‘Fuga’ was restricted in meaning by Zarlino (Le istitutioni harmoniche, 1558) to imitative counterpoint in which the imitating voice(s) reproduced precisely the rhythms and intervals of the leading voice; all other imitative counterpoint exhibiting inexactness in whatever way was to be called imitatione (seeFugue). He further applied the adjectives legata and sciolta to distinguish imitative counterpoint in which the imitation was maintained throughout the composition (legata) from that which carried through for only part of the piece (sciolta). Thus for Zarlino fuga legata designated what would now be described as a strict canon in which all intervallic relationships are maintained at all times by all participating voices, and fuga sciolta that which begins canonically with all intervals maintained by the following voices but which breaks off at some point during the course of the piece. Zarlino’s attempt to define ‘fugue’ based on strictness of imitation was backward-looking, and his contemporaries and successors largely ignored it, even while retaining the terminology he had coined. The most important reinterpretation took place in Germany, where musicians subsumed all imitative counterpoint under the word fuga and, for a while at least, ignored imitatione. Thus, the Germans took Zarlino’s terminology in its Latin form (fuga ligata and fuga soluta) and defined the words as, respectively, canon in general and all non-canonic imitation. The expressions survived with similar meanings as late as the second half of the 18th century, when Padre Martini subdivided his fuga reale (i.e. fugue with a real answer) into canonic (legata) and non-canonic (sciolta).
See underOrgan stop.
The term applied by Zarlino (1558) to imitative counterpoint in which the imitation is not maintained throughout. SeeFuga legata, fuga sciolta.
(It.: ‘fugued’, past participle of fugare).
A term that generally refers today either to a piece of music that resembles fugue in some ways but lacks certain necessary characteristics of a true fugue, or to a loosely fugal passage within a predominantly non-fugal movement. The term contrapunto fugato is found occasionally in 16th- and 17th-century music, most commonly in the context of a single line, written above a cantus firmus, in which a brief theme is brought back several times in different ways. The modern use of the term, as a noun and with the two meanings given above, was first proposed in the treatise L’arte armonica (1760) by Giorgio Antoniotto, an Italian-born theorist and composer living in England. Because there has been since the late 18th century far from universal agreement among musicians about the necessary and sufficient conditions for ‘true’ fugue, there has also been and remains disagreement about what does or does not merit the designation fugato. SeeFugue, especially §7.
(b Paris, 22 July 1848; d Paris, 15 Jan 1935). French baritone. After failing as a sculptor, he began his singing career in Parisian cabarets, making his début at the café-concert Ba-ta-clan on 3 March 1870. On that occasion he introduced to the public Planquette’s celebrated march Le régiment de Sambre-et-Meuse. At the end of 1873 he was engaged by the Bouffes-Parisiens, and in 1877 by the Opéra-Comique where, until 1910, he sang more than 100 roles, over 30 of them in first performances, including that of the Father in Louise. He was also famous as Papageno and Figaro, and as Leporello which he sang at Covent Garden in 1897. In 1900 he was Sancho Panza in the Paris première of Massenet’s Don Quichotte (the score of which the composer dedicated to Fugère) at the Gaîté-Lyrique, and appeared there regularly from 1910 to 1913. He returned to the Opéra-Comique in 1919 in Messager’s La basoche, celebrating his artistic jubilee there in 1920. He appeared only once at the Opéra, in a gala performance on 1 April 1919. De Curzon described him as ‘a basse-chantante of easy baritone range, with a ringing clarity in the lower register and a skilful refinement in the upper’, and praised his ‘comic verve filled with originality, the subtlety of which never allows it to fall into caricature or vulgarity’. The recordings he made in 1902 are much in demand with collectors. In 1929 he wrote, with Duhamel, a Nouvelle méthode pratique du chant français par l’articulation. It was sharply criticized by H. Malherbe for being a hazardous and complicated system for ‘gymnasts, pugilists, painters and mimes’, but at least it served Fugère, who at the age of 85 sang Rossini’s Bartolo to triumphant acclaim at the Théâtre de la Porte-St-Martin.
