(b Bavaria, mid-11th century; d Michelsberg, 17 Jan 1103). Theorist and compiler. He was presumably a lay priest before entering the Benedictine Michelsberg Abbey in Bamberg, an abbey that possessed a rich library (Lehmann, pp.348ff). Heimo of St James of Bamberg declared himself to be his disciple. The date of his death is recorded in the Chronicle which he had begun to compile. He bequeathed a number of books to his monastery, including books of chant and musical theory.
Frutolfus was above all a compiler; he collected texts from the Michelsberg library and presumably himself copied the extracts that he was later to include in his own works. We know his handwriting from two autograph manuscripts: his Chronicle of the World (D-KA 505), and the De divinis officiis (BAs Lit.134, Ed.V 13). This latter work consists of passages taken from the works of Amalarius of Metz, Hrabanus Maurus and Pseudo-Alcuin's De divinis officiis (10th century).
Frutolfus's musical treatises are likewise compilations which owe much to his predecessors, in particular to Boethius and to Berno of Reichenau. His treatise, preserved only in one early manuscript (Mbs Clm 14965b), entitled Breviarium (i.e. ‘abridgment’) is comparable to the anonymous Breviarium which gives a résumé of the Epistola de harmonica institutione by Regino of Prüm. Frutolfus discussed the origins and names of the pitches (following the Greek terminology of Boethius), the monochord, the proportions that govern consonances, tetrachords, modes, intervals and names of notes. The final chapters are made up of borrowings from verse texts by known authors (Hermannus Contractus, Henricus of Augsburg etc.) and also by anonymous writers.
The theoretical treatise is followed by a tonary in verse, which is an abridged version of the full tonary, and a number of shorter texts (measurement of the monochord, table of neumes, Guidonian hand, measurement of organ pipes, measurement of bells). The tonary that closes the Munich manuscript is complete, each tone being preceded by theoretical remarks taken from the Breviarium. Pieces from the chant repertory are then listed and classified according to their final differentia; the whole repertory, apart from hymns, is included. Sequences from the Mass and Great Responsories from the nocturnal Office are also included, even though in principle a tonary should contain only antiphons. This enormous work was never recopied in its entirety, though the abridged verse tonary had greater success, for it was transcribed into 12 south German manuscripts.
C.Vivell: ‘Vom unedierten Tonarius des Mönches Frutolf’, SIMG, xiv (1912–13), 463–84
C.Vivell, ed.: Frutolfi Breviarium de musica et tonarius (Vienna, 1919), 217–18
M.Manitius: Geschichte der lateinischen Literatur des Mittelalters, iii (Munich, 1931/R), 350ff
P.Lehmann: Mittelalterliche Bibliothekskataloge Deutschlands und der Schweiz, iii/3 (Munich, 1939), 360
B.Stäblein: ‘Frutolf von Michaelsberg als Musiker’, Fränkische Blätter für Geschichtsforschung und Heimatspflege, v (1953), 57–60
M.Huglo: Les tonaires: inventaire, analyse, comparaison (Paris, 1971), 15, 283–6
J.Smits van Waesberghe, ed.: Bernonis Augiensis Abbatis de arte musica disputationes traditae, ii (Buren, 1979), 12–14
M.Bernhard: ‘Zur Überlieferung des 11. Kapitels in Frutolfs “Breviarium”’, Quellen und Studien zur Musiktheorie des Mittelalters (Munich, 1990), 37–67
(b London, 25 Oct 1946). English percussionist. One of the most talented percussionists of his generation, Fry studied with Peter Allen and joined the LPO at the age of 17. He was a founder member of the Nash Ensemble and the Pierrot Players, and appeared frequently with the John Dankworth Orchestra at Ronnie Scott’s Jazz Club. In 1972 he became principal timpanist of the Academy of St Martin-in-the-Fields. His versatility is indicated by the wide range of musicians with whom he has worked, from Britten, Boulez and Stockhausen to Frank Sinatra and the Duke Ellington, Count Basie and Buddy Rich bands. Fry was at the forefront of the percussion revolution in the 1960s and 70s, partly through his work with the London Percussion Ensemble. He has played in many film scores, including Amadeus, has hosted his own TV series and has made numerous recordings, ranging from Bartók’s Sonata for two pianos and percussion and a solo disc of 20th-century percussion works to several discs with the pop group Sky, of which he was a founder member.
