(fl late 5th century–early 6th). Latin Christian author of African origin. Fulgentius belongs with Cassiodorus and Isidore of Seville as a transmitter of predigested classical culture to the Middle Ages. His works include an account of Virgil's Aeneid as a moral and Christian allegory, a glossary of obscure Latin words, and the three books of the Mitologiarum, a compendium of classical myths in fanciful allegorical interpretations. The Mitologiarum was used by Walter Odington in his Summa de speculatione musice (ii, 1) and paraphrased in a treatise (probably from the 12th century) by an anonymous Carthusian (CoussemakerS, ii, 460–62). Parts of the Mitologiarum appear in the Rome manuscript containing a number of musical treatises and the Tractatus de sphaera of Johannes de Sacrobosco (I-Rv B81) and in the Florence manuscript that includes musical treatises and Macrobius's commentary on Somnium Scipionis (I-Fl Ashburnham 1051).
R.Helm, ed.: Fabii Planciadis Fulgentii v.c. opera (Leipzig, 1898)
P.Fischer, ed.: The Theory of Music from the Carolingian Era up to 1400, ii: Italy, RISM, B/III/2 (1968), 89
L.G.Whitbread: Fulgentius the Mythographer (Columbus, OH, 1971) [trans., with introductions, of Fulgentius's works]
FREDERICK HAMMOND/DOLORES PESCE
Fulkerson, James Orville
(b Manville, IL, 2 July 1945). American composer and trombonist. He studied the trombone and composition at Illinois Wesleyan University (BM 1967), and composition with Martirano, Gaburo, Hiller and Brün at the University of Illinois (MM 1968). From 1969 to 1972 he was a fellow at the Center for Creative and Performing Arts at SUNY, Buffalo, and has held residencies at the Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst in Berlin (1973), the Victorian College of the Arts, Melbourne (1977–9), and Dartington College of the Arts, Devon (1981–6). He was a lecturer in composition at the University of Nottingham (1987–90) and moved to the Netherlands in 1990, composing, teaching, and touring as a soloist and with the Barton Workshop ensemble. As a trombonist he specializes in new music, extended techniques and live electronics, and has had over 150 works written for him. His own nearly 200 works reveal a wide range of styles and influences often in the same work, in particular the radicalism of Cage, Feldman’s sound world, the minimalism of LaMonte Young and Riley, and a recent interest in neo-Romanticism and postmodernism. Folio (1971), for instance, is a page of text instructing the pianist to perform three normally short tasks in ‘suspended motion’ for an hour; the Co-Ordinative Systems series (1972–6) are unusual graphic scores; while Force Fields and Spaces (1981) is a solo trombone work with tape delay that makes use of both the experimental sounds of a trombone played with a tenor saxophone mouthpiece, in part I, and pulsating motivic cells (like Riley’s Dorian Winds), in parts II–IV. He is a frequent collaborator with his dancer-choreographer wife, Mary Fulkerson.
Stage: Raucasity and the Cisco Kid … or, I Skate in the Sun, solo inst, tape collage, film, slides, 1977–8; Vicarious Thrills, amp trbn, pornographic film, 1978–9; Cheap Imitations II: Madwomen, soloist, tape, films, 1980; Force Fields and Spaces, trbn, tape, tape delay, dancers, 1981; Cheap Imitations IV, soloist, tape, films, 1982; Put your Foot down Charlie, 3 dancers, spkr, elec gui, elec pf, amp sax, elec trbn, 1982; Rats Tale, 6 dancers, trbn, spkr, sax, gui, banjo, pf, 1983; several other mixed-media works, television and film scores, theatre pieces, incid music, dance music
Dance: Paganini, spkr/actress, fl, cl, vn, vc, pf, 1984; Supreme Fictions, spkr/actress, fl, tpt/hn, va, elecs, 1984; The Marionette Theatre, live instrumentalist, tape, 1989; D1, D2, D3, elec score, 1989; Used, Abused and Cheap Imitations II, spkr, variable ens, tape, 1990; Curtain, 1991, collab. D. Fulkerson; Faust (after F. Pessoa), tape, 1992; Antigone, tape, 1993; Eden, elec score, 1995
Orch: more than 12 works, incl. Gui Conc., 1972; To see a thing clearly, 1972; Orch Piece, b cl, b trbn, pf, str, 1974; Conc., amp vc, chbr orch, 1978; Sym., 1980; Conc. (… fierce and coming from far away), 1981
Vocal and inst: Co-Ordinative Systems nos.1–10, 1972–6; Music for Brass Insts nos.1–6, 1975–8; Suite, amp vc, 1978–9; Suite, vn, 1983; The Archaeology of Silence, Mez, 1990–1; Studs II, 4 perc, 1993; The Cry of the Unconscious (F. Pessoa), B-Bar, fl, perc, 1993; many other pieces for solo inst or ens incl. Space Music nos.1–3, Patterns nos.1–12, Metamorphosis nos.1–3; Str Qts I–V
Other elec: Stations, Regions, and Clouds no.3, trbn, tape, 1978; Antiphonies and Streams no.2, trbn, live elecs, 1979; Fields and Traces, trbn, tape, live elec, 1980; Elective Affinities, amp vc, amp trbn, tape, live elec ens, 1980; Elective Affinities II, S, 4 trbn, vc, perc, tape, 1982; Interesting Actions, Objects, and Texts, shakuhachi, tape, film, slides, elecs, 1985; Elective Affinities III, trbn, live elecs, 1987; For Morty (in memoriam Morton Feldman), trbn, pf, elecs, tape, 1987; Stones, tape, 1989; Temenos II, trbn, tape, 1989; Sym. no.2 (Used, Abused, and Cheap Imitations III), b gui, 2 perc, MIDI ens, 1992–4; Wood-Stone-Desert, tpt, live elecs, tape, 1996; tape pieces