ES (F. Lesure, R. Celletti)
H.de Curzon: Croquis d’artistes (Paris, 1897)
R.Duhamel: Lucien Fugère (Paris, 1929)
V.Girard: ‘Lucien Fugère’, Record Collector, v (1953), 101 [with discography]
J.Gourret and J.Giraudeau, eds.: Dictionnaire des chanteurs de l’Opéra de Paris (Paris, 1982, 2/1990)
German family of merchants and bankers. Under their patronage the ancient imperial city of Augsburg flourished during the Renaissance as a centre of art, literature and music. The first documented evidence of the Fuggers' interest in music comes from the generation of the brothers Ulrich (1441–1510), Georg (1453–1506) and Jakob ‘the Rich’ (1459–1525). Ulrich compiled in 1463, evidently for his own use, a small manuscript volume of the rudiments of music, and together with Jakob initiated a family chapel for the Augsburg Carmelite church of St Anna. Its organ was built in 1512 by Jhan Behaim of Dubrau, Bohemia. The paintings by Jörg Breu the Elder on the smaller wings of the organ case, which depict the discovery of music, include figures that are believed to represent Henricus Isaac and Ludwig Senfl. One of Jakob Fugger's organists at St Anna was Paul Hofhaimer, who also served Maximilian I. There were strong financial connections between the Habsburgs and the Fuggers during this period, and musicians who served the imperial household – for example Nicolas Mayoul in 1492 – were frequently paid by the Fuggers. Jakob Fugger also endowed another Augsburg church, St Moritz, with a canonry and preaching position, which was held from 1525 to 1528 by Hofhaimer's pupil Othmar Luscinius.
During the later 16th and early 17th centuries, many important musicians lived and worked at Augsburg with the support of the descendants of Georg Fugger's sons Raimund (1489–1535) and Anton (1493–1560). The extent of this patronage is shown by the fact that over 40 printed collections of music were dedicated to them. Raimund's son Johann (Hans) Jakob (1516–75), who played an important role in bringing Lassus to Munich, left the family firm in 1564. In the following year he became superintendent of music at the Bavarian court; there, together with Duke Albrecht V, he founded the Bavarian court library, one of the finest German libraries of the Renaissance, which was based largely on his own collection and contained a great deal of music. This was the origin of what is now the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek. Johann Jakob's youngest brother, Raimund (1528–69), also owned a sizable music library, as well as a large collection of musical instruments. Another brother, Georg (i) (1518–69), and his son Octavian II (1549–1600) owned manuscript books of lute music; Octavian's book bears an inscription indicating that he used it while studying at Bologna in 1562. On the occasion of his wedding in 1579, he was presented with a large choirbook containing works by Kerle, Lassus and Melchior Schramm, which had been copied by Johannes Dreer of the Augsburg monastery of St Ulrich and St Afra. Entries in Octavian's account books include numerous payments to musicians, and the lutenist Melchior Neusidler, whose works include a Fuggerin Dantz, spent his last years (1583–90) in his service. Neusidler was present, together with other important Augsburg musicians, H.L. Hassler probably among them, at the wedding of Octavian's sister Ursula (1562–1602) in 1585; shortly afterwards Hassler entered Octavian's service.
Of Anton Fugger's four sons, Johann (Hans) (i) (1531–98) and Jakob (i) (1542–98) were the most active as music patrons. Johann owned instruments and books, and a series of his letters dated 1575 indicates his knowledge of the clavichord. Jakob established a family chapel in the church of St Ulrich, to which in 1580–81 he donated an organ built by Eusebius Ammerbach, and in 1587 he also gave an organ to St Moritz. In 1584 he chose Gregor Aichinger as his official organist, and he later sponsored his study with Giovanni Gabrieli in Venice. Johannes Eccard and Narcissus Zängel were among the other musicians he employed, and he and his brother Johann attracted nearly a third of all the dedications of music books to the Fugger family. Aichinger wrote a madrigal for the marriage in 1597 of Jakob's daughter Veronica (1578–1645) to her first cousin, Albrecht (1574–1614), son of Johann's brother Marcus (i) (1529–97); for the wedding in 1598 of Johann's son Marcus (ii) (1564–1614) a motet was composed by Christian Erbach, who was in Marcus's service. Marcus organized a pious fraternity called the Sodalitas Corporis Christi, which Aichinger, who was a member, honoured with a dedication in 1606. Hassler performed at the wedding of Marcus's brother Christoph (1566–1615) in 1589, and Aichinger contributed a madrigal to it. In 1590 Christoph sent Hassler's brother Jakob to Italy to study music. Both Hasslers were among the composers who dedicated collections to Christoph. The youngest son of Johann Fugger (i), Jakob (ii) (1567–1626), met Aichinger at the University of Ingolstadt in the late 1570s, and they remained close friends. Aichinger’s Tricinia Mariana mentions a later meeting in Rome, where Jakob was cordially received by Pope Sixtus V. For Jakob’s ordination at Augsburg in 1592 Aichinger wrote a choral dialogue. Jakob later became Prince-Bishop of Konstanz, where he was the patron of Hieronymus Bildstein. Aichinger's several dedications to the sons of his patron, Jakob Fugger (i), indicate his continued association with the family. After his death in 1628 his position at St Ulrich went to Elias Fabricius, who in 1626 had become organist to Jakob's son Maximilian (1587–1629).
