhlich’, Grillparzer-Studien, ed. O. Katann (Vienna, 1924), 254–77
D.Yates: Franz Grillparzer: a Critical Biography (Oxford, 1946/R)
P.Neumarkt: Franz Grillparzer’s Contribution to Music (diss., New York U., 1958)
GAYNOR G. JONES
Fröhlich, Friedrich Theodor
(b Brugg, 20 Feb 1803; d Aarau, 16 Oct 1836). Swiss composer. Although he wrote much music in his youth, he followed his father's wishes and became a lawyer. He went to Berlin in 1823, but there he became involved in musical activities. The following year he fell ill and returned home, where he had lessons in composition. The government of the canton of Aargau then offered him financial support to continue his musical studies, and in 1826 he returned to Berlin, where he studied with C.F. Zelter and Bernhard Klein and met a number of important people, including Felix Mendelssohn. At this time his compositions were first published. Fröhlich also made the acquaintance of the German philologist W.H. Wackernagel, who became his closest friend. He composed prolifically, and his choral works and solo songs from this period in particular distinguish him as a true Romantic.
In 1830 Fröhlich was recalled to Aarau, where he became a professor of music at the cantonal school and also taught at the teachers' college; in addition he was made director of the Singakademie and took on a number of private pupils. He married Ida von Klitzing in 1832. At first, Fröhlich's numerous duties satisfied him, but they also deprived him of time to pursue his own creative work, whose demands he felt urgently. He was beset by professional disappointments and difficulties with publishers, but above all he felt the lack of any contact with important musicians: the few with whom he managed to make contact around Aarau rejected him as an innovator who had moved too far beyond their classical, and classicist, attitudes. He was surrounded by a circle of friendly but dilettante music lovers in Aarau, and he suffered deeply from this artistic isolation: he felt his significance to be misunderstood, and the greater part of his works remained unknown. In a fit of depression he committed suicide. Only later was he recognized as one of the most gifted of the Swiss Romantics.
Choral with orch (all with solo vv): Ps cxxxvii, 1827; 2 masses, 1828, 1835; Totenfeier, 1829; Passionskantate, 1831; Jesus der Kinderfreund (cant.), 1834; Ps i, 1836
Other choral (pf acc. unless stated): Die Elfen, female vv, 1827; Schweizerlieder, unacc. male vv, op.1 (Leipzig, 1827); Weihnachtskantate, solo vv, chorus, 1830; Grabgesang Heloisens, S, chorus, 1830; Epiphanias, 3 male vv, 1830; Gesang der Geister über den Wassern, 1831; Meeresstille und glückliche Fahrt (J.W. von Goethe), 1831; Litanei, unacc. chorus, 1832; Das unser Vater, unacc. chorus, 1832; Schifferreigung, 3 male vv, op.11 (?1833); Preis der Liebe, 1834; Lieder im Volkston, unacc. male vv, op.13 (1834); several unpubd mass movts
Duets: Hausstandslieder, S, T, pf, 1835
For 1v, pf: Wanderlieder (W. Müller), op.2 (1828); 8 deutsche Canzonetten, op.3 (1828); Geistliche Gesänge, op.4 (1829); 9 deutsche Lieder (W.H. Wackernagel), op.5 (1829); Geistliche Lieder (Novalis), op.6 (1829); 3 aargauische Volkslieder, op.7 (1829); Lobgesang der Maria, op.9 (1829); 6 Lieder, A, pf, op.8 (Leipzig, 1830); 12 Lieder (J. Kerner), op.10 (1832); Persische Lieder (F. Rückert), op.12 (1834); others, unpubd
Orch: 2 syms., A, 1830, 1 lost; 3 ovs., zu Dyhrns Konradin, 1827, B, 1832, zu Passionsmusiken, 1835