Fry, William Henry
(b Philadelphia, 19 Aug 1813; d Santa Cruz, Virgil Islands, 21 Dec 1864). American composer. One of five sons in a wealthy and well-established Philadelphia family, he demonstrated musical talent at an early age: an overture composed when he was 18 earned him a medal and was given a public performance. Another overture was performed in 1833, while he was studying with Leopold Meignen, at which time Fry heard operas by Auber, Boieldieu, Herold, Rossini, Mercadante, Halévy and Bellini and began an opera (now lost), The Bridal of Dunure. By 1838 he was at work on a three-act opera, Aurelia the Vestal, to a libretto by his brother Joseph; it was completed in 1841 but is not thought to have been performed. Fry’s next opera, Leonora, was performed in Philadelphia in 1845 and again, in a revised version, in December 1846. In 1858 it was again revived, in a substantially revised four-act version in Italian as Giulio e Leonora. Fry’s last opera, Notre Dame of Paris, was given a gala production at Philadelphia in 1864 as a benefit performance for war wounded. He remained unsuccessful in his attempts to interest European impresarios in his operas, despite having them translated into Italian in order to facilitate performances abroad.
Fry’s operas trace his development from a composer primarily influenced by the melodic style of Bellini and the Italian school to one increasingly influenced by Meyerbeer and French grand opera. While Aurelia and Notre Dame remain Italian in spirit, they approach the French style by including an optional large-scale ballet. The operas use an orchestration similar to that of Bellini’s Norma, and each also calls for an onstage military band.
Fry also wrote numerous orchestral works, many of which bear descriptive titles. One such work, Santa Claus (Christmas Symphony), which was given its première on Christmas eve 1853 by Jullien’s orchestra, carried with it an extensive synopsis, printed in the programme. From 1846 to 1852 Fry served as a European correspondent for the New York Tribune, then returned to New York, and as music critic for the Tribune became the leading champion of a native American musical art, filling his columns with words whose ardour often distorted his perspective. In 1852–3 he gave a widely publicized lecture series in New York in which he encouraged American composers to break free of European domination and seek inspiration from their own, New World environment.
Fry was perhaps the first native American to attempt the larger forms of composition, and his importance in the history of American opera rests primarily on Leonora, the first grand opera by an American composer to be staged in the USA. His music, however, despite an emphasis on American elements, remains rooted in the French and Italian operatic and German symphonic traditions of the early 19th century. His greatest influence on American musical life was as a journalist and music critic; his admonitions encouraged such composers as Bristow to turn to native sources for ideas and inspiration, and provided a climate that fostered the work of Farwell, Cadman, MacDowell and others.
Aurelia the Vestal [Cristiani ed i pagani], 1838–41 (lyrical tragedy, 3, J.R. Fry), ? unperf.
Leonora (lyrical drama, 3, J.R. Fry, after E.G. Bulwer-Lytton: The Lady of Lyons), Philadelphia, Chestnut Street Theatre, 4 June 1845, vs (Philadelphia, 1846); rev. as Giulio e Leonora (4), New York, Academy of Music, 29 March 1858
Notre Dame of Paris [Esmeralda; Nostra-Donna di Parigi] (lyrical drama, 4, Fry, after V. Hugo), Philadelphia, American Academy of Music, 4 May 1864, vs (New York, 1864)
Ode (R.R. Wallace), New York, Crystal Palace, 4 May 1854
Stabat mater, or The Crucifixion of Christ (orat), 4 solo vv, 4vv, orch, vs (Boston, 1855)
Mass, E, 1864; 4 other choral works: all unfinished
Orch: The Breaking Heart, sym., 1852, lost; Santa Claus (Christmas Sym.), perf. New York, 24 Dec 1853; A Day in the Country, sym., c1853, lost; Childe Harold, sym., perf. New York, 31 May 1854, lost; Niagara, sym., perf. New York, 15 June 1854; Hagar in the Wilderness (Sacred Sym. no.3), 1854; The World’s Own, ov., 1857, lost; Evangeline, ov., 1860; Macbeth, ov., with chorus, 1862; The Dying Soldier (Dramatic Sym.)
Chbr: 2 str qts, no.10, c, no.11, a; 5 other str qts, sextet, pf trio, all unfinished
Metropolitan Hall March, band, 1853
Principal publisher: E. Ferrett
DAB (F.L. Gwinner Cole)
W.H.Fry: ‘Prefatory Remarks’, Leonora (Philadelphia, 1846); repr. in Upton (1954) and in The American Composer Speaks, ed. G. Chase (Baton Rouge, LA, 1966), 46–52
J.S.Dwight: ‘Mr Fry and his Critics’, Dwight’s Journal of Music, iv (1853–4), 140–42
W.T.Upton: William Henry Fry, American Journalist and Composer-Critic (New York, 1954/R) [with list of MSS]
I.Lowens: ‘William Henry Fry: American Nationalist’, Music and Musicians in Early America (New York, 1964), 212–22
B.F.Kauffman: The Choral Works of William Henry Fry (diss., U. of Illinois, 1975)
B.F.Chmaj: ‘Fry versus Dwight: American Music’s Debate over Nationality’, American Music, iii/1 (1985), 63–84