The devastation of the Thirty Years War severely limited both the financial power of the Fuggers and the importance of Augsburg as a centre of culture, and in the ensuing years the Fuggers patronized music only sporadically. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries the branch of the family at Babenhausen sponsored music actively and assembled a large library (now lost).
G. Aichinger: Sacrae cantiones (1590) [Jakob (i)]; Liber secundus sacrarum cantionum (1595) [Jakob (i)]; Tricinia Mariana (1598) [Jakob (ii)]; Ghirlanda di canzonette spirituali (1603) [Jakob (ii)]; Lacrumae (1604) [Georg (iii)]; Fasciculus sacrarum harmoniarum (1606) [Hieronymus (ii)]; Solennia augustissimi corporis Christi (1606) [Marcus (ii)]; Divinarum laudum … pars II (1608) [Karl]; Teutsche Gesenglein (1609) [Maria Eleonora, wife of Johann (ii)]; Triplex liturgiarum fasciculus (1616) [Marcus (iii), Jakob (iii)]; Encomium verbo incarnato (1617) [Maximilian]; Quercus dodonaea (1619) [Hieronymus (ii)]
B. Ammon: Breves et selectae quaedam motetae (1593) [Jakob (i)]
M. Barberini-Lupus: Cantiones sacrae (1560) [Johann Jakob, Georg (i)]
H. Bildstein: Orpheus christianus (1624) [Jakob (ii)]
J. Eccard: Newe deutzsche Lieder (1578) [Marcus (i), Johann (i), Jakob (i)]
C. Erbach: Modi sacri sive cantus musici (1600) [Marcus (ii)]; Mele sive cantiones sacrae (1603) [Johann (iii), Johann Ernst, Otto Heinrich]
C. Ferrabosco: Canzonette (1590) [Christoph]
A. and G. Gabrieli: Concerti (1587) [Jakob (i)]
G. Gabrieli: Sacrae symphoniae (1597) [Georg (ii), Anton, Philipp, Albrecht]
K. Hagius: Canticum virginis intemeratae (1606) [Marcus (ii), Christoph]
H.L. Hassler: Canzonette … libro primo (1590) [Christoph]; Cantiones sacrae (1591) [Octavian II]; Missae (1599) [Octavian II]
J. Hassler: Madrigali (1600) [Christoph]
K. Hassler: Sacrae symphoniae (1598) [Octavian II]
H. Isaac: Tomus secundus Choralis Constantini (155) [Johann Jakob, dedication by Georg Willer]
M. Kraf: Canticum Deiparae Virginis (1623) [Jakob (ii)]
O. de Lassus: Sex cantiones latinae (1573) [Marcus (i), Johann (i), Hieronymus (i), Johann Jakob]; Motetta (1582) [Jakob (i)]; Sacrae cantiones (1585) [Alexander]
O. and F. de Lassus: Cantiones (1597) [Christoph]
C. Luython: Il primo libro de madrigali (1582) [Johann (i)]
T. Massaino: Sacrae cantiones … liber primus (1592) [Marcus (i), Johann (i), Jakob (i)]; Primus liber missarum (1595) [Jakob (ii)]
F. (B.) Milleville: Mazzo d'armonici fiori (1628) [Franz]
P. de Monte: Il primo libro de madrigali spirituali (1583) [Johann (i)]
J. Regnart: Aliquot cantiones (1577) [Victor August]
J. Reiner: Liber motettarum (1600) [Georg (iii)]; Missae tres (1604) [Jakob (ii)]
S. Salminger: Cantiones (1546) [Johann Jakob]; Cantiones selectissimae (1548) [family]
G. Turini: Neue liebliche teutsche Lieder (1590) [Johann (i)]
O. Vecchi: Selva di varia ricreatione (1590) [Johann (i), Jakob (i)]
MGG1 (E.F. Schmid; also ‘Augsburg’, E.F. Schmid)
D.Custos: Fuggerorum et Fuggerarum quae in familia natae quaève in familiam transierunt quot extant aere expressae imagines (Augsburg, 1618)
