Fulbert of Chartres [Fulbertus Episcopus Karnotensis]
(bc960; d Chartres, 1028). French scholar and liturgical innovator. Although little is known about his early life, a biographical poem by his student Adelman of Liège links him with Reims at a time when he would have been a student of Gerbert d’Aurillac. Fulbert became Bishop of Chartres in 1006; his surviving letters record events from the early and last years of his period of office (most letters from the years 1008–19 have been lost). The final years of his life were shaped by a single event: in 1020, on the eve of the Feast of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the cathedral of Chartres burnt to the ground along with much of the town. Fulbert began an ambitious campaign to rebuild the church, and although the new building was not dedicated until 1038, the foundations and the crypt that survive as part of the present cathedral were completed within his lifetime.
As a composer, Fulbert appears to have been principally concerned with the elevation of the Feast of the Nativity of Mary, not only as an act of personal devotion, but also to bring greater glory and prominence to his church. The pieces that were earliest ascribed to him, and which appear in most authoritative collections of his work, are three chants for this feast, Ad nutum Domini, Solem justitie Regem and Stirps Jesse Virgam produxit. The chants are, unlike many newly composed responsories of the period, not based on a standard series of formulae, but rather freely conceived, lending them their distinctive musical character and possibly explaining their widespread acceptance and popularity. Other liturgical chants that may well have been composed by Fulbert and his school include the hymns Deus pater piissime and Chorus nove Jerusalem, the sequence Sonent regi and several offices. His renown as a teacher of the liberal arts also gave him at least a minor role in the development of music theory in the 11th century.
Fulbert’s fame from the late 11th century onwards, although much of it is purely legend, is nonetheless important. In particular, the final melisma of Stirps Jesse, the extended musical phrase on ‘Flos filius’, became well known as a frequently-used tenor for organa and motets in Paris and elsewhere, and its connotations were firmly fixed through the attribution to Fulbert and a particular brand of Marian devotion. His fame as a composer is attested in the late 12th-century Codex Calixtinus (E-SC), where several chants are (probably erroneously) ascribed to him. The chronicler William of Malmesbury, writing in the late 12th century, praised his music for the devotion that it inspired.
C.Pfister: De Fulberti Carnotensi episcopi: vita et operibus (Paris, 1885)
R.Merlet and J.A.Clerval: Un manuscrit chartrain du XIe siècle – Fulbert, évêque de Chartres (Chartres, 1893)
Y.Delaporte: ‘Fulbert de Chartres et l’école chartraine de chant liturgique au XIe siècle’, EG, ii (1957), 51–81
J.Pintard: ‘Saint Fulbert à l’origine du culte chartrain de la Nativité de Notre-Dame’, De cultu Mariano saeculis VI–XI: Zagreb 1971 (Rome, 1972), iii, 551–69
F.Behrends, ed. and trans.: The Letters and Poems of Fulbert of Chartres, ca. 960–1028 (Oxford, 1976)
P.Bernard: ‘Les répons chartrains pour la fête de la Nativité de la Vierge Marie’, Monde médiéval et société chartraine: Chartres 1994, ed. J.-R. Armogathe (Paris, 1997), 137–50
MARGOT E. FASSLER
Fuld, James J(effrey)
(bNew York, 16 Feb 1916). American collector and writer on music. He received the BA from Harvard College in 1937 and graduated from the Harvard Law School in 1940 and practised law in New York. His interest in first editions has led him to an investigation of the various techniques for dating printed music and identifying first editions and he has built up a private collection of over 1700 first editions of classical, popular and folk music, which includes Palestrina’s Missa Papae Marcelli (1567), Bach’s Goldberg Variations (1742), Handel’s Messiah (1767) and Gluck’s Orfeo (1764), as well as operas by Gilbert and Sullivan, a large collection of Americana (with works by Gershwin, Berlin and Kern) and popular tunes such as Three Blind Mice (1609). He has also collected orginal librettos, programmes, posters and playbills of historical interest and autographs of most major composers after 1700. As compiler of The Book of World-Famous Music (1966), Fuld brought together a large body of information, often difficult to find elsewhere, concerning the origins and first editions of music as varied as Happy Birthday and the Beethoven Violin Concerto.
American Popular Music (1875–1950) (Philadelphia, 1955)
A Pictorial Bibliography of the First Editions of Stephen C. Foster (Philadelphia, 1957)
The Book of World-Famous Music (New York, 1966, 4/1995)
with L.S.Levy: ‘Unrecorded Early Printings of The Star Spangled Banner’, Notes, xxvii (1970–71), 245–51
‘The First Complete Printing of Handel’s “Messiah”’, ML, lv (1974), 454–7
‘Surrounded by One's Friends’, Notes, xxxii (1975–6), 479–90
with M.W.Davidson: 18th-Century American Secular Music Manuscripts (Philadelphia, 1980)
‘Music Programs and Posters: the Need for an Inventory’, Notes, xxxvii (1980–81), 520–32
‘The Few Known Autographs of Scott Joplin’, American Music, i/1 (1983), 41–8
The Book of World-Famous Libretti (New York, 1984)
‘Experiences While “Musicologing”’, Festschrift Rudolf Elvers, ed. E. Herttrich and H. Schneider (Tutzing, 1985), 199–205
‘Harmonizing the Arts: Original Graphic Designs for Printed Music by World-Famous Artists’, Notes, xliii (1986–7), 259–71
‘Jewish Music Published in Palestine: an Introduction’, Musica judaica, x (1987–8), 70–80
‘Songs from Messiah Published during Handel's Lifetime’, Notes, xlv (1988–9), 253–7
‘American Music in the British Library: a Preliminary Survey’, Sundry Sorts of Music Books: Essays on the British Library Collections presented to O.W. Neighbour, ed. C. Banks, A. Searle and M. Turner (London, 1993), 375–84
with D.Hunter: ‘Collectors and Music Bibliography: a Preliminary Survey’, Music Publishing & Collecting: Essays in Honor of Donald W. Krummel, ed. D. Hunter (Urbana, IL, 1994), 215–33