D.Custos: Pinacotheca Fuggerorum S. R. I. comitum ac baronum in Khierchperg et Weissenhorn editio nova multis imaginibus aucta (Ulm, 1754)
K.Holl: Fürstbischof Jakob Fugger von Konstanz (1604–1626) und die katholische Reform der Diözese im ersfen Viertel des 17. Jahrhunderts (Freiburg, 1898)
G.Lill: Hans Fugger (1531–1598) und die Kunst (Leipzig, 1908)
T.Kroyer: ‘Gregor Aichingers Leben und Werke: mit neuen Beiträgen zur Musikgeschichte Ingolstadts und Augsburgs’: introduction to Ausgewählte Werke von Gregor Aichinger, DTB, xviii, Jg.x/1 (1909)
B.A.Wallner: ‘Die Gründung der Münchener Hofbibliothek durch Albrecht V. und Johann Jakob Fugger’, ZMw, ii (1919–20), 299–305
H.F.Deininger, ed.: Das reiche Augsburg: ausgewählte Aufsätze Jakob Strieders zur Augsburger und süddeutschen Wirtschaftsgeschichte des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts (Munich, 1938)
H.Meyer: ‘Orgeln und Orgelbauer in Oberschwaben’, Zeitschrift des Historischen Vereins für Schwaben, liv (1941), 213–360
L.Nowak: ‘Die Musikhandschriften aus Fuggerschem Besitz in der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek’, Die Österreichische Nationalbibliothek: Festschrift … Dr. Josef Bick, ed. J. Stummvoll (Vienna, 1948), 505–15
N.Lieb: Die Fugger und die Kunst im Zeitalter der Spätgotik und frühen Renaissance (Munich, 1952)
R.Schaal: ‘Zur Musikpflege im Kollegiatstift St. Moritz zu Augsburg’, Mf, vii (1954), 1–24
P.J.G.Lehmann: Eine Geschichte der alten Fuggerbibliotheken (Tübingen, 1956–60)
R.Schaal: ‘Die Musikbibliothek von Raimund Fugger d. J.: ein Beitrag zur Musiküberlieferung des 16. Jahrhunderts’, AcM, xxix (1957), 126–37
N.Lieb: Die Fugger und die Kunst im Zeitalter der hohen Renaissance (Munich, 1958)
A.Layer: Musik und Musiker der Fuggerzeit: Begleitheft zur Ausstellung der Stadt Augsburg (Augsburg, 1959)
G.F.von Pölnitz: Die Fugger (Frankfurt, 1960)
R.Schaal: ‘Die Musikinstrumenten-Sammlung von Raimund Fugger d. J.’, AMw, xxi (1964), 212–16
L.Wegele, ed.: Musik in der Reichsstadt Augsburg (Augsburg, 1965)
L.E.Cuyler: ‘Musical Activity in Augsburg and its Annakirche, ca. 1470–1630’, Cantors at the Crossroads: Essays on Church Music in Honor of Walter E. Buszin, ed. J. Riedel (St Louis, 1967), 33–43
R.Münster and H.Schmid, eds.: Musik in Bayern, i: Bayerische Musikgeschichte (Tutzing, 1972)
W.Pass: ‘Hieronymus Bildstein und der Konstanzer Fürstbischof Jakob Fugger’, Ausstellungskatalog ‘Musik im Bodenseeraum um 1600’ Vorarlberger Landesmuseum (Bregenz, 1974)
H.Fischer and T.Wohnhaas: ‘Die Fugger-Orgel von St. Anna in Augsburg: ein Strukturmodell schwäbischer Renaissanceprospekte’, Studia organologica: Festschrift für John Henry van der Meer zu seinem fünfundsechzigsten Geburtstag, ed. F. Hellwig (Tutzing, 1987), 127–41
G.Haberkamp: Die Musikhandschriften Herzog Wilhelms in Bayern, der Grafen zu Toerring-Jettenbach und der Fürsten Fugger von Babenhausen: Thematischer Katalog (Munich, 1988)
R.Eikelmann, ed.: Die Fugger und die Musik: “lautenschlagen lernen und ieben”: Anton Fugger zum 500. Geburtstag, Fuggerhaus, 10 June–8 Aug 1993 (Augsburg, 1993) [exhibition catalogue]
F.Krautwurst: ‘Melchior Neusidler und die Fugger’, Musik in Bayern, liv (1997), 5–24